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HISTORY OF TH6 WARS 



OF THE 



FRENCH REVOLUTION. 



VOL. II. 



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Sr,. /ttf ic</ A' V l^\ ir. ^<jm uispimcr's O/eSratet^ /^ trait . 



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HISTORY 



or THE 



WARS OP THE FRENCH REVOLUTION, 



FRO|l 



THE BREAKING OUT OF THE WAR IN 1792, 

TO 

THE RESTORATION OF A GENERAL PEACE IN 1816; 

COMPREHENDING 

THE CIVIL HISTORY 

OF . , 

DCRING THAT PEBIOD. 



BY EPWARD BAINES. . „^ 

IN TWO VOLUMES/ .'^ "^ . f ' '^ /"> 

EMBELLISHED ^^^ ^'J -i- ' ^ ^ 

WITH PORTRAITS OF THE MOST DISTINGUISHED CHARACTERS OF THE AGE, 

-^'?'" AND 

ILLUSTRATED BY MAPS» PLANS, AND CHARTS. 




VOL. II. 



LONDON; 



PRINTED FOB LOKGAfAN, HURST, REES, ORMB, AND BROWN, FATERNOSTEE-ROW ; 
AND JAMES HARPER, 46, FLBET-STRE^T, 

ST EDWARD BAIITES, LEEDS. ^ 

1818. 



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HISTORY OF THE WARS 



OF THE 



FRENCH REVOLUTION. 



CHAPTER L 

FoRBiGN History: Invasion pf Naples by the Erench under Joseph Bonaparte — Battle of 
Maida-^Policy of Prnssia—rShe accepts Hanover from France, and shuts her Ports against 
JBritiek Qemmerce — Measures of Retaliation a4apted by Engkmd— Prussia invofved i(i.a War 
with both Great Britain and Sweden — Indicatims of approaching M^UfUtyMtweef^ Frar\cf , 
and Prussia — Conjederation of the Rhine — Renunciation of the Title of Emperor of Gtr^ 
many by Francis II— French Expose — Act of Aggrandizement — The United Provinces erected 
into a Monarchy under the Qovernment of Louis Bonaparte — Seizure and Execution of M. 
Pulm, the Bookseller^ of Nurem^rg — Convocation of the Jews — Traits in the Character of 
Bonaparte, 



THE events of tbe campaign of l605, 
•onsummated by the treaty of Presburg, had 
drawn round the eastei'n n'ontier of France a 
cordon of feudatory sovereigns, indebted to the 
Emperor Napoleon for their recent elevation, 
and bound to his senrice by the combined opera- 
tion of policy and gratitude. Possessing too 
much collision of interest to unite in opposition 
to his authority, they exhibited a mighty Di^lwai*k 
against the attacks of his enemies, and seemed 
to free the empire of France from all the dangers 
of future molestation. The kingdom of Italy 
derived also from this treaty advantages in ter- 
ritory and population of the highest importance ; 
and the iron crown of the Lombards was 
strengthened and enriched on the field of Aus- 
terlitz. But triumphant as was the treaty of 
Presburg to Bonaparte, in the same proportion 
-was it humiliating to the house of Austria. 
Her losses were deplorable, and her influence in 
the affairs of Germany was drawing fast to a 
termination. Her splendid dependents, her 
mitred ecclesiastics, and the long catalogue of 
princes who formed the minor stars in the 
imperial constellation, were many of them for 
ever extinguished ; %nd with impaired influence 
in the west of Europe^-influence which at that 
period it appeared scarcely possible she should 
ever regain^jshe seemed by this treaty retrograde 
from the world of civilization, and likely to be 
shut out from those political concerns, in which 
she had borne so commandlhg and pre-eminent a 
part for a Succession of ages. 
"VOL. II. (No. 88.) 



O^ 



Chap. I. 



1800 



The ccnftequences of Bbm^arte^s sueoesses BOOK IT. 
against Austria were particularly unfortunate for 
tm kingdom of Naples. A treaty of neutrality 
between France and that country had been con- 
cluded at Paris, on the Slst of September, 1805, 
and ratified at Portiei, by the King of Naples, 
on the 8th of the following raontli. By this 
treaty, the Neapolitan court engaged to remain 
neutral in the war between France and the 
allied powers, and to repel by force every in- 
croachment on her neutrality. But scar^ly had 
six weeks elapsed after the ratification of this 
treaty, when a squadron of English and Russian 
vessels appeared in the bay of Naples, and were 

{permitted, without opposition, to land a body of 
brces in that city and its vicinity. This gross 
violation of the stipulations of the treaty of 
Portici, was considered by the French emperor 
as an act of perfidy deserving of the severest 
punishment; and on the mommg after the sig- 
nature of the treaty of Presburg, Bonaparte 
issued a proclamation from his head-quarters at 
Vienna, m wliich he dec^jiared, *^ that the Nea- 
politan dynasty had ceased to rejgn." That no 
time might be lost in carrying this threat into 
execution, the French army, under Joseph Bo* 
naparte, marched, in three divisions, against the 
kingdom of Naples ; the right, conunanded by 
General Regnier, proceeding aga.inst Gaeta, and 
the centre, under Harshal^Massena, through Ca* 
pua, while the left advanced through Istria, under 
General Lacib On the 12th of February, Capua 
was inyested by the French troops^ and on tbe 



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HISTORY OF THE WARS 



JMOK IV* ^^^^9 ^ deputation from the city waited on Prince 
.. Joseph^ and signed"" a capkulatien, by which 

Chap. T. Capua^ Gaeta, Peschieri, Ivaples, and the other 

^•••^v-iw' fortresses of that kingdom, were surrendered into 
1800 the hands of the enemy. But notwithstanding 
this eapitulatton, it afterwards appeared, that 
Gaeta was; far from being conquered; and 
the Prince of Hesse Pbilipstha], having been 
summoned by General Regnier to surrender, 
answered with heroic firmness, that it was his 
intention to justify the confidence reposed in him 
by his sovereign. The zeal and activity of the 
governor in defending the fortress committed to 
his charge was most distinguished. With slight 
intervals of rest and refreshment, he was occu- 
pied night and day in the fortifications, and by 
bis exhortations and example he stimulated his 
troops to sustain the pressure of their situation 
with constancy, and to repel all attacks Upon the 
> garrison wiih heroism. The valour with which 
this place was defended^ and the advantages 
obtained b; the gwrrison aver the besieging army, 
excited the attention and admiration of ail 
Europe ; and the spirit which animated the go- 
Temor and the troops at Gaeta, began to difiuse 
themselves over the whole kingdom. Even 
within the city of Naples^ the apathy which had 
in the first instance paralized the exertions of 
the inhabitants, and induced them to open their 
gatea without resistance to the legions of th0 
conquerors, g^ve place to more patriotic feel- 
ings ; and the population of Calabria became at 
length actuated by so decided a spirit of hostilijLy 
towards their invaders, that large unorganized 
masses of peasantry were led to oppose tlie 
disciplined forces of the conquerors of Europe;. 
The ardour of patriotism was mingled with the 
thirst, of vengeance ; the first instances of op- 
position from the indurgeirts had been punished 
vrith inexorable severity; and these violent ia- 
flictions animated 'the spirit of opposition in the 
Calabrians, and increased the deadliness of their 
hatred. Mutual exasperation gradually led to 
the establishment, by the French, of military 
commissions at Naples^ and thoughout the 
country ; the constitution of which was intrusted 
to Massena,, a man whose feelings never warred 
against his interests, and whose long acquaint- 
ance with the trade, of war had stoel^ his heart 
against the voice of rbumanity. The triumphant 
entrance of Jos^h Bonaparte into his capital, 
to take upon hjioself the sovereignty of his 
kingdom, to whicV he had been appointed by 
bis brother, to the eicelu^ion of the recent dy- 
nasty, was attended by those acclamations and 
addresses which can: always be procured by 
power. But these external demonstrations of 
joy could not conceal the real situatbn of his 
newly acquired conquests. The invader and the 
patriot were still in determined and active 



hostility; and the feelings of the contending 
parties had attained the utmost paroxysm of 
rage. Military tyranny, mortified and incensed 
at the resistance of an enemy which it despised, 
gave free scope to its fary, in all those excesses 
which it has been the pride of modem warfare 
to mitigate. The brave Calabrians, maddened 
by the infliction of such horrors on men whose 
crime consisted only in the defence of their 
country, resolved, if possible, to out-do them in 
retaliation. The disposition to an exterminating 
contest seemed mutual. The excess of resent- 
ment seemed to destroy every feeling of hu- 
manity, and in the weaker party all regard to 
the chanees against their success. Impulse 
superseded calculation ; passion imparted energy 
to weakness ; and the want of discipline often 
seemed supplied by the frenzy of revenge. 

After the evacuation of Naples by the Russian 
and British troops, Sir James Craig had retired 
to Sicily with the English army, accompanied by 
the royal family of Naples, and had established 
his head- quarters at Messina. At this place he 
remained till the month of April, when bad 
health compelled him to resign his command to 
Sir John Stuart, who was soon after intrusted 
by his Sicilian Majesty with the defence of the 
eastern coast from Melazzo to. Cape Passaro. 
The army continued at Messina till the end of 
June, without attempting any ofiensive opera- 
tion against the enemy*,, at which period the 
English general, at the urgent solicitations of 
the court of Palermo, consented to land with 
a part of his army in Calabria, and to make trial 
of the loyalty and afiection of the people to 
their former sovereign. The troops destined to 
this expedition amounted to about four thou* 
sand eight hundred efiective men ; with this 
small force. Sir John Stuart landed without any 
material opposition, on the morning of the 1st 
of July^ in the gidf of St. Eufemia, near the 
northern frontier of Lower Calabria. The 
French General, Regnier, having been apprised 
of the debarkation of the English armv, made 
a rapid march from Reggio, uniting his detached 
corps as he advanced, and anticipating, with 
his characteristic confidence, the defeat of the 
British troops. On the morning of the 3d, be 
advanced into the neighbourhood of Maida, 
about ten miles distant from the English army, 
and took up his position on a ridge of heights. 
His force at that moment consisted of about four 
thousand infantry, and three hundred cavalry, 
together with four pieces of artillery, and he 
was in daily expectation of being joined by 
three thousand more troops, who were marching 
after Iiim in a seccmd division, and who joined 
the French army on the night of the 3d. Per- 
ceiving that no time was to be lost. Sir John 
Stuart determined to advance towards the posi- 



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OP THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 



3 



tion of the enemy; and hating left four com- 
(MUiies of Watteville^s regiment, under Major 
Fisher, to protect the stores, and occupy the 
works that had been thrown op at the place of 
landing, at three o'clock the next morotng, the 
body of the British army commenced its march 
.^long the borders of the sea, across the plain of 
Eufemia.* Sir Sidney Smith at ttus time took 
up a position with a snoall squadron placed under 
his command, to aet as circumstances mis^ht 
occur; but from the situation of the two armies, 
.no co-operation from the navy could take place, 
much to the regret of the gallant knight. A 
▼ast plain, extending from four to six miles in 
breadth, and flanked by chains of mountains, 
which ran nearly parallel from sea to sea, and 
which form the interior boundaries of the two 
Calabrias, seemed to favour the manoeuvres of 
both armies, and afforded a fair opportunity for 
trying the dull and gallantry of the contending 
nations. Had General Regnier thought proper 
to remain upon his elevated ground, flanked as. 
he was by a thick impervious underwood, no 
impression could have been made upon him ; but 
quitting this advantage, and crossing the river 
Amato with his entire force, he descended from 
the CToinence, and met the British army upon 
the open plain. After some close firing of the 
flankers, to cover the deployments of the two 
armies, by nine o'clock in the morning the op-> 
posing fronts were warmly engaged, when the 
prowess of the rival nations seemed fairly at 
issue before the vrorld. The corps which formed 
the right of the advanced line of the British, was 
the battalion of light infantry, commanded by 
Colonel Kempt, consisting of the light com- 
panies of the 20th, 27th, S5th, 61st, Blst, and 
Watteville's, together with one hundred and 
fiftv chosen battalion-men, of the S5th regiment, 
undar Major Robinson; directly opposite to 
whom was the favourite French, regiment,- the 
Ist Jjegkre. The two companies, at the distance 
of about one hundred yards, fired reciprocally a 
few rounds, when, as if by natural agreement, 
the firing was suspended, and, in close compact 
order, and awful silence, they advanced towards 
each other, till their bayonets began to cross. 
At this momentous crisis, the enemy became 
appalled. Their ranks were broken, and they 
endeavoured to fly, but it was too late, they 
were overtaken, and the most dreadful slaughter 

* The following ii the detail of tbe British fbree >— 



Chap. T. 



1806 



ensued. Brigadier-general Auckland, whose BOOK lY. 
brigade was immediately on the left of tbe light 
infantry, availed himself of this favourable mo- 
ment to press instantly forward upon the corps 
in front ; the brave 7^th regiment, commanded 
by Lieutenant-colonel Macleod, and tbe 81st 
.regiment, under Major Plenderieatb, both dis- 
tinguished themselves on this occasion. Ad- 
vancmg with shouts of victory, the enemy fled 
with dismay and disorder before them. Gene* 
ral Regnier, finding his army thus discomfited 
on the left, began to make a new effort with 
the right, in hopes of retrieving the disasters 
of the day. This operation was resisted most 
gallantly by the brigade under Brigadier-gene- 
ral Cole. Nothing could shake the undaunted 
firmness of tbe grenadiers under Lieutenant- 
colonel O'Callaghan, and of the 27th regiment^ 
under Lieutenant-colonel Smith. The French 
cavalry, successively repelled from before the 
front of these regiments^ made an effort to 
turn their left; but at that moment lieuten- 
ant-colonel Ross^ who had the same morning 
landed from Messina, with th^ 20th regiment, 
and had come up to the army during the action, 
threw his regunent opportunely into a small 
cover upon the enemy's flank, and by a heavy 
and welUconcerted fire, rendered this attempt 
abortive. This was the last feeble struggle of 
the enemy^ who, astonished and dismayed by 
the intrepidity with which they were assailed, 
began precipitately to retire, leaving the field 
Goverea with their dead. 

About seven hundred Frenchmen were 
buried upon the ground ; the wounded and pri- 
soners amounted to above a thousand men ; and 
about the same number were left in Monteleone, 
and the different posts between Maida and 
Reggio, who signified their readiness to surren- 
der, whenever a British force could be sent to 
receive their submission, and to protect them 
from the fury of the inhabitants. Never was the 
pride of the enemy more severelv humbled than 
m the events of this memorable day. The total 
loss of the French^ occasioned by this conflict, 
amounted to at least four thousand men, while 
the loss of the English did not exceed three 
hundred and twenty-six, of which number two 
hundred and eighty-two were wounded, and 
lorty-four slain.f This splendid victory was 
attended with no permanent advantage, with 



jA.^.iL^^Mmc y T.ieufmant-colonel Kempt, with « foar-poimderBi 
^aroMMi corpw ^ Detachm«nt of the royal Sicilian Tohmteen. 



Light infiiiitiy battalioiu Detached royal Cofsican magut. 



Stcond 



•genenl Cde, with 3 fbur-pooixltrB. Grenadier battalion, STth regiment. 

ler-metal Auddand, with 3 four-peonden. 78tb rc|pment. Slat regiment. 
a*L' JM «^^^j.._f C^lond Oswald, with sfour-pouaderfc 58th regiment WatteviQe** leghxient fire companies. SOth regiment, Liciitcnaiit« 
TAir-l W»«^e-| colonel RMB,!taideddifingtheactibn* 
Eewcve of artiDerr, Miyjor Lemoine, 4 8i&-poanden, and two howitsen.. 
Total— onk and nle, induding the royal utiUery, 4,795. 



6n^duli^--Brigad!et'>geneia}Coli 

\d i^ail^— B^gadier-mcial ^ 



tGeDcnaSirJohaStnazt's Di^aidMS dated fron the Flainof Maids, July 6»180&.. 



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HISTORY OP THE WABS 



Ciup. I. 
1806 



BOOK IV. respect to tlie immediate object of the expedi- 
tion; bui the impression it was oalculated to 
mske in favour of the discipline and bravery of 
the British soldiers, was of incalculable import- 
ance. The pride of the enemy was mortified at 
seeing those of his troops most distinguished for 
high exploits, retiring before English bayonets ; 
and, with all their experience and reputation in 
arms, yielding an easy victory to greatly infe- 
rior numbers. The laurels gathered at Lodi, 
Marengo, and Austerlitz, drooped on the plain 
of Maida, from whence sprung another, and per- 
haps a more brilliant wreath, to adorn the brows 
of British valour, in addition to those which had 
BO recently been acquired on ihe shores washed 
by the waters of the Nile. 

The complete subjugation of tiie Neapolitan 
territory by the arms of France, followed not 
long alter this illustrious victory, which might 
somewhat delay, but could not prevent its 
accomplishment. The support of the British 
arms being withdrawn, the enthusiasm of the 
Calabrians abated, and they finally yielded to a 
fate which they had nobly resisted, without the 
least hope of success attending their gallant 
and persevering endeavours. Gaeta had firmly 
withstood the effects of all that force and skill on 
the part of the enemy qould effect ; but its gar- 
.risen, originally small, was diminished by the 
fire of the enemy, and borne down by incessant 
exertions ; its heroic commander was severely 
wounded ; the works of the besiegers were com- 
pleted ; two practical breaches were made in the 
walls ; and a signal was every moment expected 
for the assault. Under these circumstances, the 
commandant truly and wisely concluded that he 
had done enough for glory, and signed a capitu- 
lation, by which Gaeta was surrendered into the 
hands of the French general. 

The conduct of Prussia, towards the close 
of the year 1805, had disappointed the hopes of 
all who wished to see a check imposed on the 
ambition and usurpations of France. The ri- 
valship between Austria and Prussia, in ordinary 
circumstances, might be allowed to preclude 
cordial co-operation between the two powers ; 
but a participation of danger seemed calculated 
to banish mutual jealousies, and to produce an 
union sufficiently firm to unite the two rival 
states in a combined resistance against a com- 
mon enemy. Such, it was hoped, might have 
been the case with regard to the two great 
powers, Austria and Prussia, but the progress 
of the French arms extinguished these expecta- 
tions, while the versatility and equivocation, the 
odious rivalry, and selfish rapacity of Prussian 
policy, became the theme of universal invective. 



On the 27th of January, a proclamation was 
published by the King of Prussia, addressed to 
the inhabitants of Hanover, in which k was 
observed, that after the events which terminated 
in the peace of Presburg, the only means of pre- 
serving the country from the flames of war, con- 
sisted in forming a oonvention with the French . 
Emperor, in virtue of which the states of his 
Britannic Majesty in Germany were to be wholly 
occupied and governed by Prussia till the re- 
turn of peace ; and all the aiithorities of that 
country were called upon to conform to the dis« 
positions made for that purpose, under the civil 
and military administration of Getoeral Keoknert, 
and the commissioners chosen by him. Tiie x;on- « 
dhct of Prussia, in assuming to herself the civil 
and military administration of the electorate of 
Hanover, called forth an ofiicial note from Mr. 
Fox, under date of the 17th of March, addressed 
to Baron Jacobi, the Prussian minister in Lon* 
don, wherein he expressed ^^the great anxiety 
felt by his majesty at the manner in which pos- 
session had been taken of the electorate of HaO'- 
over,'^ and desired him explicitly to inform his 
court, ** that no conv«iience or political airrange- 
m&kty much less any oflfer of equivalent or indem- 
nity, would ever induce his majesty so far to 
forget what was due to his legitimate rights, as 
well as to the exemplary fidelity and attachment 
of his Hanoverian sulyects, as to consent to the 
alienation of the electorate." Soon after the deli- 
very of this note, his Prussian Majesty thought 
proper to drop the slight veil with which be had 
so ineffectually attempted the concealment of his 
real designs, bv publishing, on the 1st of April, a 
proclamation, in which he stated the conclusion 
of a convention between himself and the Fren<di 
£.mperor, for the exchange of Hanover in re- 
turn for three provinces ot his monarchy :^ and 
as the Hanoverian states were possessed by 
France in right of conquest, he declared that the 
rightful possession of the electoral states of the 
houfiie of Brunswick situated in Germany, Iiad 
passed over to him, in return for the above ces- 
sion on his part, that they were now subjected 
only to his power; and that henceforth their 
government would be administered - in his name 
alone, and under his supreme authority. A pro- 
clamition, in the same spirit of injustice and 
aggression, was issued by the court of Berlin, 
on the 28th of March, in which it was declared, 
that in virtue of a treaty concluded between his 
Prussian Majesty, and the Emperor of France 
and King of Italy, the ports of the Genpan 
Ocean (the North Sea) and the rivers which 
empty themselves into it, shall be shut agaist 
British shipping and trade, in the same manner 



* The three Prussian provinces cetleil by this memorable treaty, were Anspach and Bayreuth, in Franconia; 
Cleres, in Westphalia ; and Neofchatel and Valengin, in Switzerlsnd. 



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OF THE PttENCH REVOLUTION. 



as tvas practised while Hauover was occupied 
by Frencb troops. 

No sooner had intelligence reached London 
of the actual exclusion of British shipping from 
the Elbe, and of the determination of Prussia to 
shut all the ports of the German Ocean against 
the British flag; than measures of retaliation 
were adopted. — Notice was given on the 8th of 
April to the ministers of neutral powers, that 
the necessary means bad been taKen for the 
blockade of the rivers Ems» Weser, Elbe, and 
Trave. A general embi^rgo was laid on all 
Prussian vessels in tiie harbours of Great Bri- 
tain and Ireland ; and this order was extended^ 
on the 10th of the same month, to all vessels be- 
longing to the rivers Eibe» Weser, and Ems, 
vessels under the Danish flag only excepted. 
The English mission at Berlin was recalled ; and 
a message from bis majesty was presented to both 
bouses of parliament, on the dlst, stating ^' the 
necessity in which his majesty found nimself, 
of- withdrawing his minister from the court of 
Berlin, and of adopting provisionally measures 
ef just retaliation against the commerce and na- 
vigation of Prussia," on account of acts ^^ of di- 
rect hostility, ' deliberately pursued against him^ 
which left him no alternative." After stating 
concisely the particulars of the conduct of Prus- 
sia, which called for these proceedings, the mes- 
sage concluded by saying, that his majesty '^ bad 
no .doubt of the ftill support of his parliament, 
in vindicating the honour of the British flag, and 
the freedom of the British navigation ; and that 
he would look with anxious expectation to that 
moment, when a more dignified and enlightened 
policy on the part of Prussia, should remove 
every impediment to the renewal of peace and 
friendship with a power with whom his majesty 
had no other cause of difference than that now 
created by these hostile acts." On the^Oth of 
the same .month, a declaration was issued by his 
Britannic Majesty, in his capacity of Elector of 
Hanover, recapitulating instances pf perfidyi 
insincerity, and rapacity, of the court of Berlin, 
and solemnly protesting, for himself and his 
heirs, against every eacrpachment pn his rights 
in the electorate of Brunswick Lunenburg, and 
its dependencies. 

In addition to her war with England, the 
subserviency of Prussia to France involved her 
in hostilities with Sweden. The Swedish troops, 
who occupied Lunenburg on behalf of the King 
of England, 'having opposed the entrance at the 
Prussians into that duchy, were compelled, after 
a slight resistance, to retreat into Mecklenburg ; 
upon which hostile proceeding, the King of 
Sweden laid an embargo upon all Prussian 
vessels in his harbours, and issued an order, 
bearing date tlie 27th pf April, for the blockade 
VOL. II. (No. 88.) 



CUAP. I. 

1806 



of all the Prussian ports in the Baltic. In order BOOK IV, 
to counteract these hostile operations, I^russia 
commenced preparations for the expulsion of the 
Swedish troops from the states of Pomerania ; 
but before this design could be carried into effect 
a new revolution in her politics took place, which 
gave a totally different oirection to her arms. A 
large proportion of the subjects of Prussia were 
well aware of the abject 'degradation in which 
the subserviency of their government to the 
mandates of France had involved them ; and the 
disaffection and discontents which ensued flowed 
naturally from the occasion. Expressions of 
loyal and devout attachment were suspended ; 
conversations in public as.sumed a tone of ani- 
mated comment upon public measures which had 
rarely been employed; and men of rank and 
station deplorea the^ shade which had been 
thrown upon the character of the country. The 
military entered into the general feeling with 
ardour: this feeling was in some instances 
almost roused to phrenzy, and the attendants 
and relatives of majesty itself were bold enough 
to give intimations of their disgust in the royal 
presence. This spirit of high disdain, danger-^ 
ous in any government, and peculiarly so in s^ 
military state, when those who are designed for 
the support of despotism, feel a stronger disposi- 
tion to remonstrate than to obey, was thought not 
unworthy the notice of power. Several of the 
military officers of the staff were not only re- 
primanded, but cashiered, for the freedom with 
which ihey bad expressed themselves on political 
topics ; and a proclamation was published, pro- 
hibiting the aiscussion of the proceedings of 
goverjiment — measures which checked the ebul- 
Ution of popular feeling, but confirmed rather 
than changed the public opinion. The queen, 
young, beautiful, and persuasive, listening to 
her indignation at the usurpations and insults 
'of France, and jealous of her husband's honour 
and reputatton, joined in the same cause. The 
ministers, weak and unprineipled, were unable 
to resist the torrent ; after an ineffectual resist- 
ance to the popular voice, they united, or seemed 
to unite in the geaeial feeling, and contributed 
to hurry the Prussian monarchy to its approach-, 
ing humiliation. 

Prussia has hitherto been contemplated, 
unsteady, and fluctuating in her policy, constant 
only in her duplicity; professing neutrality 
while Ae was meditating acts of hostility ; and 
pretending to negociatQ for the neutrality of 
Hanover, while she was appropriating that 
country to herself. We are now to behold her 
enraged at the disappointment of her ambitious 
projects, impatient ot the contempt with which 
she was treated, and goaded on by the universal 
indignation cf her siuyecta, seeking to retciera 



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6 



HISTORY OF THE WARS 



BOOK IV. 

ClIAP. I. 

1806 



her honour and chftraeter by resistance to France, 
but without wisdom or foresight in her plans, 
and constant to the last in her dissimulation. 

The first public act of the cabinet of St^ 
Cloud which gave serious offence and alarm to 
the cabinet of Berlin, was the investiture of 
Murat, a soldier of fortune, and a brother-in-law 
of Bonaparte, with the duchies of Berg and 
Cleves.. But a deeper and more sensible iiij.ury 
awaited the Prussian government: while La- 
forest, the French resident at Berlin, was urging 
the ministers of that court to persist in the mea- 
sures they had adopted for the retention of Han- 
over, Lucchesini, the Prussian minister at Paris, 
discovered that the French government had 
offered to the King of Gh*eat Britain the complete 
restitution of his electoral dominions. ThuSy 
after the sacrifice of her honour and reputation, 
Prussia saw herself about to be deprived of the 
reward for which she had consented to act a 
part so mean, treacherous, and unworthy, without 
an opportunity of retrieving her character or 
of bettering her condition by resistance. For- 
tunately, as she then thought, the negociation 
lor peace between France and Russia, after pre« 
Kminaries had been signed at Paris, was broken 
off by the refusal of the court of St. Petersburg 
to ratify the treaty concluded by M. d'OubriL 
But this event, while it opened to Prussia the 
prospect of assistance, in case she should be 
driven to a war with France, disclosed to her 
ftirther proofs of the secret enmity of the cabinet 
of St. Cloud, and of its readiness to abandon 
her interests. She was now for the first timo 
apprised, that during the negociations at Paris^ 
between France and Russia, distinct hints had 
been given to M. d'Oubril, that if his court wa» 
desirous of annexing any part of Polish Prussia 
to it& dominions, no opposition would bo inter- 
posed against such a project by France. 

The peace of Presburg had left the forms of 
the Germanic constitution entire, and from some 
of the articles in that treaty it appears doubt* 
fill, whether the French Emperor entertained 
tiiougbts at that time of the speedy subversion tOb 
which this venerable empire wa» afterwards con^ 
demned. The residence of the French troops in 
Germany, in consequence of the procrastinated 
occupation of Cattaro by the Russians, matured 
a design suitable to the ambitious mind of the 
French Emperor, and seemed to suggest the 
ostaUishment <^ a new confederation of princes, 
at the head of which he should himself be 
placed.. This project, conceived in the early part 
tf the month of June^ was arranged in aU its 



details with ex(raordinary promptitude ; and on 
the 12th of July the act of confederotion was 
executed at Paris, by princes and ministers who 
were scarcely allowed time to read the deed to 
which they affixed their signatures.* 

This portentous document, which, by a few 
Bnes of the pen, supported, however, by the 
power of the sword, subverted the complicated 
establi^ment of ages, cooanences with observ- 
ing, that their majesties, the Emperor of the 
French, the Kings of Bavaria and Wirtemburg, 
the Archbishop oi Ratisbon, the Elector of 
Baden, the Duke of Berg, the Landgrave of 
Hesse Darmstadt, the Princes of Nassau-Weil- 
burg, and Nassau-Usingen, of Hohenzotlem- 
Hechingen, and HoheuzoUern -Siegmaringen, 
Sakn-Salm, and Salm-Kyrburg, Isenburg, Birch- 
stein, and Lichtenstein, the Duke of Acemhurg, 
and the Count of Leyen, being desirous to secure 
the peace of Southern Germany, which expe- 
rience had l<Mig since proved could derive no 
guarantee frotn the existing constitution, had 
appointed certain plenipotentiaries to effect 
arrangements from which this guarantee would 
naturally and decidedly result. In consequence 
of the dispositions which had been agreed upon, 
and which were now ratified, the states of the 
contracting parties were to be for ever separated 
from the Germanic body, and united by an act 
ealKed ** the Confederated States of the Empire.'* 
The afiuirs of this confedeF.at]on were to be dis- 
cussed in a congress, which should sit at Franc- 
fort, divided into two colleges of kings and 
princes, where all disputes should be settled that 
might arise among the members, who could 
in no case enter into the service of any other 
power than the confederation, nor alienate to any 
fither power their sovereignty or territory. The 
elector arch-chancellor was to preside in the 
congress, under the title of prince primate, and 
on the demise' of any prince prinmte, the right of 
naming a successor should attach to the Emperor 
of France, who was to be proclaimed protector 
of the confederation. In the event of a con- 
tinental war> which should involve either the 
Emperor of France or any other individual of the 
union, alt parties should make a common cause ; 
and in case of preparation for war against any 
one of the parties, his minister ^ould be 
authorised to demand of the congress a general 
arming of the confederation. f The congress 
were to regulate the proportion oi^as«stance to 
the exigency of the case, and the' summons of 
the emperor to the parties was to be the signal 
for taking the field.. 



* Dispatch from Lord Yarmouth, dated Paris, July 19t|i. 

t The eoDtiD^ent of troops to be famished by each state was determined as follows : — France, 200,OOQ ; Bavaria, 
50^.000 ; Wirtemburg, 12,000 j Baden, 3,000 ; Berg, 6,000 s Darmstadt, 4,000 ; Nassau, Hohenzollera, and others, 4,000, 



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OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 



The house of Austria, thus stripped of its 
honours, was compelled to lay down the title of 
Emperor of Germany, and to yield the prece^ 
deuce to France ; and by a formal deed of re* 
nunciation, bearing date the 6th of August, 
Francis II. resigned his office and title of Em- 

teror of Germany, retaining only the more hum- 
le title of Emperor >f Austria. The fallen for- 
tunes of this august house, thus deprived of the 
brightest jewel in the imperial crown, presents 
an impressive picture to the imagination. It 
was a spectacle of no common interest, to ob- 
serve the descendant of imperial chiefs through 
a long series of generations, degraded into a 
renunciation of his dignity in behalf of a man, 
who, by his talents and his sword, was enabled 
to trample on the neck of sovereigns ; and by 
whom family honours, and political establish- 
ments, which had endured for centuries, were 
swept away in promiscuous ruin. 

When these arrangements were communica- 
ted to Prussia, her acquiescence was purchased 
by the delusive hope held out to her by France, 
that she would be permitted to form a confeder- 
ation of states in the north of Germany, under 
the protection of Prussia, as the confederation of 
the Rhine was under the protection of France.^ 
Bat no sooner had Austria submitted to the loss 
of her ancient imperial dignity, and deposited 
the sceptre of the Othos at the foot of the modern 
Charlemagne, than Prussia, whose meanness 
was despised, and whose assistance was no 
longer wanted by Bonaparte, found herself con- 
demned to another disappointment, aggravated 
by the reflection that she was indebted for this 
mortification to the want of wisdom and probity 
in her councils. She was told that Bonaparte 
could not permit her to include the Hanseatic 
towns in her plan of a northern confederation, 
and that he was determined to take them under 
his own protection. t He professed not to be 
adverse to her plan of a confederacy, but his 
regard to justice, and the respect due to the 
law of nations, would not allow him to see any 
Gompttlsion used to force independent princes 
into this measure. 

The expose of the French empire was this 
year l^d before the legislative body early in the 
month of March. In this document, which de- 
tails the prominent events in the national politics 
from the period of the coronation of the emperor, 
it is observML that each succeeding coalition 
formed by England, had only increased the 
power and territory of the French nation ; by 
the first, she had gained Belgium, the boundary 
of the Rhine ; the federation of Holland with 



Chap. 



i80d 



Franee ; and the conquest of the states of the BOOK IT; 
present kingdom of Italy. The second had pro- 
cured Piedmont The third had added to her 
grand federation Naples and Venice. But the 
expose considered what had been done for the 
glory of France as but little compared with what 
remained. The emperor had exhausted military 
glory, and wanted none of those blood-stained 
laurels which he had been compelled to gather. 
He wished now to perfect the pifblic administra- 
tion, to promote the permanent and increasing 
happiness of his people, to render his acts a 
lesson and example of elevated morality, and to 
merit the blessings of the present and future 
generations. 

On the Slst of March,- the arch-chancellor 
of the empire was authorised to preside in the 
room of the emperor in the assembly of the 
senate, and presented for their sanction from his 
imperial majesty, an act, the first part of which 
was a code of regulations regarding the educa- 
tion of the princes of the imperial family. The 
city and territories of Venice were by the next 
section to be added to tlM3 kingdom of Italy. 
By the third, the pious affection of the emperors 
brother Joseph for the head of his house, was to 
be remunerated by the throne of Naples, which 
in no case was io be connected with that of 
France. In consideration of the splendid ser- 
vices and virtues of Prince Murat, he was, by 
the fourth part of this act, to possess in full 
sovereignty the duchies of Cleves and Berg. 
The principality of Gunstalla, with some others, 
were conferred on the Princess Pauline, and her 
husband, the Prince Borghese ; and by another 
part of this comprehensive act, the principality 
of Neufchatel was conferred on Marshal Ber- 
thier, whom the emperor was pleased ta desig- 
nate as an officer equally fearless and intel-^ 
ligent, his old eompanion in arms, whose ele- 
vation, while it gave peculiar gratification to the 
emperor, would excite the sensibilities of every 
virtuous heart. From the inability which the 
emperor experienced to provide adequately for 
many who had distinguished themselves by the 
importance or splendour of their services, Parma, 
Placentia, Venice, and several other states of 
Italy, were, by the last article of the act, to fur- 
nish more than twenty titles of distinction, ac- 
companied by appropriate domains, to be trans- 
mitted by these heroic men to their descendants. 
A message to the senate announced, at the same 
time, the marriage of the emperor's niece, Ste- 
phanie, to the hereditary Prince of Baden ; and 
in another address to the same body, the emperor 
signifiad his wish to relieve his people of Italy 



* PrussiaQ Manifesto, dated October 9, 1806. 
f Letta- from the Einp«ror of France to the King of Bavaria, dated Septembw W, 1806. 



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6 



HISTORY OP THE WARS 



Chap. 1. 



1806 



BOOK ffV. from that suspense which they must feel about 
their future destiny, by appointinnf to the heredi- 
tary throne of that kingdom, in case of failure of 
heirs to himself, his son, the existing viceroy. In 
connection with the establishment of the new 
Monarch of Italy, a new order of military 
knighthood was instituted by Bonaparte^ to con* 
sist of two hundred knights of the order of the 
Iron Crown, which afforded an opportunity of 
rewarding many of his officers, and might be 
regarded as another evidence of his devotion to 
that class of merit from which he had derived 
such singular advantages. 

A circumstance of gratification to the people 
of Paris was found this year in the arrival of an 
ambassador from the Grand Siguier, expressly 
iippointed to congratulate Bonaparte on his ac« 
cession to the throne x>f France. The eastern 
style of hyperbolical address, which characteris- 
eel his cxcellency^s speech to Napoleon on his 
grand audience, was not so remote from the habits 
of the Parisians as to prevent their cordial sym- 
pathies. *^ The bright star of glory of the 
western nations ; the greatest of the sovereigns 
in the christian faith ; he, who graspeth in one 
band the sword of valour, and in the other the 
sceptre of justice ;" were designations which 
liiet with their complete concurrence, and served 
to keep in countenance the homage they were 
themselves accustomed to offer to the ^^ resem- 
blance of that invisible being who is known only 
by his power and benevolence."* 

The embassy from Constantinople was fol- 
lowed by a deputation from their High Mighti- 
nesses of Holland. Bonaparte had no sooner 
abolished the name of republic in France, than 
be sought to extuiguish that appellation in the 
other states of Europe. The Cisalpine republic 
ha had transformed into the kingdom of Italy ; 
the Ligurian commonwealth was absorbed in the 
great empire ; the free cities of Germany were 
made over to'the vassal kings, who approached 
the foot, or decorated the steps of his throne ; 
and such was his thirst for harmony and regu- 
larity in the political edifice he was erecting, 
that even the people of the United Provinces, 
born and nurtured under republican institutions, 
were instructed to demand a king. Prince 
XjOuLi, a younger brother of the Emperor Na- 
poleon, and Constable of the French Empire, 
was selected to be the King of Holland, and un- 
willingly dragged from the gaieties and delights 
of Paris^ to rule over a laborious and impover- 
ished people, who had yet to teach their lips the 
accents of loyalty.t The new constitution which 
accompanied the king had no guarantee but the 



will of its author, nor was it attempted to bo 
disguised, that Holland, though governed by a 
separate kuig, was to be considered as virtually 
a province of the great empire, and subject 
in all inter-national relations to the will of its 
chief. 

While the Emperor Napoleon was carrying 
into effect his projects of aggrandizement in 
Germany, the pressure of the French armies 
upon that country was extreme, and a spirit of 
resistance on the part of the inhabitants was sum- 
moned to its noblest exertions in a variety of 
publications, which soon attracted the notice of 
the French government. Orders were in con- 
sequence given for the apprehension of various 
booksellers in Franconia, Bavaria, and Suabia,and 
the offenders were carried to Braunau. Among 
these persecuted men, the fate of John Palm, a 
resident of Nuremburg, an imperial town of Ger- 
many, possessing laws and tribunals of its own, 
attracted particular notice. This person was the 
publisher of a pamphlet, entitled ^^ Germany in 
the lowest state of degradation," a work written 
with <;onsiderable ability, and which had been 
read with great avidity. M. Palm was in conse- 
quence arrested by order of the French govern- 
ment, and dragged to Braunau, charged with 
the publication of a work libellous against the 
French Emperor, and tending to mislead the 
people of the south of Germany. On his arrival 
at the fortress, a court-martial was immediately 
summoned, consisting of General Berthier, seven 
colonels of French regiments, and an adjutant, 
with a reporter. After sitting for three days, 
M. Palm, who had not been present during the 
delivery of the depositions, was brought into 
court, on the 25th of August, when the evidence 
was read to him, and his defence heard ; he was 
then ordered to withdraw, and the court, after 
some consultation, ordered him to be shot withia 
four and twenty hours ; which sentence was car- 
, ried into execution on the following day. This 
sanguinary proceeding, though afiecting only an 
obscure individual, excited considerable attention 
and indignation throughout the different coun- 
tries of Europe : and although the chief of the 
French government did not personally appear 
upon the bloody stage, and although, by his dis- 
tance from the scene of action, be was precluded 
from being made acquainted with the sentence 
of the court-martiietl before it was carried into 
effect, yet he did not escape that odium and exe- 
cration which might naturally attach to the 
sovereign under whose authority the tribunal 
acted, and who had ever displayed a decided en- 
mity to that freedom of the pres9 which is cer- 



* French Expose, March 12th, 1606. 
t Louis Napoleon vra» prodaimed King of HoUand at the Hague, on the 5th of June, 1806. 



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OF THE FRENCH RETOLUTION. 



9 



taiuly the most formidable foe to tyranny, and 
will eventually effect its extermination. 

The attention of the religious world was this 
year drawn to some events which occurred in 
France in relation to the Jews. The situation 
of this people has, during a Ions succession of 
ages, interested those who have adverted to their 
universal dispersion through barbarous and 
ciyilized nations, vyithoot mingling in their course 
into the common mass,, and sinking their na- 
tional manners, language, and relieion, to which 
with inviolable fidelity they have adhered, amidst 
that scorn and persecution which have been 
their only inheritance, . Complaints had been 
repeatedly c^uunuoicated to the empecar.irpip 
various departments of France, of the fraudu- 
lent and usurious conduct of this degraded 
race, and on the 30th of May, an edict was 
published, convening a convocation from the 
principal cities of the empire, to be^ opened at 
Faris, on Saturday, ike Mth^of July^ In vij^^^^ 
tue of this summons, the assembly met at tiie 
appointed time, and their meeting was stated to 
be pregnant with the most importaot conse^ 
quences. The race of Abraham were 'Dow, for 
the first time, to be judged by a christian prince 
with fairness and hnpartiality. The eonvoea- 
tion, in answer to several qoestipns proposed to 
them, stated, that their law permitted polygamy^ 
divorce, and intenparriages withchristiUns^'Which 
werci, bow.ever, modified hy usage. That they 
could, in. perfect- consistence with theip- laws, 
render 9bedience. to the eixil ifistitutions of th^ 
states itk which they resided ; eatd that their pro- 
hibition, and in other cases^ theip pehniddion^f 
usury, related to charitable loans^ and not to 
mercantile transactions. The answers ofthd^ 
convocation were so conformable to the wishes 
of Bonaparte, that ti grand Sanhedrim was sum« 
moned to meet at Paris, for the purpose <yf cen^ 
sidering the same questions, and giving a so*' 
leam opinioii Vfiih respect to them, which should 
be placed by the side oJE the Talmud, and'don-r 
i^idered obligatory on all persona pi:ofessing the 
law^'of Moses. The time, fixed, for the meeting 
ef the Sanhedrim was the SOth of October, but 
the discussions were prolbnged to the following 
year. The resiilts ef this assembly's deliberations 
* were satisfactory, and tended to shew t|iat 
i)ie Jews were not debarred, by the peculiarities 
ol^ their religion, -from the enjoyment of the same. 



CliAV. I. 



1808 



civil privileges as the members of other religious BOOK IV. 
communities. The consequences anticipated 
from these events, respecting a nation, which, 
from its first bondage in Egypt, has been ex- 
posed to the perpetual abhorrence of the world, 
varied in different minds according to their re- 
spective habits of speculation or prejudice. Judi- 
cious observers, however, were gratified to be- 
hold evidences of that pi^ogressive reason, which, 
by slow but certain influences, ameliorates the 
affairs of the world, and to witness an effort to 
elevate a degraded racfe bf men to usefulness, to 
esUmation^ and to dignity."* 

At this moment the Freaoh Emperor was at 
tbe zenith of his power, and in the eiyoyment of 
the utmost vigour of his faculties. Nothing 
seemed too vast for his comprehension, or too 
minute for his observation. His exertions were 
without a parallel among sovereign princes ; he 
inspected- every thing Ivith Ms own eye ; he la- . 
bouvedwithmoreindnstrytiMJi any secretary in 
offioe; and^ hi» principal •relaxation was in the 
yariety of his business^Heappoivted to stations 
of' distinction those only> who, by experience or 
talents, were* qualtfied^to discharge 4te duties of 
Ihem, and he sup^nCended the discharge of 
those duties with a vigilanee which would not 
perioit 4he approach c? delinquency or inatten* 
tion. No f^rmidftbleediFersmy io any nation or 
inditiduftl ever yet 'existed from whom some- 
things 'Yatuable might not be learned, and the 
ttiost efieetnal way toeotinteraot the projects of 
an enemy is to follow his^ example in those judi-* 
cions I'^Ulatibti^ nvhich htfve'led to his success* 
The industry of Bonaparte may be copied by 
those who detest the ultimate object of his la** 
hours. ' In his bestowment ef honours upon me* 
rit| and in his inspection into the abuses of ad^ 
ministration, he may be resembled, not only 
without disgrace, but even with honour ; while 
that boundless thirst of power, which prevented 
the'pq[>ose of Europe, -and produced his final 
overthrow, receives all thereprobation which it 
merits. His temperance and energy, his steady 
vigilance, a«d his unwearied essiduity, maybe 
praised'and imitated,' while he is justly condemn* 
ed'for bi» spoliation of peaceful states, his breaeJi 
of the most solemn engagements, and the abject 
prostration to which' he subjected his country's 
^ghts. 



♦ The following return, sb^wiog tlie number of piersona of die Jewish 'p^tiBuasIon in the different parts of the habit-. 
^Jble globe, wa6 made to Bonaparte by the Jewish Sanhedrim, assembled at I'arisin 1807: — 

Inihe Turkish Empirt; ..: ;...' «.-....: 1,000,000 

Iri Fftrsia, China, and India, oo-th^MSt an€^west of the<]ranges 300,000 

• • 'latbe west of Europe, Africa, and America ..' ■.....'... 1,700,000 



vuL. 11. 



(No. 88.) 



Constituting an aggregfate population of 3,000^000 

c 



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BOOK IT. 

Chap. If. 
1900 



CHAPTER n. 

ForbigM Hi8i*ony : ConUuentul Campaigns of 1806-7 — Opening <f the Campaign 1)tiwecn France 
and Prtissia— Disastrous to the latCerSatik of Jena-^Death of the Duke of Brtinswick-^ 
Memoir— Fall of the Prussian Gttrrisons — Surrender of the Army under Prince Ilohenlohe-^ 
Triumphal Entry of the EmperoY Napoleon into Berlin— Berlin Decree— Arrival of the 
, Russian Divisions on the P^istula — battles of Pultusk and Golymin—The contending Armies 
take up their Winter Quarters in Polatid—lVar in Silesia-^War in Pomerania — 'Neutrality 
of Austria-^ Renewal of Hostilities in Poland^Bnttle of Eylau — FaU of Dantzic—fVar 
between the Porte and Russia — Situation of 4he Russian and French Forces previous to the 
Battle of Friedland — The Battle of Friedldnd — Armistice-^Tnterview between the Emperor 
Alexander and the Emperor Napoleon on the River Niemen — Peace of Tilsit. 



The discuBsiMs between France and PruB- 
eia had now advanced to a paint which left no 
prospect of friendly arrangement The court of 
JSerlin, no longer influenced by a temporizing 
policy, had assumed a tone of firmness and deci- 
sion : the troops were animated to a high degree 
of enthusiasm, by the expectation of hostilities, 
which they conceived the honour of the nation 
had long ago required ; and the zeal of the people 
coincide with the sentiments of the army. The 
disposition manifested by the court, was equally 
approved by foreign powers, as by the subjects 
of Prussia. The King of Sweden was eager to 
cherish the prospect which seemed thus to be 
afforded of cnecking the power jand aggrandize- 
ment of France; the Prussian vessels detained 
in the pcft'ts of Great Britain were speedily liber* 
ated, and Lord Morpeth was diasptched to the 
court of Berlin, with proposals to afford her 
every assistance and co-operation in the fourth 
coalition that was at this time forming against 
France. 

The preparations of Prussia were met with 
equal vigour on the part of the Emperor of 
France, who was never behind his enemies in 
vigilance and activity. On the 24th of Septeui- 
ber, Napoleon quitted his capital to join the 
armies, infusing energy as he passed into the 
▼arious parts of the service, and settling arrange- 
ments, adapted to all the details of that compli- 
cated and formidable machine, whose operations 
he was about to direct. In the mean time discus- 
sions were still continued, and even so late as 
the 5th of October, when both monarchs were 



at the head-quarters of their respective troops, 
a dispatch was delivered from the Prussian out- 
posts to the French army, which still afforded 
an opening for amicable a^justment.^ Within 
a few days after, however^ a declaration, stating 
the grpunds of the war, was published by the 
Prussian cabinet. Both parties now conceived 
themselves ready for the conflict ; and so confi* 
dent was Prussia in her own strength, that on the 
29th of September, just before the commence-^ 
ment of hostilities, she appears to have. declined 
the offer of reinforcements made by other powers. 
The French army had advanced in three 
divisions ^ the riffht, consisting of the corps of 
Marshals Ney and Soult, with a division of Bava* 
rian troops, proceeded, by the route of Amberg 
and Nuremberg, to unite at Bavreuth, in Fran- 
conia, in their advance upon Ho^ on the southern 
confines of Saxony : the centre, composed of the 
reserve, under the Grand Duke.of Berg, with the 
corps of the Prince de Ponte Corvo (Bernadotte) 
and Marslial Davoust, and the imperial guards, 
marched by Bamberg, towards Culmbach, in 
Franconia, and hy way of Saalberg to Gerra, 
in Saxony : the left, consisting of the troops of ' 
Marshals Lannes and Augereau, took their route 
for Schweinfurth, towards Coburf, and ad« 
vanced to Saalfeld, in Saxony. The veteran 
Prussian army, havini? its right under General 
Blucher, its centre under, the Duke of Brunswick, 
and its left commanded by Prince Hohenlohe, had 
taken a very strong position along the north of 
Francfort, on the Mayne. The campaign opened 
on the 9th of October, with the battle of Schleitz, 



* By this dispatch it was required of France, that, as a preliminary to negociation, the whole of the French4roops 
iu Germany should immediately re -cross the Rhine; that no obstacles should be raised by France to the formation of a 
northern league, including all the states not mentioned in Uie fundamental act of the confederation of the Rhine; and that 
the basis of the negociation should be the separation sf Wessel from the French empire, and the re-occupation of the 
fliree abbies by the Prussian troops. 



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JIlSTOttY OF THE WAR?, ^C. 



II 



ievon miles to the north-west of Fulda. Here 
three Prussian regiments sustained, with great 
firmness, one of the most spirited charges of the 
Enemy's cayalry ; but the efforts of the French 
were finally .successful^ and the Prussians wer6 
obliged to retreat, with a loss of seven hundred 
men, killed, wounded, and prisoners ; and five 
hundred waggons, containing military stores, fell 
into the hands Df the Tictors. On the 10th, the 
left wing of the French army, under Marshal 
JLannes, was equally successful at Saalfeld. 
After a trem^idous cannonade, continued with- 
out intermission for upwards of two hours, the 
Prussian cavalry were cut off by the French 
tiussars, and their infantry, being unable to effect 
an orderly retreat, were some of tibem obliged to 
take shelter in the adjoining woods, while others 
were involved inextricably in a marshy ground, 
where they were driven to the painful alternative 
of surrendering themselves prisoners of war. In 
this engagement Prince Louis of Prussia, brother 
of Frederick -William, was killed by Marshal 
de liOgis, of the 10th regiment of the French 
hussars, with whom he was engaged in personal 
•ombat. The merits of this young prince ren^ 
dered his death a great public calamity, and 
aggravated ttie other losses of this unfortunate 
battle, from which the French derived two thou- 
sand prisoners, and thirty pieces of cannon, 
while six hundred of the Prussian troops were 
left dead upon the field. This inauspicious open- 
ing of the campaign excited no slight sensation 
at the head-quarters of the Prussian army, the 
main body of which found itself placed on the 
I2th in a situation of considerable danger. 

The object of Bonaparte had been to repeat 
the operation of the preceding campaign, and to 
faiterpose himself between the army of the enemy 
and their dep6ts and resources. The main body 
of the Prussian army occupied Eysenach, Gotha, 
Erfurt, and Weimar, and it was the intention of 
the Duke of Brunswick, to whom the chief com- 
mand was confided, to have cpmmenced hostili* 
ties by bearing down with his right wing upon 
Francfort, with his centre on Wurtzburg, and 
his left wing on Bamberg. The arrangements 
for the execution of thb plan had been prepared 
with great minuteness, and several columns had 
been pushed on to Cassel and other places, to 
act upon the offensive; but the French army 
had by this time unexpectedly turned the ex- 
tremity of the Prussian right wing, and obtained 
possession of the eastern bank of the Saal, occu- 
pying, within a very short period, Saalberg, 
Schfeitz, and Gerra. Alarmed by these move- 
ments, the arrangements of the Prussian array 
were immediately changed. The detachments 
which had been precipitatrty urged forward, 
were recalled; and the head -quarters were 
removed through Weimar to Auerstadt, in the 



1806 



vicinity of Jena, while General Ruchel occupied l/oOK IT, 
the position of Weimar. Such were the arrange- 
ments made by the Pi*ussians previously to the 
13th, in anticipation of the ensuing deci$ive 
struggle. On the same day, the Grand Duke 
of Berg and Marslial Davdust were with their 
corps at Naumberg, to which place the Prince of 
Ponte Corvo was in full march : Marshal Lannes 

1>roceeded to Jena, whither the Emperor Napo- 
eon was also advancing, vrhile his head-quarters 
were at Gerra. Marshal Nev was at Gouia, and 
Marshal Soult was proceeding t>n the straight 
road from Naumberg to Jena. In the afternoon 
of the Idth Bonaparte arrived at Jena, and from 
an elevated flat neeur the place, reconnoitred 
the position of tlie enemy. The importance of 
this elevation for the play of the artillery was so 
great, that, notwith^anding the extreme diffi- 
culty, and indeed seeming impossibility of its 
accomplishment, the herculean labour was at 
length surmounted, and before morning the artil- 
lery was actually planted upon the eminence. 

The night of the 13th was sublimely inter- 
esting. The sentinels were almost close to each 
other; and the lights of the two armies were 
within half a cannon shot, in one case illuminat- 
ing the atmosphere through an extent of front' 
of six hours march, and in the other concen- 
trated to a comparatively small point. On both 
sides all was watchfulness and motion. The 
divisions of Ney and Soult were occupied the 
whole night in marching, and at break of 
day all the French troops were under arms. 
Sucbet^s division formed the right ; the imperial 
guards occupied the summit of a height ; and 
each of the^ corps had their arttllerjr in the 
small spaces between them. The morning was 
obscured by a fog, which continued to prevail for 
two hours, during which Bonaparte rode along 
the line, cautioning his officers to exiiibit order 
and compactness against the Prussian cavalry, 
and reminding them of the similarity of the . 
situation of the Prussian army to that of the 
Austrians in the preceding year, at Ulm, when 
they were driven from &eir magazines, and 
compelled to surrender. The light troops began 
the action, by dislodging the Prussians from an 
apparentlv inaccessible position on the highway 
between Jena and Weimar ; and the success of 
this operation enabled the French troops to 
stretch out without restraint on the plain, where 
tbey now formed in order of battle. An army of 
fifty thousand men had been detached by the 
Prussians from their left wing, to cover the de- 
files of Naumburg, and to possess themselves of 
the passes of Coesen, in which they were anti- 
cipated by Marshal Davoust. The two other 
armies, one of which amounted to eighty thou- 
sand men, placed themselves in front of the 
French army, wUch now opened out from the 



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12 



HISTORY OF THE WA«S 



CyA 



n. 



1806 



BOOK IV. level height of Jen^ At this crisis the mist 
i¥hich had hung over the comhataats began to 
dissipate, and both' armies b^eld each other 
within the range of cannon shot. After .the first 
action of the morfiing, by which the Prussians bad 
been forced to quit their position, the village of 
Hollstedt became the point of atta,ck9 and the 
Prussians were in full, motion ..tp. 4islo49e the 
French from this ^ta^on, w|ien Maf«)if^L£auiQ^ 
was ordered to its support. . Marshal 'jSoult 
attacked a. wood on thq right. The right wing 
of the Prussians made a. movement against the 
left of the French, which Marshal Augereau was 
ordered to oppose, and in less than, an hQur the 
action became gexv&raJl. Every manceuvre on 
both sides was performed with a^ much precision 
as if it . had been executed upon tlie parade, 
while two hundr^ and fifty thpiv^apd men, and 
seven hundred pieces of artillery, scattered 
death in every direction, and exhibited one of 
the most affecting s^ni^ : eyer.. displayed on the 
theatre of the WiQr)4- After a smuggle of nearly 
two hours, Marshal, Soult secured possession of 
the wood, from, which he immediately moved, 
forward, while, at the. same instant, the division 
of the French cavalry in resierve, and two 4XtUer 
divisiona just arrived on the field of battle from 
the corps of Marshal Ney, were, by order of 
Bonaparte, brought into acjtion, and so much 
strengthened the French Une,. as to throw the 



Prussians into great disorder.. By a striking 
effort of skill and bravery, this disorder was 
speedily retrieved, and. the^ battle was resumed, 
and con tinned for almost, an hour* At this crisis 
^^. there was. room for a moment's doubt;" the 
fate of the day hungan awful suspense; but the 
reserve under. the .>]>uke.io£ Berg, precipitated 
themselves ioi^ the fooi^iot the. fight, and threw 
tb^ Bmflsiaii tpoops into esLtreme confiision.* lu 
vain did itbe. cavalry and infantry form them- 
selves into a square ; the shock was irresistible, 
and this most dreadful, charge' completed their 
overthrow. On the right, Auirshal Davoust not 
only maintained bis ground, against the great 
body of Pk'ussians. sent to possess the defiles of 
Coesen, but, advancing into the plain, pursued 
them for three hours in their xotreat to Weimar. 
In this retreat, the confusion in the Prussian 
army was extcenpie, and the king, finding it ne« 
oessary to quit the .road, was obliged to retire 
acroas.tbe fields at -the. head of his regiment of 
cavalry. The. Ms of the Prussians in 2iis battle 
is estimated by the French , at twenty thousand 
killed, and from thirty to forty thousand pri^ 
sonars, besidea three hundredc pieces of cannon, 
and immense magazines of military stores and 
provisions : among the. prisoners were more 
than twenty generals ^ Marshal MoUendorf waa 
wounded, . and the Duke of Brunswick and 
General Ruchel wcoe killed, t The French 



* French BuiXErm. — This docament mentions a trait of eharaeter that should not be wholly omitted in a record 
of the battle of Jena. **• The imperial foot gitanb," aaya the bulletin, '^ enraged at not beings allowed to press on 
while every other^ corps was. in yaotiont sQireral voices among them cried out f. Forward :' ' What is this I hear ?* 
said the emperor: * this can oqly proceed from json^e, beardless boy tha^wHl gire^dcyis independent, of. me : let him wait 
till he hAs commanded in thirty battles, before he take&npon himself to advise me/ '* ' 

+ Charles WttLUM Frex>erick, DUKE OF BRUNSWICK, was bom on the 9th of October^ 1735, O, S, and 
bis ancestry is traced up to Albert Azzoni, one of the richest marquises in Italy^ born 19. the year 996, and 
marrie^t to Cuniza, heiress of the ancient house of Guelphs, or Welfes, in Germany. .Frdi|i this slock sprung 
the royal family of Engfland, w.hich, having attained the electorate, soon added the regal crown to its arms. The 
Duke of Brunswick, like all the German princes of his time, was bred to the profession of arms from his 
cradle, and^ as he was descended from a bouse eminently warlike, he applied himself 10 war as a science with 
no common avidity. By the time he had attained the age of nineteen, the Hereditary l^ince, for by this title he 
was called during the lUe-tinie -of lijs latheK, experienced many opportunities to distinguish his courage and con- 
duct in arms. The first expbit undertaken by the hereditary .priitoo as « commander, was the capture of Kaya« 
towards the end of the year 17.68, Flushed with, success, the yonng . warrior, nex^ adiranced against Minden, so 
celebrated afterwards^ on account of the battle iu.that^aeighbQurhood» and having jva.ve8t«A the village on the 5Lh of 
March, the garrison surrendered at discretion at the end of nine day^. To this/prince England and her allies were 
not a little indebted for the victory of Minden. On that memorable day he eQCQua^ered im4 ov4|rcame the Duke de 
Brissac, and by that achievement prevented the Marshal de Contades from making his retreat by the defiles of W^it* 
tenkendstein. At the close of the campaign, in 1759, the hereditary prince was det^plu^4« with, 1^000 men, to serve 
under his relation, Frederick the Great, and was afterwards preseut at the battle of Co^bach ; .a^4 althougli obliged 
on this occasion to retreat, yet he maintained all his former reputation. Prihce Ferdinand and M'ai'shal Broglio were 
at this period opposed to each other ; and the former liaving conceived the project of cutting ofi* the communicaUou 
with France by the Lower Rhine, the hereditary prince was detached for that purpose. On tb& occasion he was 
anticipated by the Marquis de Castries, and obliged to re- cross the Uhiue, but he effected a brilliant retreat with his 
prisoners, among whom was Diunouriez, at that moment an obscure subaHem in the French 8eYvice,§ but who was 
destined afterwards to check his progress in the plains of Champagne, at the head of* a numerous army, and thus to 
give a new turn to the destinies of France and of Europe. During th» campaign of 1782, the hereditary prince 
f««iimed bis .ntnal activity. On thedlst of August, haviitg seized on the h^ghta of Joanuisberg, be endeavoured to 



I Life of General Daioouric«, Vol I. p. 29* 



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OP T«B FRBN^CH HRVOJUVTJtON. W 



aeknMdedged a his9 m ibeir fmrC of from fear UagAOimg itself, mtb t¥f^nty-riw9 IbMMMid <>OQK^>V' 

to five 4bMMiiidineif(ta ibis actisa; the vtotory, phsosers, was jfielliod up to tile «n«njr« preseptr -^ ~ 

howMOP, WW eonmleta, and the battte ^ Jeaa 1119 a singular iastoii^ of tbe effesi ot* thnt ,^][^:^J^ 

decided.ihaiid^ of the canqvaign. aiarm vrhiA bad beaa exi^iM by ikft sn^^eess of ^goe 

The Biika of Bst9^ who, iabis«peratioM» the t^rendh foress^ ilb4 the iflA«e«ee #f wbi^ '"^^ 

had so fnH|aeiitly proved himsdf worthy of bia peFvaded the most aOoiersias gsrriaMS alwd tW 

Sreatprisoeptdr ia the «H of war, on the i5lh of stron^ssi fortifioatioas. Aaotbc^ <C^ of ibis 

otobor iaTested firfarth, and oi> the foUdwing oomplele disnbay wils the CBptaray by Ibis active 

llay, that fiaecitadel/ to which Geaeral MoUeo^ and suoeessftii oommander^ of Ste^tim a fiMTlrsSS 

dorf had retceaied, was snrrendered, with fouv^ weU cakufaited for defentoi and Whit^b eoatWMd 

teea' thoaiaand mea, into the haiMb of ibe enemy, a garrison ef mx thsusasbd ven aid pM haadred 

Thsublookade of Magdeburg, which, beiBg 6«p« wmi sixty pieets oC oanaon. This acbieTeBMiit 

posed pertetly out of danger, had beea made a waa aeeothplished by oae of the wiUgs ef tb^ 

depAt &r the weal ▼abiabk eflTects from Munstef , Duke of Bccg*s. eoi^^ while the oiiber etticks4 

Cassel, and East Frieslaad, aoioantiBg to a very a cdlumn of sia thottsaad PiiwMiS, wboinno^ 

great aocasMilatiioii, was entered on tlie dOth diately laid down tbnr ayins. . 
mder the erdera of the saans ooauaandeor, wfaib SteHiii was the fitvtress to wliiflb^ alter the 

he proeeeded towards Spaadaa, only three miles £ital day of Jepa, the Prince of Hebealohe 

from Berlin. The garrison of tWs plaoe sinrvfa* directed his course with the princi{>al wreck of 

deced on the ^Atb^ and* en* the 8tti of NeireimDer, the army,, having midor hiln abMt.stxteeii' thou- 

prevent the jutictioD of fiie armies under the* Mardlal d*Ctr6eft aad the Prf^oe of C^hK, Mt in this aUttal)^ te 
fiuled of 90cce99y «nd hk Gannon, aad a turge tody of piiaMieie, fbM into dM bandi of the dn^iay. N* MibnSi' waa 
& trao^ concluded dian his serena higbneaa refttomed borne to oohbrale the arts of pfeaea, and oa dn ISib «f 
Aanaaiy, HM, he married the Prineesa Augaala, aiatcr of die pieaent Kb^ of finglnd. bi I'^SO-, the IHika of 
Bmnanriaic died, and the henditary prince, of eoune, saeoeeded to hwtidea a«d dataiaietos. ^. fot^ caie was 
dirc'oted to the melioration of the affaira «f hia oouiitay, and ae unremittii^ were liia eadeavoar»,te pieaiote the hap- 
pineas and pnoaperity of hia suljocia, that he acquired^ as he merited, the glorioua title of the " Father of his pep* 
pie." On the death of the old King of Prussia, the title of Pield-Marahal was conferred upoo* the duke by 
Fiacderick- William II. and being appointed to the command of the Prussian army, he pucoeeded in over-rumiiw 
HdJand, and ceinstating the stadtholder. 

Soon after this event, when the successful revolt of a whole people from an oppression s^ctioneil by the prac- 
tice of ages, bad created the most serious alarm in aH the courts of Europe, the Duke oif Brunswick was look- 
ed up to as the only general capable of reducing the French niition wittiin the pale of unlimited obedience. On this 
occasion the rival courts of Tienna and Berlin cordially United iti the choice dfth^ 8)un4 leKdef , wh6, having 
assumed the command of the combined forces, in July, 17SS, advanced ftom Ootteritz to thcJ height^ tit VaTmy, 
where an obscure officer of cavahy § fbiled the tacticietis who had studied the art of war in the" sdiool of th^ im^ 
mortel Frederick ;|| and that army ifi4iich had marched forward iii aH die pride <ff triaaiflh, deiM»tmeing vebgeimM and 
desoMen against die Frmeh capital, wee ohhged to wididraw, by Ihreed «e*ehes, te thei^ tfi^ frbntiek*, dcetitate of 
provisions, encumbered with baggage, eifoaed to the rnvagae of a dreaSM d yKaiHei y, aad eoiapleialy boefl of all 
itai glory. In IfBO, the duke, adio m Ae imarvel had redsealed noam perlion of dnt* glory whith he had laet 
at V^dmy, by the capteee. ef Mentz,.retbed[ frtoi the oammend of the iViWisa «ney m dia^sti aiid was succeed*^ 
edbyMollendosg, the.c^npaiuea of hisryoalh end the rival of his oldege« Oa ^nitlhig thef dad^ of theeanip Ina 
highness immediately returned te Birunswick, an4 oooapied himself as usual hi' proaiotlHr die prosperity/ of his' own 
donwuena. Happy had it been for hha and for his fiumhr^ had he confined hia cares to hhi sovereigaty $ but he 
was. addicted to war from habit, and from disposition, and he pmed for active employment in the fidd «id at the head of. 
annies. On the breaking out of the war in 1806, the cotfimaad of the Prussian army wiw agam. confide^ to the 
Duke of Brunswidiu He was almost ^e only surviving general of the oU achooly and it remained to be determia-> 
ed 00 die plains of Jena, whether the ai^cient'art of war or the modem system of tactics was doomed to prevaQ. 
On the 13th of October the fatal conflict t<iok pfeee; afad vifctoty, an we htvfe se^n, depTai'^dTof the FVeh<iK, under 
the Emperor Napoleon. WMle reconnoitring- the etfemy at an advlinced p<ttt, wMi a telewJo^c" hi his hkhd, t^ 
duke was wounded in die face by a grape-shot ; and he wei obliged soen aft^r td have reCMirife to a litfer, in which 
he waa condnoted to die capital of hts dominhms. Oa the appMeeh' of the- eiled^ he' Mft hte-UtOe met^olb for 
die katiime, and retired by easy joumies to Altons. There, ia< aa ebseuie' lodgings AtfeodSS liy bit eotteert, the 
sister of die Kuig of Bngland, he heard idM the veysl faaitly w«s fledr; dial nearly aH hte tresps had been inter- 
oepted m their retreat; and that he hbosaM was 'saspped of'his dewniene. In dria neUMtely sitnatibb, benft of 
sight, overwhdmedwidi pein, and surresnded hyimiadry, died a eeyeieifa |m6e« who^ uadl eclipsed by a new rade 
ef wamer% had been oensideied as dtejgfeates^ eoaiii\Snder of his. age« and to whos^ taleitfs, at one eiitieel period, 
ell the aeeereigna of Eaiope looked up for safety: and protection. The duke brewed his h«i en the lOtfi ef 
Korember, in the 71st yearof. his.age. 

^, f-Dtanaories*' H BeA h^Cbttpi ItL pc 19.: 

voiu II* (Ko 99.) J) 

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14 



•' HtdTOBY OF the: WAAS^ 



BOOK ft sand infkntry, principally guards and grenadiers, 
— — ; — -- nix reg^iments of efttmlry^ and sixty-foar pieces 
K ^'JI} of haniessed artillery. In hisattempt, howeTer^ 
^^^^"^ to reaeir thk place, he was antieipaied by the 
^^'^ Mrfyal at Templon of the Duke of Berg, who; 
not donbttng that the prince would, in conae^ 
quence of this failure, bend hia course to Prentz* 
lowy without a moment^s loss of time set off 
for that plaeey aild,' by a well-concerted attack^ 
bTcrthrew^ in it» suburbs, the cavalry, infantry, 
ud aiftillery «f the prkioe^-and forced him, with 
.jlfteat los*, to withdraw within the town, where 
he was immediately summoned. The gates 
%^g speed%^ burst*op«a by the enemy, and no 
t;hanee of ' eflectual opposition to the attadk re^ 
maining, the prince, engaged in a treaty of :capi^ 
talation, and- the same ^day defiled his whole 
aniiy before the 'grand duke, .as prisoners of 
'war; ••:?.' i •:«••?• • :r » '" ■' •■- • » -"" • .' 
fhe retread and resistance of the gallant 
General Blucher are deserving of particular 
mention* . His intention, after the defeat at 
Jena, was to gain> the Oder, to effect a junction 
with the army ot Prince Hohenlohe, and by 
affbrdihg employment to diflferent* divisions - of ^ 
4he French troops^ to allow time for the sUppIjr of- 
-some important fortresses^ and for th^ junction 
of the Russian and Prussian troops. The re- 
serve of' the army, which, under the Prince of 
Wurtemberg, had sufiered very materially ' at 
Halle, was confided to him on the 94th of Octo- 
ber, and appears ajfterwards to have njet with a 
corps under the Did^e of Weimar and the here- 
.ditary Duke df Brunswick.. It consisted of ten 
thousand five hundred! men. After various 
attempts to join Prince Hohenlohe, in whicl^ his 
little army had several times separated, although 
they rejoined after a variety ,ot difficulties, th^y 
were obliged to fight .against very superior 
numbers, but often inflicting in these contests 
more injury than they experienced, be reodived 
the mortifying intelligence that the prince had 
capitulated. Gteneral Bhidier had now no other 
alternative but either to take the direction to 
' Hamburg or Lubeck, or to fight the liext day, • 
as the, Duke, of Berg was. on his left flank, 
IMfarsbal'Soult on'his ri^ht, aiid Bernad'otte on 
his front, e(|Lch of whosie oivisiopswas more than 
double the ' number of . his own. His march to , 
Lubeck was accordingly resolved upon. . But' 
here, to. his unutterable re^et and- indignation, 
treachery combined against him, and afforded 
aid to the French tifoi^ps, who soon filled the 
town. Here 2l contest took place, which in 
fierceness and horror has rarely been exceeded. 
The squares, streets^ iatid ^en churches,' were 
-l^cenes of 'the most \\ooAj conflict and carnage ;' 
war triumphed in this unfortunate place, in its 
full ravage ; and the Prussian: troopp at lengdi^ r 
obliged to yield to the superior forces of the 



enemy, withdrew from the town. lii tUs c^x^t 
tremity, sufiering irom want of anunuiiition,. with, 
reduced strength, and reduced numbers, effectual 
resistance seemed absolutely impossftle. After 
three wedia constant retreat, in which, from the 
incessant fiitigue of marching five or six German 
miles a day^ vrith only the 'most miserable means 
of subsistence^ fifty or sixty men being frequently 
obliged to be left behind, but notwithstimding 
which, the whole corps had displayed a fid^ity 
and oouragevwhicb. could never be exceeded, he 
fete it hisiduty, at the moment the French were 
about: to attack him, to yieldto atcainti^ation. 
The conviction of having dischargaa his. duty 
might, well support him under tUs disaatel*, and 
he may be. considered as having derived more 
glory nrom his. well-oonducted retreat, than .has 
attached in many cases to the most decided and 
important successes. 

Marshal. Davousi' had, on the .18th of Oc-» 
tober, taken possession of Leipzig, where imme* 
diate notice was gj^ven to the merchants and 
bankers, that all English property would be 
seised in this grand enirepAt of British merchan- 
dise; and all persons were enjomed ..within 
. twenty ^four hours: to send in a dedaration to-* 
garding all such properly in tlieir possession, of 
whatever description ; the non-compliance with 
this mandate to be punished by the summary 
process of military tribunals.-. Having ordered 
abridge to be thrown over the Elbe at this 
place, Davoust proceeded to Wittenburg, and 
gained by surprise the bridges of that town, 
after which he moved forward to Berlin, which 
he entered at the head of his troops on the S!5th, 
followed on the supceeding day by the corps of 
Marshal Augereau. On the 24th, Bonaparte 
arrived sU Potsdam ; where he visited the psdace^ 
and the tomb of the great Frederick. The 
sword of that distinguished warrior, the ribbon 
of the iblack eagle, the colours taken by him in 
-the seven- years war, aiid the scarf which he used 
during that critical period of tus vicissitude and 
glory, excited particular regard and emotion, 
and Napoleon, seizing these trophies, exclaimed 
with transport; " Twenty millions shall not pur- 
chase them. I will present them to my old sol- 
sdiers, and the Hotel of Invalids at P^s shaU 
)be iheir future depositorv." Within. three days 
after his arrival at Potsoam, he made bis pubUc 
ealry into Berlin, attended by his principal ge- 
nerals, and his ibot guards. Various ambas- 
sadors, firom the powers with which be was at 
peace were here presented to him at the; palace. 
.He afterwards received the deputies from the 
liutheran and Reformed churches, inostly tlie 
'dteceiidaats of the refugee French protestanis,' 
driven from their country by therevdcation of the 
edict qf Nantes^ to whom he promised the con- 
tinued enjoyment of their privileges and worship. 



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OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 



'lO 



^TTWdte Huridrfed' of 'the principal inhabitants 
were intimated ^th the guaraianship' of the 
cii!y^. aiid to the tnanagemetit' of dght of the 
'highest reputatlbh and consequence, was conl- 
.Mtted'^the superintendence' of the police. The 
presence of the French scarcely discomposed the 
ordhiary routine of business ; and by the vigil- 
iinc^ bf the burghers, and the strict discipline of 
th^' army, the utmost tranquillity was secured. 
Berlin, ;at the tiVne of its occupation, notwith- 
"standing previous removals, abounded with milir 
tary" Stores of every description, which the 
precipitate approach of the enemy, '* the ra- 
pidity of whose march, outstripped tliat of their 
renown,** had prevented them from removing. 
The supreme provisional government of the con- 

Suered country of Prussia was divided into four 
epartments — Berlin, Custin, Stettin, and Mag- 
deourg^;. and committed to the direction of 
Oeneral Clarice. 

Diiring the time in which the Emperor Na- 
poleon was eiyoying himself in comparative lei- 
sure and full tranquillity in the palace of Berlin^ 
admiring the novelty of the scene, and the tro- 
phies of military greatness ; the King of Prussia 
was experiencing all the horrors of exile, and 
the alarmfs natural to the loss of a kingdom, for 
the recovery of which he had reason to fear that 
he must be more indebted to the moderation of 
the conqueror, than to any remaining resources 
of his own. In the course of a few days his 
army had been completdy dissipated and ruined. 
The army of Westphalia, under General 
Blucher; the left division, under Prince Ho- 
henlohe ; tbe reserve, under the Prince of Wur- 
temburg ; and the army under his own im- 
mediate inspection ; had comprehended a mass of 
military power which he had represented to his 
imagination as almost irresistible : yet nearly all 
had now disappeared. Of one hundred and fifty 
thousand men, comprehende4 in these divisions, 
a Isurge proportion had been destroyed, wounded, 
or made captive, in the fatal contest of Jena. 
Of the rest, various corps, after wandering 
amidst inextricable difirculties, and exhibiting an 
enterprise and perseverance worthy of a better 
fate, had been obliged to surrender to the supe- 
rior force of the enemy, while others, as if struck 
with consteriiatioh, and imagining themselves to 
be assailed by an enemy of more than mortal 
powers, yielded up, in succession, positions of 
the first importance, and capable of long- 
continued defence. The fortresses appeared as 
if incapable of affording resistance to the enemy, 
or protection to their own garrisons. The 
armies, the garrisons, and the magazines^ were 
lost to the Monarch of Prussia, with such ra- 
pidity *of successive disaster, that he mi^A^I 



18dd 



doubt at certain moments the' reality of hjg BOOKIV. 
huibiliation, and the testitqony of hi$ o#i Qensef. -^ ,,,'^ 
After the battle of Jena, his majfesty retireated ^^ft!^* 
to Custiti^ but the a^^proaoh of me bri^my 
speedily produced the necessity 5f Us further 
removal, and Koningsburg became the place of 
his residence, land thetaUyin^pomt for the wreok 
of the Plrussian forces. Here, the last regi^ientis 
of the Prussian moharchy, atnounting to about 
fifty thousand mi^n, cpU^cted around Fr^eridL 
William, and awaited the acces8ji<3m of reinforce*- 
ments, and the arrival of whatever assistanee 
might be afforded by the Emperor of Riissia. 

Bonaparte, well aware that the Elector of 
Saxony had been forced into the service of 
Prussia, dismissed six thousand of Us troops oil 
their parole immediately after the battle of J eha. 
The JBlector of He^sd' was, on the Qontraty, de- 
prived of his dominions ;' as was also Hie J>iike 
of Brunswick, because he had encouri^ed a 
war ** which he ou|^ht to have used his influence 
to prevent.*** Meddenburg was' also taken 
possession of by the Freneh ; but its destiny 
was postponed, anid left subject to be regulated 
by the conduct of Russia. Hatnover was' occu- 
pied by a detachment under this command of 
General Mortier. The siege of Hameln was 
intrusted to Gteneral Savary, who' found a con- 
ference as efficacious as a grand assault. The 
desperate situation of the Prussian monarchy 
afforded no prospect of advantage from the pro- 
traction of a siege on the part of thi^ com- 
mandant, who, under the influence of this per- 
suasion, consented to sign a capitulation, by 
which this important fortress, with a garrison 
of nine thousand men, abundance of military 
stores, and provisions for six months, were de- 
livered to the French general, whose troops 
amounted to only three regiments. In Hano- 
ver, the order and discipline of the French trck>ps 
were strikingly observable ; and a fiew days ware 
suffioient to complete the conquest of that elec- 
torate. Fulda and Cassel were at the same 
time occupied by other corps i)f the French 
troops, and a perfect communication was opened 
and maintained with the grand army. The next 
objectto be accomplished, and whicb wasnosooner 
ordered than it was effected, was to take posses^ 
sion of Hamburg ; and the transactions at this 
place, where all British merchandise and other 
property was placed under sequestration, flowed 
from a system of policy explained by a decree 
of the French Emperor, published at Berlin 
towards the close of the month of November. 
This edict, wlrich afterwards became so memor^ 
able under the designation of the Berlin Dbcrre^ 
WftQ ?n4..nilttccd by a declaraUon, stating, that, 
wasmtroanc^ Violated the laW o« i^^^^ns i^ 



England 



'%ono' SoWi^- 



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w 



^i^'fQVY oy rta? yvA^^ 



?PPfr If* considering every i^diyidiji^l ttP'^<^^Si^S i^ ^ ^^' Y^??i^t*c^ attached tp Eufppe, and eycfi tq frw^ 
iuj^ 9tsd^^^» an a^c^uai eneppy;, i¥|i^fh^ if:;ipid on h^s^]f, from t|je inflluenc^ ^^xe ^^^ u^ntin^^j^ 



WiSg 

^te, or a§ piembera qf cowfl^prcm 
§ne fiad moreoveir exte^^d?4 h^r right pf {)lpcka<le 
beyonii fOl reft$on^]|)le 1ifdits~^fp pWce^/ pe^piie 
vrhic|^ 3he hafl pot ^ smgle ship of >yar, an^ even 



systep^'' Y[o^i\d t>e Q^pfirfftUy pnduB^d, T^e 
5H^l>epsi|9n of t^ip rp^ul^r cmf^p, 9Jf pf|meB^ 
frdjjni ajirqz^d f^^'* prpved fatal tp wapy nierc^- 
tile houses pf dUtiwpiipfl ; ^WV# fttl^er?, vbo Wd 
eiupyed the goo^ fprtu^e, jn antjiq^p^tipq pf ^^se 
pTpi\t8> to oi^po^e of jl^pir p^qper^y, and settle 



to wliQle* cpa^^ a^d kingdoip^^ >y^er.^, wit^ ^ iii^jyr 2^900 vints atrpad, but >Ybp$e ^vpehoH^e^ ^t 
j^er liayal supeiriprity, ' \\ was impossible for h'^ home were crowd^ wil^ ^lerph^^dl^ej for M^hicii 
-. j*..-.n-. i^^^i^:^::: u rri.:« Jiiu.:^ -V, r *i.^:. ^^^J^ p^^ obtaip np m^trkci, wpt^ W ft sitate 

depJI^red. T^e W^?t India 




ic5 Enjpgrpr, ^(ad po o^he^r pbject but to miprphants, so l^g^ a p^jrtip^ pjf ^bo^e ioiportQ, 
4^ the c^mmunicat^Qn between Rations, aiid tions l^^d fojai^^ ^^ ^^X ^l^^^S^ ^^^§ estab 



ip ^ggrandi^^ the commerci^' a,nd uj^dustrv of 
£ng^nd by tie ruin of the coiJipjkejfpe and in- 
dustry of the contii^ept! ' All thos!^ 'Hyb.o d^^H in 
llqg^is]^ co^noi^odities upoij the ^opti^ent, mighjt, 
tt^erefore, be justly regarde^^ yv-^e.^helf inten- 
tionally or not, as secpndin;^ those yi^w^; and 
xeijidtering t^em^elres her accpinpUees* ^nd 
^latj £^. it v[q£ a right^ cpnferrea by the laiys of 
pature and, of nation^, to oppose to i^h eneipy the 
iji^eapons lie employs against bis adversary ; it 
was tliereforp decreed^ tiiat till ^e English 
govj^rnment^ slioul^ abandon thi^^ system, the 
l^ritish is^s ^hojQ^d be placeil in. a ^tat/^ of 
hipckjidiS} fiujd, all coijijmerce apid correspondence 
ijrith her interdicted. 

The idea o( blockading the British island^ 
was at ^rst treated as the phantoip pf a disor- 
der^ imaginatipn, but the ridicule cast upon t^e 
project w^^ speedily reinpved by illustrative 
fio^cts. In all the count^e^ under the direct 
power and influence of Frai^ce, British, property, 
and the persons of British citizens, were divested 
of all security^ and recognized as fair subjects of 
i^quc^tration and imprisonment. The means of 
cpnt)i|ental cpnfununication were extr^ely impair- 
ed ; and the graqd, entrep6t of tlnglish commodi- 
ties, ^as completely cut off. The strictest orders 
were clrpulated through Holland^ Switzerland, 
.and aU the other tributary governments of the 
JPreiich empire, to enforce these regulations^ so 
as tf^ effect, if possible, the utter exclusion of 
British intercourse with their doihinions ; and it 



Dished chi^nufji^^b tp thfi contu^e][)^t^ from wh^ch they 
were poijr ^:ji^p^uded^ p^tic^lwly suffejred from 
thJL^ caus^: ana the collimna pf the Londop 
(gazette, np lo^er adorned vit^ the Jrecord^ ^f 
victpry, >yere s^elji^^d vy^h th)^ n^jpes of those 
who had recently imagined themselvea ip ^ ^tatp 
of comj^arative op^lenpe, but ^1><^. ^^'e doomed 
tp fall into d,i9<?ay under thj? weight of this uip- 
mfirl^etable and d^pr^i^ted niercbandise. 

Immj^diately after tjv? batUe of Jena, the 
King pf Frussia made applipations to Boi^aparte 
for an armistice, and though this, request wa^ 
i;efu^^ei^ hf; w.as enqou^^ag^q <<>, ^^^^ a plenipor 
tentiary tp the head-quai:ters of the French anny^, 
charged with instructions to n^gopiate a pf^apci. 
liuccbesini, the Prussian negociator, arrived at 
Berlin on the 22d of October, and found. tha( 
Buroc'was nan)ed by tlie French EiT\peror to 
disGUStS. with him the terms of the proposed 
treaty. The. situation of his Prussian Mtgesty 
became every day more desperate by the capture 
of his armies, and the surrender of his fortresses, 
and a very shqrt time was sufficient to shew, that 
np term9 ofpeace short of nnconditional surrender 
were to be obtained, from the conqueror* An 
armistice was next proposed, and concluded on 
the 16th of November, but on terms so disad^ 
vantagepus to Prussia, that the king refused to 
ratify the act of his minister, preferring rather tp 
try still further the fortune of war, with the aid 
and under the banners of his Russian ally. Every 
e:^ertion was made to give effect to this last effort, 



wasfpund, that although the Frenc)i\ were, i^^ and considering the facility with which the slight 
dosed by the %itish squadrons in their own est prpmise of favourable change, is caught at by 
pNorti, which they could i|uit.oiily by the aid of the unfprto^^at^, it could not appear surprising 



storms, and darkness, the idea of .blockading the 
British isles was not altogether frivolous and 
illuspry. Founded, as the system of commercial 
intercourse M[as, on tlie very basis of reciprocal 
wants and advantages, the British nation found 
that they were contending with an enemy whose 
grand object was tp impair their resources, to 
harass their credit, to produce that failure of 
^venue ^hich would operate most powerfully in 
support of his views of policy and vengeance ; 
and for the accomplishment of which, the incon- 



that the approach of the Ru^sjUn armjes, and th^ 
expectation of a general rising among the Silesians, 
to whom the king addressed an energetic procla* 
mation, should h^ve inspired a hope of ultimate 
success, which was in reality the cause of the 
determination not to ratify the armistice. 

The advanced .guard of the Russian army, 
under General BennUigsen, amoujDtlng to four 
thousand men, had at length croefsed the, Vistula, 
and arrived at Warsaw, on thelSth of November, 
from whepce they pushed on by forced marches 



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OV THB TRENCH REVOLUTION. 



17 



to the ri'ver Dreura. Thetr reoonnoitring partied 
b6weTar, on adTancidg along tiie road towards 
Thorn and the Wartha, soon ascertained the 
^reat superioritr and the ragid march of the 
enemy, on whicli Creneral Benningisen gpeedily 
retired across the Vistula^ and entirely destroyed 
the bridge oirer that river, with a view to impede 
the enemy in his pursuit. About the end of 
the month of November, the first division of the 
French army arrived at Warsaw, and one of 
their first objects was to substitute a bridge for 
that which the Russians had destroyed. From 
the eastern batik of the Vistula a corps of Mar- 
shal Davoust*s division pushed on towards the 
Bug, where they strengthened their position by a 
tite du ponty and afterwards proceeded to the 
village of Pomikow. The general-in-chirfof the 
Rassian army, ELamenskbi, having at length ar- 
rived at the camp, seemed to consider the honour 
of die army as tarnished by the retrograde move- 
m«it9 of General Benningsen, and in order to 
counteract die impression made by diis retreat, 
he ordered his troops to advance, and to fix their 
head-quarters at Pultusk, on the Narew, at a 
distance of thirty miles from Warsaw. No 
sooner was Bonaparte acquainted with the first 
mdications of this disposition in the Russian 
general for oflhisive operations, than he quitted 
Posen for Warsaw ; but previously to his de- 
parture, he piAlished a proclamation, addressed 
to his soldiers, which may be considered as a 
summarv of ibe Prussian campaign.* Marshal 
Ney had been for some time in possession of 
Thorn, firom whence he united the different 
corps of hir division at Gallup. Marshal Bes- 
sieres, with the decond 6orps of the reserved 
cavalry, proceeded from Thorn to Biezun, which 
route was also pursued by Marshal Bemadotte, 
while Marshal Soult passed the Vistula opjposite 
Plock, and Marshal Augereau, by indefatigable 
exertions, established a bridge over the Narew. 
These operations were succeed by the battles 
of Maziesk and Lopackzin, fought on the 24th 
•f December^ in i^hich the Russians lost sixteen 



hundred men, atid twenty-five pieces of cannon. BOOK IV. 

In the mean time a Prussian corps, consisting — = ^ 

of six thousand ihfcntry, and one thousand ^^^V) 
cavalry, sustained a signal defeat at Scoldaw, ^^JJ?*"^ 
by a corps of French troops under Marshal *^^ 
Ney ; while Marshal Bessieres routed another 
detachment of Prussian troops', breaking their 
line, and driving them into the morasses, near 
the village of Carmeden. These successes were 
only preliminary to a battle of more importance, 
fought on the 2dth of December, in the vicinity 
of Puttusk, and which closed the military 
operations of the year. In the morning of that 
day Marshal Lanncs arrived opposite to Pul- 
tusk, where fte whole corps of Grcneral Ben* 
ningsen had assembled during the night. About 
ten o'clock the next morning the attack was 
commenced by the French, and received by the 
Russians with great firmness. The battle was 
fought with great obstinacy, and with vari- 
ous vicissitude, but at length French tactics 
triumphed over Russian courage, and General 
Benningsen, on whom the chief command of the 
Russian army had now devolved, was compelled 
to retreat. In ttie mean time, General Buxhoev- 
den had assembled the different corps of his 
army at Golymin, to which place they were 
closely pursued by Davoust, who took \\p Ms 

S>sition in an aqjoining wood. About nooH 
ngereau arrived,* and took the Russians ill 
flank, while another French corps deprived 
them of a point of support, derived from a nei^- 
bouring village, and at three o'clock the division 
of General Hendelet formed in line, and ad- 
vanced against the Russians. The fire was 
conductea with great animation, and notwith- 
standing severw "Impetuous and successful 
charges made by the cavAlry of the Duke of 
Berg, the conte^ continued tHl eleven o'clock 
at night ; when the Russian commander, finding 
Inmself unable any longer to resist the^hock, 
ordered a retreat to Osti^qlenka. General BuX- 
hocfden was now placed in a situation of ex- 
treme danger, ana had not the unfavourable 



• PROCLAMATION, 

« imperud BH^'q^tHm at Pmui^ Dee. «, 1806, 

** 80L9ffi]tt ! 

^•Ayeara0o,aitbeiMiielioiir«xoQfKn«thenMmai«UefiddorAii^^ TheaMnd eobaiirfBpmfled,^didbtted, bcftwQ 
yoa ; or funonnded, laid down their mnoB at the feet of their oonqueron. To the modentioa, and, pcrhapa, blameable geneioiity, whidi 
overlooked the crimSnaHty ofthe thiid ooalitkm, b the Ibnnauon of a fbntth CO be ascribed. But the ally, on whole military skill their prin* 
«^faopoNiled,itAtoadyiioiiiore. His prilic^ towna, hia foilnsMs,hisftwH8g wid anmmnilfcio, «iagariim,twobmidrsdand<^8b»' 
gitadaria,semihoiidredpfacesofcaBn^n,owfaot it yoipw , NtMiertiioOABr Mr Wailte, tiia imuu of Pobnd. m* At wido awson of. 
wmter, liave been capable of anestuig, for a mooMBt* aax \mogimin Yoabavo beared aU dsng ct s h avo muwoaalkA diem all, and evcqr 
enemy has fled oo your approach. In Tain did the Russians wish to defend the capital of ancientand Dlustrioiis Poland. The French eaglea 

borer onr die Vistnla. The unfbrtunate. but bra^ Poles, oner *^ - ... ...i^ _,^.^.__s «.i. ^^o^^u 

RtwBfagfima amffitaty ezpedttion. SoUBenl we shall notl 

•fowalBea; mitil it has restored to our oonimeip» its fteedoDuanttgiT , 

i»€on^uned Pondidwiy, aB our possesirions in India, the Cspeof Good Hope, and the Spanish cokmies. Wbatiidtf haaRusutobopo. 
that she shall bold the bslance of desdny in hor hands? What right has she to expect she should be placed in so mouzaUe a situatioa ? 
flhsil thctobe a cumpminu n made between tho B mrinmTid us ? An we not die soldiers of Austerlitc? 

(Signod) «.NAPOLBW.» 

VOL. II. (No> 30.) E 




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18 



HISTORY OP THE WARS 



Cbap. 



}806 



BOOK. lY.' state^ of the roads inqpeded the progress of the 

French troops under Marshal Soult, scarcely 

1^* any portion of the Russian army could have es- 
caped destruction. The loss in these actions, 
on the part of the French, was admitted by 
themselves to be little short of three thousand 
men ; but that of the Russians was, on the same 
authority, stated to be twelve thousand killed, 
wounded, and taken ; eighty pieces of cannon ; 
and about twelve hundred baggage waggons* 
The retreat of the Russians was the signal for 
the French troops to enter into winter quarters, 
and the corps under Marshals Ney, Bemadotte, 
and Bessieres, were almost immediately can- 
toned on the left bank of the river Orege, while 
Marslial Soult, with the brigades of light horse, 
.were stationed on the right bank of that river 
for their protection. 

The King of Prussia, while all these disas- 
trous events were takinc place, was experiencing 
a state of suspense and embarrassment, which, 
although arising from his own culpable policy, 
could not but excite sentiments of commisera- 
tion. His queen and family, with a long train 
of attendants and nobility, sought an asylum, 
first at Dantzic, and afterwards at Memel, 
where the death of one of the young princes was 
combined with other circumstances of public 
and domestic affliction. In this brief, but deci- 
sive campaign, the successes of the French are 
almost unprecedented in the records of history* 
It cannot appear surprising that these suc- 
cesses should have operated upon a people pecu- 
liarly susceptible oi every tiling calculated to 
.excite exultotion, and to gratify national vanity^; - 
jior that the ^< illustrious head of the g^eat na- 
tion^* should, at the co^mplation of that 
superiority which he obtained in these conflicts, 
adopt freq^uently a style of decided prophecy 
and dictation, approaching to the most consum- 
mate arrogance. The forces' of an immense em* 
pire were under his uncontrouUed direction, and 
he was able to avail himself of them to their 
fullest extent. There was no opposition to his 
projects, no collision with his interests. The de« 
cisions of his cabinet, or rather of his closet, 
instead of being obliged to await the forms of 
slow deliberation, and . the fluctuation of remote 
caprice, sprang with all the bloom and vigour 
of youth into immediate action. In the coali- 
tions which he had had hitherto to encounter, 
this simplicity in the midst of complication ad- 
ministered in a great measure to his uninter- 
rupted success. In the case of Prussia!, indeed, 
concert had not been formed till ruin was almost 
absolutely incurred, and her folly was only the 
more apparent from these defective arrangements, 
which had depended solely upon herself. 

A suspension of hostile operations existed 
for some time after the battles of Pultusk and 



Golymin, arising from the difficulty of pro^ 
curing supplies, and the state of a northern 
region at this Reason of the year. Vigilance and 
preparations were on both sides connected with 
a state of comparative acquiescence ; and no 
means were omitted by either army to qualify 
themselves for those approaching shocks, to 
which Europe now looked with painful suspense 
for the decision of its fate. A general armament 
was ordered by the Emperor of Russia to be 
raised, in a certain proportion to the existing^ 

[lopulation, according to which the force to be 
evied would amount to upwards of six hun* 
dred thousand men, who were, on any requisite 
emergency, to be ready to support the troops of 
the empire. Nor was the Emperor Napoleon 
by any means less attentive to the arrange- 
ments required by his situation. Levies Were 
perpetually sent from the interior of France to 
the seat of war, and an anticipated conscrip- 
tion for the ensuing year was put in requisi- 
tion, to be trained and disciplined, though 
not immediately to be marched to the theatre 
of war. 

In the mean while Jerome Bonaparte was 
successfully, conducting the operations of the 
army in Silesia. The proclamation of the King 
of Prussia to the brave inhabitants of this pro- 
yince, though by no means attended with those 
results that in the ardour of his mind he had 
expected, was • not wholly inefiicient. By the 
exertions of the Prince of Pless, who had been 
appointed to the government* of the province, a 
considerable corps was collected from tlie troop» 
stationed in the various fortresses, which appear 
to have derived some increase of force from the 
zeal and attachment of the people at large. Th^ 
troops of the King of Wurtemberg and Bavaria 
were employed, upder Prince Jerome, to reduce 
them, and about the beginning of the year^ 
inflicted upon them a severe defeat. After this 
event, the best mode of disposing.of the remain- 
der of the army appeared to the Prince a( Plesa 
to be their rapid dispersion, by detachments int«i 
different fortresses ;. a plan which was immedi-b 
ately adopted, and in consequence of which he 
was obliged to abandon to the enemy some of 
his artillery, and a considerable portion of his 
baggage. On the 8th of January, the city of 
Breslau, which had been for some time regularly 
besieged, surrendered to the enemy, who had 
begun to batter in breach ; the magazines of this 
fortress were considerable, and its garrison, con- 
sisting of five thousand five hundred men, de- 
filed before Prince Jerome as his prisoners of 
war. The other fortresses in Silesia were in 
succession rapidly invested ; Brieg capitulated 
in a short time, and Schwiednitz soon followed 
her example. The Prince of Pless, driven from 
the positions of Frankenstein and Neurohde by 



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OF THB FRENCH REYOLU'TlON. 



19 



iSeneral Lefebvre^ took refiige ia Qlatz, and was 
soon after succeeded in the command by Baron 
Kkist^ The activity and energy of the new 
eommaadev kept all the troopa under Jerome 
Bonaparte in sufficient employment; and an 
unsuccessful attempt was made under the baron 
to surprise and retake Breslaw. - The siege of 
Niesscy before which the French Prince was 
encamped, occupied a considerable time ; and 
although this and the other fortresses were at 
length forced to a capitulation, tlie bravery and 
perseverance of the troops and commanders 
employed in their defence, redounded to the cre- 
dit of their firmness and loyalty. By the pro- 
longed . exertions in defence of these places, an 
object highly desirable was efiected — ^the deten- 
tion of a great body of forces from joining the 
French armies in Poland, and a strildn^ contrast 
was exhibited to that precipitation and baseness 
with which, in other provinces of the unfortunate 
Prussian monarchy, fortresses, impregnable for 
their situation, and furnished with every means 
of protracted defence, had been * surrendered 
almost upon the first summons. 

While Silesia was thus in a state that must 
insure its ultimate reduction, unless the fortune 
of war should exhibit a most important reverse 
on the great theatre of hostility, the French 
armies were employed in prosecuting the sieges 
of Stralsund, Colberg, and Dantzic, the pos- 
session of the latter of which cities was justly 
deemed of extreme consequence. The idea of 
the restoration of the kingdom of Poland, if it 
had been ever seriously entertained, was now 
apparently abandoned. Whether it was, that, 
having been repeatedly deceived by sovereigns, 
their pledges were no longer received by the 
inhabitants of that country with any confidence ; 
whether policy was speedily found to require the 
renunciation of a project by Bonaparte which be 
really had intended to accomplish ; or whether 
the boasted constitution of Poland had no hold 
on the poor man^s heart to nerve his arm for its 
recovery ; it appears that few of the Poles con- 
tributed to swell the French armies ; and that, 
for the restoration of Poland in its former integ- 
rity, was substituted a government of the Prus- 
sian districts of that eountrv, accompanied with 
no specious pretensions to hberty and independ- 
ence, though judiciously enough contrived as a 
provisional administration. 

The representations of Austria, whose mili- 
tary establishments had been placed by the 
Archduke Charles on a footing of high respect^- 
abiUtyj could not, it may be presumed, be safely 
neglected. She had a formidable army in 
Galltcia, convertible to the emergency of cir- 
cumstances, and capable of almost indefinite 
increase, from the existing regularity, economy^ 
and resources of her establuhments. In the 



IL 



situation of Bonaparte, the interposition of this BOOK IT* 
force might be supposed capable, not merely of < 
preventing the re-establishment of the monarchy Cbat, 
of Poland, but of cutting off his retreat to ^"""^^u^ 
France, and thus subverting for ever the fabric ^^^ 
of ambition which he had been so many years 
in raising. But the perils and labours, the 
achievements and glories, of 86 lon^ a period, 
were not thus rashly to be ventured for an enter* 
prise, which to him was of trifling importance. 
On the subject of Austria it may be further 
observed, that the exertions of the Archduke 
Charles, in his chief ndtitary superintendence 
of the empire, were incessant and invaluable. 
Those whose conclusions were generally directed 
by their wishes, and whose wishes were ardent 
for the subversion of the colossal power which 
now threatened to bestride the continent, eagerly 
inferred that these exertions on the part of 
Austria, were intended for something fldore than 
to cause her neutrality to be respected, and every 
rumour of a reverse sustained oy Bonaparte was 
followed by another, circulated with equal confi- 
dence, that the Emperor Francis was coming for- 
ward to complete the triumph of the allies. What 
might have oeen the result of those reverses, had 
they actuallv taken place, and how far they 
might have mduced the Austrian government to 
deviate from its neutrality, it is impossible to 
determine. The secrets of cabinets are explored 
with dijQBiculty, and their mere professions of 
attachment are certainly little to be relied upon. 
Austria, however, had felt what it was to fall 
under the weight of die energies of France. 
She might, at the same time, not bear so strong, 
a spirit of revenge and antipathy as was imagin- 
ed, against an enemy, who, auer over-running 
her provinces and capital, by no means inflicted 
the extremity of vengeance, and who, though he 
retained much of his conquest, also restored 
much which he could never have been compelled, 
to abandon. In addition to all tliese considera«> 
tions, the ancient disgusts between the Austrian 
and Prussian states and governments must have 
been still extremely operative ; and to this feel- 
ing of almost inborn origin, was added, by 
Austria, that retrospect of events, in the course 
of which she had been sacrificed to the timid 
policy, or rather grovelling interest, of the King 
of Prussia. Bonaparte, whose knowledge of 
human nature appeared little inferior to his 
military skill, might feel himself tolerably easy^ 
with respect to the designs of Austria, though 
providence required that her motions should oe 
observed with that vigilance which is ever alive 
to contingencies ; and in the course of this cam* 
paign, she adhered steadily to her system of 
neutrality, taking no measures that could rea- 
sonably excite oWence or alarm. 

From the battle of the Sflth of Deeemhec, 



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"tKMLVfi Aothing matarhil ocourrcHl between the ^rand 
ivnles, till the 95th of January. The French 
traeps were in eantotttnents^ and the emperor 
wad at Warsaw^ regulating every process neces"* 
iarir for the SttMly of tlieir magazines, and dlf* 
fetmg Of der and aaiAa;lion, from this point of 
hia FOsidenoe, though «yery department of his 
government. The Prince of Ponte Corvo had 
tdcen possession of Elbing, and the country 
sitiiated on the borders of tlie Baltic. Being 
kifimaed thiit a Rnsitan column had advacnoed to 
iiebstadt, beyond the Passarge, and had made 
prisoners a party of the advanced posts of 
Ae cantonments, he immediately quitted Eibing, 
and anit^ at Mfohrun^en on the ^Oth of 
January, Just as the general of brigade, Picton, 
was attacked by the Russians. A village, de- 
fended by three Russian battalions, supported 
hy three others, was immediately ordered by 
Ale marshal to be attacked, and the contest 
which ensued was extremely fierce and animated. 
The eagle of the ninth regiment of French 
infuitry was taken by the Russians, who, In the 
early part of the day, had the prospect of 
obtaining a most brilliant victory. The sense 
of disgrace in which the final loss of their stand- 
ard would have involved the French regiment, 
produced exertions which gave a turn to the 
Mrtune of tlie day. They precipitated them- 
selves with inconceivable ardour on the Rus- 
sians, who were unable to resist the shock, and 
in the rout which ensued, were obliged to aban- 
don the captured eagle. During this transac- 
tion in one part of the field, the French line 
was fonned in another, and attacked that of the 
Russians, which was advantageously ^sted on 
an eminence. The fire of the musketry was at 
what in the language of war is called point 
blank distance, where every shot takes efieet, 
and the firmness and vigour of the action ren* 
dered the result highly dubious ; when General 
Dupont suddenfy appeared, and took part in 
the engagement. The ri^t wing of the Rus^^ 
•ians was turned by this corps, and the impetu- 
osity of the attack made upon them by the 82d 
regiment was irresistible. The Russians were 
obliged to fly, and were follewed till the 
advance of night put an end to the pursuit. 
Several howitxers were left by them upon the 
field of battle, with about twelve hundred killed 
and wounded; and thirteen hundred Russians 
were made prisoners of war. 

About the close of the month of January, 
Bonaparte quitted Warsaw, and joined his 
army ; the corps of Marshal Ney was formed 
in order of battle on the left, that of Soult 
on the right, and that of Augereau in the cen* 
tre, the imperial guard constitutingthe reserve. 
Gutstadt was the centre of the Russian ma- 
gaaines, and erdera wmo given to Marshal 



Soult to maroh towards it, and to make himself 
master of the bridge df Bergffried. General 
Guyot was accordingly dispatched with the 
light cavalry to Gutstadt, where he suoceeded 
hi capturing a great part of the Russian bag- 
gage, with sixteen hundred prisoners, and after 
an obstinate conflict the bridge of Bergfried was 
taken. Marshal Ney, in the meantime, made 
himself master of a wood, which covered the 
right wing of the Russians. An important posi- 
tion was gained also by the division ot St. 
Hilaire; and several squadrons of dragoons, 
under the Duke of Berg, cleared the plain of 
the Ruffians in front. On the ensnaing morning, 
the dlflbrent corps of the French army were 
early on their march towards Landsberg, Heils-» 
burg, and Wormdit. In the coune of tiiis dav* 
two regiments 'Of Russian infantry were nearly 
all destroyed or taken, near Glandau, together 
with their cannon and colours; and Hofi; a 
place of such importance that ten battalions 
were appointed by the Russians to defend- it, 
fell into the bands of the enemy. 

These contests occurred early in the month 
of February, and the evening of the 6th came 
on while both armies were in presence of each 
other : during the night, the Russians resumed 
their retreat, and took np their position behind 
Eylau. At a short distanoe from this place there 
is a flat, at the summit of an eminence, which, as 
it commands the entrance into the town, it was 
deemed necessary by the French Emperor to 
gain. The Russian troops, who were in posses* 
sion of this commanding position, were thrown 
into considerable confusion, by an attack made 
upon them under the direction of Marshal 
Soult; but, by a well-timed and admirably-con* 
ducted charge from a body of the Russian 
cavalry, some of tlte French battalions thus 
employed were completely thrown into disorder. 
During this vicissitude of fortune, the result of 
which was the continued possession of the 
eminence by the Russians, the troops came to 
action in Rylau. Several regiments had been 
posted in a church and church-yard, which were 
maintained by the Russians, with extraordinary 




division of Le Grand passed the night in front 
of the Village ; that of St. Hilaire was on tiie 
right; Augereau was posted on the left; the 
corps of Davoust began its march early on the 
ensuing morning of the 8th, with a view to fall 
on the left of the Russians ; while that of Ney 
was on its march to outflank them on the right. 
At day-break the attack commenced, on the part 
of the Russians, by a cannonade, directed 
against the division of St. Hilaire. Bonaparte 
commanded in person at Eylaa, and stationed 



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himself at the church, >vhich had been so obstin- 
ately defended the preceding day, whence he 
gave orders for the corps of Augereau to ad- 
vance with forty pieces of cannon, and to can- 
nonade the eminence which had before been un- 
successful y attempted. The Russian army was 
formed in columns, and only at the distance of 
half a cannon shot from the assailants ; every 
ball took effect. To terminate the carnage 
occasioned by this dreadful cannonade, the Rus- 
sians attempted to surround the left wing of the 
enemy. The corps under Davoust were at this 
moment perceived by the Russian commander to 
be in a situation highly favourable to an attack, 
and stood exposed to the danger of being fallen 
upon by the whole force of the Russian army ; 
to prevent the disaster that must inevitably have 
ensued, Augereau advanced in columns across 
the plain to attack the centre of the Russians, 
and thus to divide their attention. The division 
of St. Hilaire approached on the rieht, and was 
endeavouring to iorm a junction wiui Augereau : 
during the manoeuvres necessary for effecting 
this object, a heavy fall of snow intercepted the 
view of the French divisions ; their point of 
direction was lost ; and the columns, deviating to 
the left, were exposed for a considerable time to 
extreme uncertamty and danger. On the con- 
clusion of the storm, which lasted for more than 
half an hour, the Grand Duke of Berg, immedi- 
ately perceiving the destruction to which the 
French columns jvere exposed, and' from which 
nothing but the boldest manoeuvres could rescue 
them, instantly advanced at the head of his 
cavalry, with Marshal Bessieres and the imperial 
guard, to the support of St. Hilaire's division, 
and attacked the main body of the Russians : 
by this vigorous and unexpected movement the 
Russians were thrown into disorder, and sus- 
tained the most dreadful slaughter ; two of their 
lines were penetrated, and the third was preserv- 
ed entire only by the support derived from an 
adjoining wood. This splendid and successful 
operation was, however, oy no means decisive 
of the fate of the day ; the Russian army still 
resisted, with a firmness and perseverance 
which rendered the contest long doubtful : for 
twelve hours, three hundred mouths of fire were 
scattering death in every direction on the scene 
of conflict and horror. The success of Marshal 
Davoudt at length gave a preponderance to 
the scale on the side of the French armv ; his 
march had been retarded by several falls of snow, 
and the junction of his columns proved an affair 
of extreme difficulty, but at length he was 
enabled to out-flank the Russians, and to gain 
possession of the level on the summit of the 
eminence. This po9ition was disputed with all 



the vigour and ardour of military combat ; and BOOK IT 
after the Russians had been obliged in the first ■ 

instance to abandon it, they attempted to recover Chap. IJ. 
their lost ground with a vehemence bordering ^v^^v-"^^ 
upon rage, and a perseverance approaching to IqOS 
desperation ; their reiterated attempts were, 
however, found to be ineffectual, and they w^e 
obliged finally to quit the field, and to secure 
as orderly a retreat as possible. 

The battle of Eylau appears to have been 
one of the most vigorous and obstinately con- 
tested battles in the history of the war; it 
was celebrated at Warsaw and at Paris, with 
the usual accompaniments of triumph, and the 
loss of the Russians was stated in the French 
bulletin at seven thousand killed, twelve thou- 
sand prisoners, and an equal number put 
hots de combat. On the same authority it is 
asserted that the Russians lost forty-five 
pieces of cannon, and eighteen colours ; and 
that the French Emperor, neither in this, nor 
in any other battle where he commanded, ever 
lost any cannon. The loss of the French was 
admitted in their own accounts to be very severe, 
and General Benningsen estimates that loss at 
thirty thousand killed, twelve thousand wound- 
ed, and two thousand prisoners !^ That the 
victory rested with the French can scarcely be 
doubted, as the possession of the town, and of 
the eminence which commanded it, remained 
indisputably with them, and they continued on 
the field of battle for some days after the Rus- 
sians had found it expedient to retreat behind 
the river Pregel. That no considerable perma- 
ment or immediate advantages resulted from 
their success is equally clear, as, instead of 
passing the Pregel in pursuit of a routed army, 
and pushing on to Koningsberg, they were 
content to retrace their steps to their former can- 
tonments. 

The havoc resulting to both armies from 
this sanguinary contest, occasioned great exer- 
tions to he made for reinforcements. The Em- 
peror Alexander and the Archduke Constantine 
not long after joined the Russian army with 
upwards of sixty thousand troops ; and the 
efforts of Napoleon to repair his loss, and accu- 
mulate a force equal to the great struggle which 
still remained, were unremitting. The greater 
part of the 8th corps of the grand army, which 
had been employed under General Mortier, in 
the north of Germany, was ordered to march to 
the more critical theatre of hostility ; and from 
the different recruiting stations tliroughout 
France, and the conquered countries, rein- 
forcements were continually dispatched to join 
the imperial standard on the Vistula. 

The French army now bent its efforts with 



VOL. II. 



* Russian official account of ilie Battle of Eylau. 
(No. 39.) F 



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HISTOttY OP THE WARS 



CUAP. II. 



18M 



BOOK IV. increased vigour against the fortress of Dantzic. 
This place had been for some time invested, 
but the siege was now ttrged with extreme pres- 
sure and perseverance. The garrison consisted 
of sixteen thousand men, under the command 
of the Prussian Genera:! KaUereuth, an officer of 
tried loyalty and skill. The troops who sur- 
rounded the place conssted, in a great degree, 
of the auxiliaries of France, of aijBTerent pre- 
judices, habit, and languages, but whose efforts, 
under the direction of Marshal Lefebvre, were 
effectually combined by a happy union of en- 
couragement and discipline, and who, in repell- 
ing the sorties of the oesieged, and in advanc- 
ing the progress of the works, displayed aston- 
ishing skill and alacrity. The exertions of the 
commander of the fortress were, oii the other 
hand, no less striking and meritorious ; alid his 
vigilance and ener^ in this situation of high 
responsibilitv were m incessant operation. On 
the 24th of April the bombardment begun. On 
the night of the 20th, Marshal Lefebvre, having 
conceived the garrison to be sufficiently weak- 
ened, and the fortifications so much impaired as 
to justify the attempt, ordered the storming of 
the fortress. The governor, however, was well 
prepared to resist the assailants, whose strata- 
gems were unable to deceive him with regard 
to the real point of attack, and repelled the 
effort made by the enemy, with the most dread- 
ful carnage. This overthrow was far from pre- 
venting a renewal of the enterprise, and no 
less than three separate attempts were made 
on this fatal night to get possession of the 
citadel. The skill of the commander, however, 
and the exertions of the -garrison, completely 
defeated each : after the loss of an immense 
number of lives the attempt was abandoned, and 
the assailants were obliged to take shelter under 
cover of their works. — An armistice 6f four 
hours was soon after agreed upon between the 
hostile commanders, and the work of destruc- 
tion was suspended by a solemn pause for the 
burial of the dead. The struggles of the gar- 
rison were not viewed with indifference by the 
commanders of the allied armies, and two 
attempts were made to throw succours into 
the fortress and to raise the siege, but both 
of them without success. The moment was 
now therefore rapidly approaching, in which 
all the valour and exertions of the garrison 
would be unavailing; nearly a thousand houses 
had been destroyed in the town, and the dis- 
tress of the inhabitants was extreme. The 
troops, exhausted by a series of efibrts, inter- 
rupted only by short periods of repose, were 
not only thinned in numbers, but scarcely able 
to support any longer those privations and 
difficulties which daily increased. The works 
of the enemy were, in the meantime, proceed- 



ing with rapidity ; the covered way was now 
completed ; the preparations for passing the fosse 
were finished, and on the 21st of May every 
thing was prepared for the assault — when Greue- 
ral ICalkreuth intimated to the French conw 
mander that he was willing to capitulate, on the' 
same Conditions as he had himself formerly 
granted to the garrison of Mayence. This pro- 
position was acceded to without hesitation } 
and on the 27th of May, the garrison, reduced 
from sixteen thousand to nine thousand men, 
with their general at their head, marched out 
of the fortifications with all the honours of war, 
and were permitted to go wherever their incli^ 
nation and convenience dictated, engaging only 
not to serve against France for die ensuing 
twelve months. Dantzic, at the time of its 
surrender, possessed eight hundred pieces of 
artillery, and magazines and stores of every 
description. Its principal advantage, however, 
to the conqueror, lay in its constituting a place 
of the first order, for strength, on the left wing 
of the grand army, ifThile the centre was sup- 
ported by Thorne, and the right by Praga. 

But it is time to advert to other incidents 
of the extended and destructive hostility in 
which Europe was now involved. The opera- 
tions of the 8th corps of the grand French army 
in the north of Crermany, under General Mortier, 
will be long remembered ; their exactions and 
depredations on the devoted towns and terri- 
tories of this country, left indelible horror on 
the minds of the unresisting inhabitants. After 
a system of violence and rapine had been suffi- 
ciently organized to proceed with little military 
impulse in Hamburgh, Lubeck, and the various 
other places, which, in their turn, became tlie 
victims of imperial plunder, the corps of Mor- 
tier was ordered to proceed against Swedish 
Pomerania, and to co-operate with Lefebvre 
in the siege of Dantzic. The attempts of Bo- 
naparte to detach the King of Sweden from the 
confederacy had been such as would ha^e 
seduced or terrified to his purpose men of less 
firmness and perseverance than were possessed 
by this young monarch, whose ardour however, 
it will be admitted, arose on some occasions to 
something not very different from frenzy, and 
who occasionally appeared as intemperate as he 
had been persevering. The failure of the over- 
tures of the French government was, in January, 
foUowedbytheseizureof Anclam. GrissewaMwas 
soon taken by the French troops, and Stralsund 
itself was invested. The Swedish army at Stral- 
sund consisted of thirteen thousand Swedes, and 
four thousand Prussians ; these the kingwas almost 
in daily expectation of seeing joined by a very 
considerable British force, which might qualify 
him to take the field for active operations against 
the enemy^ instead of confining himself withia 



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OF THE PHENCH REVOLUTION. 



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the ivalls of a fortress. A force was not long 
after landed in Ruffen and Straslund, consisting 
of several tbou^tand foreign troops, under a Bri- 
tish commander, and constituting the first diyi- 
sion of the expected armament ; but the arrival . 
of these reinforcements gave no immediate in- 
terest to the affairs of the north, and circum- 
stfloiceB very speedily occurred which materially 
changed the aspect of the continent. 

Towards the close of the year 1806, war 
had been declared by tlie Porte against Russia. 
The comlttct of the Russian goyernment with 
respect to the Crimea and Georgia, its reiterated 
attempts to recruit its force in the seven islands 
from the Turkish provinces in the Adriatic, and 
the interference of Russia in the provincial 
administrations of Wallachia and Moldavia, 
were stated in a manifesto, published by the 
cabinet of Constantinople, as the grounds of 
this hostility. The . troops of the Asiatic pro- 
vinces now poured into the capital, the people 
were animated by the exhortations of the ulemas, 
and the forms and influence of an impressive 
superstition, to resort to the standard of Ma- 
homet, which was displayed against its mortal 
enemies ; and an army was ordered to be col- 
lected under the Grand Vizier, with all possi- 
ble expedition. The straits of the Black Sea 
were closed against all neutrals, Tenedos was 
put in a respectable state of defence, and the 
passage of thei Dardanelles committed to the 
vigilance and guardianship of a Turkish squad- 
ron. In the meanwhile, the Russians were 
advancing in considerable strength, under Ge- 
neral Michelson, through Moldavia and Wal- 
lachia. The arms of Russia met with little 
resistance in these provinces. Choczim, Jassy, 
Bucharest, and various other places, fell an easy 
prev, and magasines were established in them 
to facilitate operations, which might be required 
a|^nst the more vital parts of the Turkish em- 
pire. To promote the success of Russia, and 
oblige the Turks to accede to terms of accom- 
modation, by which a force would be released 
from this southern warfare, and enabled to 
swell tihte Russian army in Poland, a British 
fleet, under the command of Sir John Duck- 
worth, advanced through the Dardanelles, a^d 
on the 20th of March appeared off Constanti- 
nople. Instead of producing accommodation 
between Russia and the Porte, a new power 
only was added to the list of England^s enemies ; 
commercial relations with Turkey were, of course, 
immediately closed ; the British agents and 
settlers in the Turkish territories were exposed 
to considerable annoyance, and the seizure and 
sequestration of English property at Smyrna, 
Salonica, and other places, were ordered by the 
Porte, with a promptitude which precluded all 
opportunity for precaution^ The power of 



180a 



Frapce over the divan became materially BOOK IV. 

strengthened ; Sebastiani, the French ambas- • 

sador at Constantinople, was consulted on al- C)hap. il 
most every emergency, and his influence in the ^ 
Turkish capital became predominant and irre- 
sistible. In this war between Russia and the 
Porte, the former wa^ generally successful, and 
to add to the disasters of the Turks, an insur- 
rection arose during its progresa^ owing to some 
new regulations in the dress and discipline. of 
the troops, which teirminated in the deposition 
and violent death of the Grand Seignior Selim 
III. and the proclamation of Mustapha IV. 

By sea, the Russians were equally success- 
ful as by land, and in an engagement between, 
the Russian and Turkish fleets, fought 6n the> 
1st of July, near the entrance to the Darda- 
nelles, the f urkishsquadron, consisting of eleveti> 
sail of the line, was nearly annihilated. Cir- 
cumstances, however, occurred, which speedily 
led to a termination of these hostilities. 

After th^ battle of Eylau, and during the 
siege of Dau^tzic, no exertions were omitted by 
Bonaparte which could add security to, his po- 
sitions. The left wing of his army was stationed 
on the Nogat, a river branching from the Vis- 
tula near Marienberg, and its position reached 
over Elbing and Brunsbeig, along the left bank 
of the Passarge, up to Wormdit. The centre 
was placed somewhat '.upon the rear, round 
Liebstadt and Morengen. From Gutstadt the 
army stretched itself above Allensrtein ; and the 
right wing preserved a con^munication with the 
left of Massena*s anny, whose right was on the 
Bug, and thence to the mouth of the Narew. 
The right wing of the allied army was stationed 
near the Pische Hafi^, and stretched tilong the 
right bank of the Passarge to Wormdit. Thi^ 
wing consisted of Prussian troops, admirable 
for their loyalty, experience, and discipline. 
At Wormdit the position of the Russian army 
commenced, and stretched .over Heilsburg, 
Bartenst^n, and SchippendaU. Each wing, 
as well as the centre of the Russian army, had 
before it an advanced-guard, and the len wing 
was commanded by Hettman PlatofF, whose ac- 
tivity often led him to push his parties to Ortel9- 
burg, occasioning not unfrequent skirmishes, 
white, in every other part, there prevailed silent 
vigilance, and solemn preparation. A consi- 
derable corps of Russians was also stationed not 
far from the Narew. On the pait of the French, 
tliere were also various distrioutions of foroe, in 
addition to the grand army, whose positions 
. have been mentioned. The corps employed in 
the siege of Colberg were the CSermans' contin- 
gent and Italians, with a certain number of 
French. In Silesia, the troops of Bavaria an^l 
Wurtemburg were employea in reducing tha 
fortresses of Ncisse, Cosel, Glatz, and Silber* 



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HISTORY OP THE WARS 



CiuP. If. 



1806 



BOOKJV. berg. Marshal Brune vtas cellectiiig an army 
of^obserTation, to eonsist of Spaniards, French- 
men^ and Dutch, near Magdeburg : another 
was formed on the borders of Italy and Ger- 
many, connected nvith a numerous force under 
Marmont, in Dalmatia. The surrender of Dant- 
sic added considerably to the disposable force 
of the Fr^ich, but did not appear to offer any 
immediate and effectual inducement to Bona- 
parte to quit his almost impregnable positions. 
T^o mighty armies, however, when the season 
was favourable for their operations, could not be 
long, nearly in view of each other, without 
coming to the alt^native of pacification, or 
sanguine and destructive hostility ; and as the 
confidence still entertained by eacli party pre- 
vented any successful attempts at negociations, 
circumstances soon occurred which drew on an 
obstinate and decisive conflict. 

On the 5th of June the grand French 
army was attacked by the allies at different points 
of the line. On the right of the allies, and the 
left of the French, twelve Russian and Prussian 
regiments, forming two divisions, attacked the 
tete du pont of Spanden, on the Passarge, which 
Was defended by a regiment of light infantry, 
strongly covered by intrenchments and redoubts. 
Seven diflerent times they were repulsed, and 
as often renewed the attack. But immediately 
after the last assault, they were charged by a 
regiment of French dragoons, that had come 
up to the assistance of the regiment of infantry, 
and forced to abandon the field of battle, with a 
severe loss of killed and woimded. Two divi- 
sions, belonging to the centre of the allied army, 
attacked, at the same time, the tete du pont of 
Lomitten, which was defended by a brigade of 
•a corps of Marshal Soult; and after a gallant 
• struggle, the Rusnan general, with eleven hun- 
dred of his troops, fell in the action, which 
terminated in favour of the French. At the 
same time, General Benningsen, with the Grand 
Duke Constantine, the imperial guard, and 
three divisions of the other troops, attacked 
the French line at Aldkirken, Gutstadt, and 
Wolfsdorf, and after a severe contest, obliged 
the French general to fall back to Akendorf. 
On the following day, the allies attacked the 6th 
corps of the French army, under the command 
of Marshal Soult and General Marchand, at 
Deppen, on the Passarge. The Russians, in the 
action of this day, lost two thousand killed, and 
more thto three thousand wounded, while the 
loss of the French, according to their own 
state^ient, was extremely trivial, with the ex- 
ception of two hundred and fifty prisoners, 
taken by the Cossacks, who, in the morning of 
the attack, got into the rear of the French army. 
Bonaparte, informed of the movements of 
the allies, left Fiukenstein on the evening of 



the 5th of June, to place himself at the head of 
the French army, and on the morning of the 
8th advanced to Gutstadt, with the corps of 
Marshals Ney and Ijannes, accompanied by 
his guard, and the cavalry of reserve. Part 
of the rear-guard of the Russian army, com- 
prising ten thousand cavalry, and fifteen thou- 
sand infantry, took a position at Glattau, and 
attempted to dispute his passage; but the 
Grand Duke of Berg, after some skilful manoeu- 
vres, drove the Russians from all their posi- 
tions ; and the French, after taking a thousand 
prisoners, entered Gutstadt, sword in hand, at 
eight o'clock in the evening. On the 10th, the 
French army moved towards Heilsberg, and on 
its advance to this place, came up with the rear- 

fuard of the allied army, consisting of from 
fteen to eighteen thousand cavalry, and several 
lines of infantry. An attack was immediately 
commenced by a division of the French dra- 

foons, and a brigade of light cavalry. The 
'rench were repulsed again and again, and as 
often renewed the attack. At two o^clock, the 
corps under Marshal Soult was formed, two 
divisions marched to the right, and a third to 
the left, to seize on the edge of a wood, the 
occupation of which was necessary in order to 
support the left of the cavalry. Reinforcements 
of both infantry and cavalry were sent to the 
rear-guard from the main body of the Russian 
army, which was posted at Heilsbere, and re- 
peated efforts were made by the Russians, sup-*, 
ported by more than sixty pieces of cannon^ to 
maintain their position before that town ; but all 
their exertions proved nnavailing, and at nine 
o'clock in the evening, the French troops found 
themselves under the Russian intrenchments. 
The fusileerd of the French guard, commanded 
by General Savary, were put in motion to sus- 
tain the division of Verdier ; and some of the 
' corps of infantry of the reserve, under Marshal 
Lannes, attacked the Russians at the close of 
ihe day, and succeeded in cutting off their com- 
munication with Lansberg. Bonaparte passed 
the 11th on the field, in front of Heilsberg. 
He therie drew up the different corps and divi- 
sions of the army in order of battle, that the 
•war might be terminated at once by a decisive 
engagement. The grand army of the Russians 
was assembled at this place, where the maga- 
zine* were established, and where they occupied 
a position, strong by nature, and further strength- 
ened by the labours of four months. At four ia 
the afternoon, Bonaparte ordered Marshal Da- 
voust to charffe in front, and push forward the 
left wing of his corps — a movement which 
brought him upon the tower Alia, and blocked 
up the road from Eylau. To every corps of the 
army was assigned its proper station, and thu9 
the Russians found themselves blockaded in. 

5 



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OF fHB FRENCH KETOLUTION. 



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their intrenched camp, and ofl^red battle on the 
ground which the]f themselTes had chosen. At 
ue moment when Ijie French were making their 
dispositions, the Russians shewed themselves 
ranged in columns in the ihidst of their intrench- 
ments ; but at ten o^clock at night they began 
to pass file Alia, abandoning the whole of the 
country to their left, and feaidng their maga- 
xines and wounded to the disposal of the enemy. 
In the different actions, from the 5th to the 12th, 
according to the French accounts, which afford 
the only official records on the suhject of this 
short campaign, the Russian army was deprived 
of about thirty thousand fighting men ; the 
number of wounded, left prisoners in the hands 
of tiie enemy, amounted to between three and 
four thousand, while the loss of the French, as 
stated by themselves, amounted to no more than 
seven hundred killed, two thousand two hundred 
wounded, and three hundred prisoners. On the 
12th, at four in the morning, the French army- 
entered Heilsberg, where they found in the 
mansines several thousand Quintals of gprain, 
and an immense ^uantitv of oifferent kinds of 
provisions. A division of dragoons, and a bri- 
gade of light cavalry, pUrsudl the Russians to 
3ie right bank of the AJla. In the mean time, 
the light corps of the French army advanced in 
various directions, in order to pass the Russians, 
and, by cutting off their retreat to Koningsberg, 
to nlace thanselves between the Russian army 
ana their magazines. At five o'clock in the 
afternoon of the same day, the French armv had 
advanced to Eylau, and taken up their head- 
quarters at that place. Here the fields were no 
longer covered ^th ice and snow, but on the 
contrary presented one of the most beautiftil 
scenes in nature. The country was every -where 
adorned with woods, intersected by lakes, and 
enlivened by handsome villages. On the ISth, 
while die Grand Duke of Berg, and the Marshals 
Soult and Davoust, had ' orders to manceuvre 
before Koningsberg, Bonaparte, with the corps of 
Ney, Lannes, Mortier, the imperial guard, and 
the first corps, commanded by General Victor, 
advanced to . Friedland. On the same day, the 
9th regiment of hussars entered that town, but 
was driven out of it again by three thousand 
Russian cavalry. 

On the I4th, the anniversary of the battle of 
Marengo, ct circumstance of which the French 
Emperor did not fail to remind his troops, and 
wUch naturally produeed the most enthusiastic 
recollections and .exertions, the grand struggle 
took place : Ney was on the right wing, sup- 
ported by the dragoons of Latour Maubourg ; 
Lannes' in the centre, with the dragoons of 



Lahousaye behind him, and the Saxon cuiras- IIOOKIV« 
siers ; Mortier was oh the left wing, supported ■ 

by the cuvalry of Grouchy ; and the grand re- Chap^IL 
serve was formed of the corps of General Vic- '^'^^Ci^ 
tor, and the imperial guard. The Russian army ^^^ 
was fully deployed, the left wing extending ' 
to the town of Friedland, and its right reach- 
ing a mile and a half in the opposite direction. 
The position taken by Greneral JBenningsen on 
the left hank of the Alia, presented to the eye 
the appearance of one continued plain, but it 
was intersected by a deep ravine full of water, 
and almost impassable. This ravine ran in a 
line between Domnow and Friedland, where it 
formed a lake tt> the left of that place, and 
separated tlie right winff of the Russians 
from the centre. A thick wood, at' the dis*- 
tance of about a mile and a half from Fried- 
land, on more elevated ground, fringed the 
plain of the Alia, nearly in the form of a semi- 
circle, except at its extremity at the left, where 
there was an open space between the wood and 
the river. In the front of the wood, about a 
mile from the town, and nearly opposite the 
centre of the army, was the small village of 
Helnrichdorff. The field of battle lay between 
the left of this village and the Alia, to the 
south of Friedland.* Bonaparte, having re- 
connoitred the position of the enemy, deter- 
mined to attempt the town of Friedland ; ahd 
having changed lus front, ordered the extremity 
of the right wing, under Mardial Ney, to ad- 
vance to the attack. At half past" five in the 
morning the battle commenced; the firing of 
twenty cannon from a battery forming the signal 
of attack. At that moment, the division under 
General Marchand, co-operating with Marshal 
Ney, advanced sword in hand. When the 
Russians observed Ney to have quitted the wood 
by which he had been supported, they endea- 
voured to turn his left by several regiments of 
cavalry, preceded by a multitude of Cossacks, 
but owing to the firmness of the dragoons of 
Latour Maubourg, they were repulsed. At tUs 

Seriod of the battle the Russian cavalry made an 
npetuous and successful attack upon the 
enemy's cuirassiers, and pursued them as frur 
as Heinrichdorff.f In the mean time a bat- 
tery' was erected by General Victor, in his 
centre, and pushed on four hundred paces 
by General Lennermont, to the extreme an- 
noyance of the Russians, and which, by attract- 
ing their attention to its destructive fire, de- 
ranged those manceuvres, which might other- 
wise have defeated the operations of Ney. The 
Russian troops which attacked the right wing 
of this general were received upon t)Q^ point 



VOL. n. 



* Rebtion de la Campagne de Polog^e, par un t6moine oculaire. 

4 General Benningfeea's Dispatch, dstsd WdUau, June Idtb, 1907. 
(No. 890 Q 



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niSTOltT OF Tfi« WARS 



BOOK IV. of the bayonet, and driven into the river Alia, 
■ ' ■ "■ where thousands perished in the stream, while 
CiiAP. II. numbers escaped by swimming. When the left 
^"■^^v**^ wing of Ney, however, had nearly reached the 
1807 lYorks which surrounded the town, it was ex- 
posed to the most imminent peril. The impe- 
rial Russian guard, which had been here con- 
cealed in ambuscade^ suddenly advanced upon 
the French, with an impetuosity which threw 
them into disorder, and had nearly rendered the 
efforts of the marshal abortive. The division of 
Dupont, however, which foitned the right of 
the reserve, marched against the Russian guard, 
who performed prodigies of firmness and va- 
lour, but they were unable to resist this effort 
,of the enemy ; several other bodies were sent 
from the centre of the Russian army for ibe 
defence of the position of Friedland ; but the 
iikipetuosity, and the prompt and sidlful opera- 
tions of the assailants, supported by an im- 
mense artillery, triumphed over all opposition. 
Friedland was taken, and its streets filled with 
the bodies of the dead. The centre, under 
Marshal Lannes, was now engaged, and the 
Russians made several attempts against this 
corps, similar to those which nad failed on the 
right wing ; but the repeated efforts of Russian 
bravery were unavailing, and served only to 
continue for a longer period the work of car- 
' fiHge. The battle k^ted from half past five in the 
-morning till seven at night. Both sides fought 
with extreme intrepidity and obstinacy, and 
tiie superior number of the French, with an 
impetuous * direction of nearly all their force, 
! towards the close of the day, upon the centre 
of the Russians, decided the fate of the con- 
test. The Russians estimated their own loss 
at not less than ten thousand men. In the 
■ space of eleven days, the Russians lost no less 
than twenty -seven generals, upwards of eigh- 
teen hundred oflScers killed and wounded, and 
forty thousand men.* On the part of the French, 
the loss did not exceed five hundred killed, 
and three thousand wounded. Eighty pieces 
of cannon, a great number of caissons, and 
several colours, fell into the hands of tiie con- 
querors.f Night did not prevent the pursuit 
. of the Russians, who were followed till deven 
o'clock, after' which, those of the columns 
which were cut off endeavoured to avail them- 
selves of the fords over the Alia to pass that 
rivo*, yfflich exhibited to the victors, on the en- 
B^S ^^y^ noarks of the total discomfiture of 
the idlied army. On the 15th the Russians con- 
• tinned their retreat io Wehlau, at the con- 



fluence of the Alia and the Fregel, where the 
columns of the 't^rench speedily arrived, and 
obliged them to withdraw to the banks of the 
Niemen. 

Near this river several newly formed divi-» 
sions of the Russian troops had arrived ; and 
General Benningsen still cherished the expecta- 
tion that he should soon be agadn able to aovance 
and to recover from the «nemy the advantagies 
which he had obtained, t This expectation was 

liowever grievously disappointed, for on the 
18th of June the retreatmg army approached 
the town of Tilsit, and aft^ transporting it^ 
hea'vj baggage across the Niemen, stationed 
itself on the great plain on the right of the town. 
All the bridges were destroyed immediately 
after the passage of the Russian troops, and aU 
the magazines on the Alia were burnt or cast 
into the river. On the 16th Bonaparte threw » 
bridge over the Pregel, and took up a position on 
the eastern side of that river with his army. The 
ddfeat of Friedland served as a signal for th^ 
evacuation of Kooingsberg, and the garrison 
under Gen. Lestoq succeeded, with extreme 
difficulty, in joining the main body of the Rus- 
sian army, while the fortress opened its gates 
on the 16th to the French corps under Marshal 
Soult. At this place were found several hundred 
thousand, quintals of corn, more than twenty 
thousand wounded Russians and Prussians, and 
all the arms and ammunition that had been 
sent to the Russians by Eneland, including a 
hundred and sixty thousand muskets that had 

. not been landed. 

On the IQth, at two o^clock in the 
afternoon, Bonaparte, with his guard, entered 
Tilsit. The Russians, pursued after the battle 
of Friedland by the Grand Duke of Berg, at 
the head of the greater part of the light cavalry, 
continued their retreat eastward. The Emperor 
of Russia, who had remained for three weeks 
with his Prussian Majesty at Tilsit, left that 
place along with the king in great haste ; and 

• on the same day a suspension of hostilities Was 
proposed to the chiefs of the French army by 
the Russian Commander-in-chief. In conse- 

Sience of this proposition an armistice was oon^ 
uded at Tilsit, on the 33d, by which it was 
settled, that hostilities should not be resumed 
on either side without a month^s previous notice ; 
that a similar armistice should be concluded 
between the French and the Prussian armies, 
in the course of five days ; that plenipotentiaries 
should be instantly appointed by the different 
parties, for the salutary work of . pacificatioi^ 



* Lord Hutcbinsoa'B Speedi in the Biitish Senate, Fefarufiry 8, 1808* 

t Seventy-niafh French Bulletin, dated WeblaU) June 17, 1807. 

t Oenenl BepniDgsen's Letter to the Emperor of Rusoa, dated Sduonipischkeni June 17th, 199T* 



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OF THB TASNCH BEVOLU^ION. 



27 



fUkd that there should he an immediate exchange 
pf prisoners. 

No sooner had the armistice received its rati* 
fication than Bonaparte put forth a proclamation 
to his troops, congratulating them on their bril- 
liant successes, and pronouncing them worthy of 
their emperor and of themselyes.^ 

On the 35th, jin- interview took place on 
the Niemen, between the Emperor Napoleon 
and the Emperor Alexander ; at one o'clock, 
Bonaparte, aoc<Hnpanied by a number of his 
genmds, embarked on the banks ot the Niemen 
in a boat prepared tar the purpose. They . 
proceeded to the middle of the xiver, where 
jQeneral Lariboissiere, commanding the artil- 
lery of the guard, had caused a raft to be 
placed and a paviUon erected upon it, close to 
which was another raft and pavilion for his 
majesty's suite. At the same moment the Em- 
peror Alexander set out from the right bank, 
accompanied by the Grand Duke Condtantine, 
General Benningsen, and a number of the princi- 
p^ad officers of his staff. The two boats arrived 
at the same instant, and the two emperors 
jembraced each oth^- a^ soon as they oet foot on 
the raft. They entered the saloon together, 
and remained there during two hours. The 
loonference having terminate with. the happiest 
result, the two emperors embarked, each m his 
boat, and returned .to the opposite shores. 
** The vast numh» of persons belonging to 
each army, who flocked to both banks of the 
river to view this scene, rendered it more 
interesting, as the spectators were brave men, 
who came from the extremities of the world.f" 
.While arrangements were nuiking for the pre- 
liminaries, thetQwn of Tilsit became the abode 
of these imperial personages, who, together 
with the King of FTussia, cultivated mutual 
intercourse and politeness. Entertainments were 

S*ven in rapid succession. The troops of 
arshal Davoust were reviewed by Bonaparte, 
in the presence of his brother sovereigns, and 



1807 



occasioned exchauges of . compliments in the BOOK IV. 
different parties, probably with feelings of a - 
very opposite description. The guards of the 
respective monarchs, who occupied appropriate 
apartments in the town, vied with thmr sove^ 
reigns in marks of respectful attention. A 
magnificent dinner was given by the guards of 
Napoleon to those of Alexander and Frederick- 
William ; at this entertainment they exchaufi^* 
ed uniforms, and were seen in the streets m 
motley attire, parUy Russian, partly Prussian, 
and partly French. During these interviews 
and attempts at conciliation, to which policy 
was presumed to be as much conducive as 
humanity, the arrangements of pacification 
were completed, and on the 9th of July ^ 
treaty of peace between Russia and France 
wasratifica. The two emperors then separated 
with mutual expressions of attachment, and 
after exchanging the decorations of their respec- 
tive orders. On the same day peace was signed 
between France and Prussia. 

By the latter treaty Prussia was deprived 
of all her territories on the left bank pf the Elbe, 
and of all her Polish provinces, except thosis 
situated betwixt Pomerania and the Newmartce, 
and ancient Prussia, to the north of the little 
xiver Netz. The elector, now become the King 
of Saxony, in virtue of a treaty entered into 
with the Emperor Napoleon, took also the titfe 
of Duke of Warsaw, and was to have free com^ 
munication, by a military road, Jbetween Saxony 
And his new dominions, which were to consist of 
Thorn, Warsaw, and the rest of Prussian Poland, 
except that part which is to the north of the 
Bug, and which, under the idea of establishing 
Jiatural boundaries between . Russia and the 
duchy of Warsaw, was incorporated with the 
dominions of the Emper.or Alexander. Dantzic 
was in future to be an independent town : east 
Friesland was added to the kingdom of Holland : 
a new idngdom, under the cfesignation of the 
kingdom of Westphalia, was formed of the pro- 



• PROCLAMATION 

Of the Emperor and King to the Grand Army, 

<* SoLBiziiB,— On fhe 5th of Jtdie we woe attacked in our omtonments by tiie Riudan anny. The cntfay mistook the 
tniMi of our inactivi^. He found, too late, that our lepoie was that of the lion— Jie regrets having disturbed it. 

« In the affidrs of Gutstadt, Heilsbuig, and the ever memorable one at Friedland^-in ten days* campaign, in short, we took 
one hundred and twenty pieces of cannon, seven standards; killed, wounded, or took sixty thousand Russians ; and carried off all the enemy's 
knagacinca and hospitals. Koningsbog, with the three hundred vessels tet were there, kdcn with all sorts of ammmiitinn, and am 
fauiSidred and sixty thousand fbsils, sent by England to aim our enemies, all fiell into our hands. 

** From the banks of the Vistula we have reached the borders of tiie Niemen, with the iB{^ty of the eagle. You 
celebnted at Ansteriitz the annivenaiy of Ihe Coranation^You celebrated this year, in an appropriate manner, the battle of Marengo, whidi 
put a period to the second coalition. 

** Fwndmien, you have been worthy of yourselves and of mc^Yon will return to Fiance covered with laurels, and after 
having obtained a glorious peace, which carries with it the guarantee of its duration. It is time that our coiintiy should live at icat» 
•ecure from the mdignant hiflucnce of Eng^d. My benefits shall piove to you my gratitude, and the ftill extent of the love Ibearyou. 
*< 21M/, Jwne fBtd, 1807. (Signed) •< NAFOL£ON«'> 

t Eighty-sizai Frenoh BuUetm, dated Tikit, June 25tli| 1807. 



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88 



HISTORY OF THE WARS» &C. 



Chap. II. 



1807 



ilOOK TV. winces ceded by the Prussian Monarcli, and others 

—1 in the possession of the French J^mperor. The 

recognition of Jerome Bonaparte, as the sove- 
reign of this new state, also of the Kings of 
Holland and Naples, and of all the present and 
Inture members of the confederation of the 
Rhine, was yielded to on the part of Prussia, 
with the consent to close her ports and become a 
party in the maritime war against England. By 
the publication of the treaty with Russia, which 
was for some time delayed, it appeared that the 
two emperors mutually guaranteed to each other 
the integrity of their possessions, and of those 
of the other powers included in the treaty. The 
Kings of Holland, Naples, and Westphalia, 
were to be recognized by Russia ; the offer of a 
mediation to effect a peace between France and 
England was accepted, on the condition that, 
within one month from the ratification, England 
should admit this mediation. It was also stipu- 
lated tiiat hostiUties should immediately cease 
between Russia and the Ottoman Porte ; and 
the Emperor of Russia agreed to accept the 
mediation of the Emperor of France, for the 
conclusion of a peace between the two powers. 
The independence of Dantzic; the military 
high-way between Saxony and the duchy of 
"Warsaw ; the annexation of part of Russian 
Poland to the empire of Russia ! formed also 
articles in the Prussian treaty. The restoration 
of the Dukes of Saxe Cobourg, Oldenburg, and 
Mecklenburg Schwerin, to the quiet possession 
of their dominions, was acceded to by France. 
The confederation of tiie Rhine was explicitly 
acknowledged by the Emperor of Russia; who 
engaged equally to acknowledge the princes or 
states that might hereafter be added to this 
union, on the communication of sudi change by 
the Freneb government. 



The great sacrifice to peace was of course 
made by the kingdom of Prussia, which was 
reduced at once from the rank of a primary to 
the situation of a secondary power of Europe ; 
and all that had been done mr the augmentation 
and aggrandizement of the monarchy by the 
Great Frederick, in the course of twenty years, 
was resigned in one day. The King of Prussia, 
by the peace of Tilsit, together with an immense 
territory, lost nearly Ihe half of his yearly 
revenues, and five millions of his subjects. On 
the whole, Prussia was brought back nearly to 
the state in which she stood on the 1st of January, 
1772, before the balance of Europe had been 
destroyed by the infamous partition of Poland; 
It could not but be noticed that no provisions 
were introduced into the published treaty 
respecting Cattaro ; but by a secret treaty Rus*^ 
sia agreed to cede Corfu, and the Seven Islands, 
to France, and became a party to that part of 
the treaty between France and Prussia, by 
which the vessels and trade of Great Britain 
were to be excluded from the ports of the Baltic. 
These circumstances rendered it clear, that at 
the time of the execution of the treaty of Tilsit^ 
many of its provisions remained to be explored ; 
and served to shew that the secret articles of 
treaties are not unfrequently of more importance 
than those exposed to publie view. 

The Ki^ of Sweden Fefused to aoeede to 
the treaty of Tilsit, and attempted the defence of 
Pomerania ; but being abandoned to his fate by 
his continental allies, his efforts were unavailing^. 
Gustavus, however, succeeded in withdrawing 
his forces firom Stralsund before the enemy waa, 
apprised of his intention, aft;er which he crossedi 
tM Baltic and returned inta Snedea, 



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CHAPTER III. 

•Bmtish HfiWkY : Meeting of Parliameni'^Debates on the late Negoeiation uith France-^ 
Financial Statements — Lord Hemy Pet^s Plan ^Finance — Bill for the better R^pJation 
of Courts if Justice in Scotland — Mr. Whitbread^s Plan for reforming the Poor Laws and 
amending the Condition of the Poor^Total Abolition of the Slate Trade^Catholie BiUr^ 
Change of mmst¥y tdme^uenX thereon — Neut Admimstratifm-^Oeneral Election. 



THE first •es^on of the third parlia- 
tnent of Great Britain assembled on tlie fif- 
teenth of Deeember, 1806, and was opened by 
conunismon in his majesty'i) name. The offiee of 
speaker again doTolTed by unanimous choice on 
the Right Honourable Charles Abbol, and the 
interyal between the 15lli and the 19th of De- 
oembtf ^ was occupied in administering the usual 
oaths to the members. On Friday, i& IQth, his 
nugesty^s q^eech was read by the lord chan*- 
ceilor. The object of the speech was to prepare 
the nation for the awful crisis then impenoing, 
and to animate them to adequate exertions 
ligainst the formidable and increasing powar of 
the enemy. His ms^esty acquainted his parliar 
menty that his efforts for the restoration of general 
tranquility) on terms consistent with the interest 
and honour of his people, and good faith to his 
allies, bad lieen disappointed oy the ambition 
and injusrtice of the enemy, who in the same 
moment had kindled up a fresh war in Europe^ 
and of which the progress had been attenaed 
with the most calamitous events. Prussia^ 
threatened by the noea approadi of that danger^ 
which she had Tainly hop^ to avert by so many 
sacrifices, was at length compelled to adopt the 
resolution of openly resisting the unranitting 
system of . s^grandizement atid conquest pur- 
sued by France ; but neith» this determination 
nor the succeeding measures of hostility were 
previomly concerted with his majesty ; nor had 
any disposition been shewn to offer any adequate 
satisfaction for those aggressions which had 
placed this country in a state of hostility with 
Prussia. Yet, in this situation, his majesty did 
not hesitate to adopt, without delay, such mea^ 
stti^ as were calculated to unite their councils 
and interests against the common enemy. The 
speech extolled the good fiuth of his maj&ty's 
remaining allies ; and concluded with a solenm 
appeal to the bravery and public spirit of his 
people. The address on his majesty's speech, 
which was moved in the house of lords by the 
Earl of Jersey y and seconded by Lord Somers ; 
and in the house of commons by the Hon. Mr. 
Lambe, and seconded by Mr. John Smyth, 

vojL. II. (No. 40.) 



Chap. llf. 



1807 



called forth a number of observations fipom Lord BOOK IV. 
Hawkesbury uid Mr. Canning, but was passed 
in both houses witlmut a division. 

On Monday, the 22d of December, the 
unanimous thaniu of both houses of pariiament 
were voted to Migor-gen«ral Sir John Stuart, 
and also to the Hmi. Brigadier-generals Cole 
andAckland, for the distinguish^ ability and 
valour manifested by them in the stgnal victory 
obtained over the French troops at Maida, on 
the 4th of Jttlv, .1606, and to the officers under 
their command ; as well as U} the non-comini»- 
-sioned officers and private soldtars servmg under 
the same, for their braverv and good conduct in 
the glorious battle of Maida. 

On the 2d of January, the subject of the 
late negociation with France for the restoration 
of a general peace was brought under the con- 
sideration of the house of lords. The discus-, 
sion was introduced by the prime minister, Lord 
Orenville, in a speech of considerable length; 
the leading points of which were embraced in the 
following motions 

<< That an humble address be presented to bis miyes^, 
to assure bim that this bouse has taken into its serious con- 
sideration the papers relative to the late negociation, wbick 
he has been gractousl^r pleased to Uv before them, and 
that tbey see with gratitude, that he has employed every 
means to restore the Uessingv of peace, in amaaner osa- 
sisteut with the interest and glory of his people, aad at the 
same time with an observance of tiiat good faith with our 
allies, which this country is bound to' maintain inviolate. 
That while we lanient that, by the unbounded ambition of 
the enemy, those laudable endeavoorahave been fhistrated, 
no extt-tijans shaU be wantiB|^ on our part to siq^port aad 
assist his majesty in the adowktoii of such measorea as may 
be found necessary, either Tor the restoration of peace^ or 
to meet the various exigencies of the war in this most un- 
portant crisis.'* 

Lord Hawkesbury and Lord Eldon express 
sed their complete concurrence in the leading 
points of the address, but their lordships con^ 
tended, that there was nothing in the whole of 
the papers laid upon the table, that proved thai 
the French government, firom the conunence<* 
ment of the negociation to its close, had agreed 
to proceed on the basis of the uti possidetis — 

H 



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HISTORY OF THE WARS 



BOOK IV. 

Chap. Ill 

1807 



the state of actual possession ; yet they most 
heartily acquiesced m the geberal result of the 
negociation, and with this exception, joined in 
the address, which was carried nemine. contra^ 
dicente. 

On the 5th of January the same subject 
was brought luider discussion in the house of 
commons, on the motion of Lord Ilowick, when 
his lordship sdd :— '^ In rising to perform the 
duty that now devolves upon me, I cannot but 
feel d^p regret — a deep and poignant regret, 
at the failure of an effort, on our part made with 
sincerity, and pursued with good faith, to put an 
end to the war upon terms advantageous to this 
country, and to all Europe; a regret, in any cir- 
cumstances justifiable and- becoming ; but at pre- 
sent, aggravated by the events which have lately 
occurred upon the continent, and which seem to 
render the attainment of tliQ^t object more difficult 
. wd more distant than ever. But, besides these 
sulgects of regret and of sorrow, I feel myself 
'aflS^^ted by painful emotions of a more private 
and personal nature. It is impossible for me to 
forget by whom, had it so pleased Grod, this 
important business would have been opened to 
this house. I cannot therefore present myself 
to your notice on this occasion, without being 
reminded of the infijaite loss I have personally 
sustained, in being deprived of my friend, of my 
instructor, without whom I should have felt no 
confidence in myself ; and in reflecting upon the 
worth and the talents of Mr. Fox, the loss which 
the public have sustained is irresistibly forced 
upon my recollection. But, if any thing could 
support .and encourage me in the discharge of the 
duty now imposed upon me, it is the knowledge 
I possess of the principles and opinions which 
Mr. Fox held upon this subject. In the last 
. conversation I held with that great statesman, 
vrhich was on the 7th of September, the Sunday 
before his death, three great cardinal points were 
insisted upon by him. }st. The security of our ho- 
nour, in which Hanover was concerned. 2d. Fi- 
delity to our Russian connection. 3d. Sicily. 
The grounds on which the negociations broke off 
were in direct conformity with these opinions. 
On this occasion he told me, that the ardent 
vnsbes of his mind were to consummate, before 
he died, two great works on which he had set 
his heart ; and these were, the restoration of a 
solid and honourable peace, and the abolition of 
the slave trade." The noble lord then proceeded 
to giTc a clear and detailed statement of the 
whole transaetion. concerning (he negociation, for 
the purpose of shewing, tfaAt on the one hand, 
the honour of the crovm and the interests of the 
country were not committed by any unworthy 
concessions ; and on the other, that no means 



were left unemployed, to obtain such a peace as 
might be consistent with the honour, the interests, 
and the prosperity, of this nation. With this 
view he shewed, Qrst, that the overture for peace 
originated with France; next, that the basis 
agreed upon for copducting the negociation was 
that of actual possession; and, lastly, that 
owing to the tergiversation and ambitious vieVrs 
of the French government, no terms could be 
procured that were consistent with the interests 
of Europe and the maintenance of inviolable 
good faith towards our allies. Havings as he 
hoped, established these points, his lordship 
concluded by moving an address similar to 
that moTed in the other house of parliament 
by Lord Grenville. 

Lord Yarmouth said, that in the commu- 
nications lie had held with M. Talleyrand, that 
minister distinctly admitted that the basis of 
the negociation should be the principle of actual 
possession, and his lordship was well assured, 
that had it not been for thie melancholy event 
of the death of Mr. Fox, no objection would 
have been started against that principle by the 
French Government. 

Mr. Montague thought that the negocia- 
tion was objectionable both in its commencement 
and prosecution. The French minister had, he 
conceived, taken Mr. Fox on the weak side, 
and by. impressing him with the notion that he 
was ready to treat on the basis of the uii pomdetisj 
had ^^ duped and bamboozled him.'' 

Mr. Whitbread, after making some remarks 
on the extraordinary speech of Mr. Montague, 
proceeded to observe, that he could not, without 
experiencing the bitterest anguish, express his 
sentiments on this nec'ociation, commenced by 
one sincere friend, and conducted by others for 
whom he felt the greatest esteem. When he 
read the documents which were lying on the 
table of the house, and perused them most 
attentively, he found in them parts of which he 
highly approved, and others of which he greatly 
disapproved. All that part which preceded 
the political death, as it had been called, of 
that illustrious man, Mr. Fox, claimed his 
approbation and support; but when death closed 
the career of his ever-to-be-lamented friend, he 
saw, between the beginning and the end of the 
negociations, obvious characters which distin- 
guished them. Adverting to the unfortunate 
words, uti possidetisj he said that the real ground 
of the negociation in the first instance was the 
stipulation of honourable terms for both nations 
and for their allies;* and next, that Russia 
should be admitted to the negociation conjointly 
with this country. He considered it unfortunate 
that the noble Lord (Lauderdale) should have 



* Mr. Foz'8 Letter to M. Talleyrand, dated March 26tlu I806.--Book III. Chap. viii. p. 624. 



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OP TUB FRENCH REVOLUTION. 



31 



been sent orer to Paris with the abstract basis of 
uti possidetity and likewise that it should have 
been so peremptorily demanded. On the whole 
heVas of opinion, that all the time which elapsed 
in the discussion of the abstract terms was 
completely wasted, particularly when the ^neral 
ground had been already well explained and 
fully understood, namely, mutual exchange and 
compensation for cessions. He did not think 
that we were justified in saying that the pegocia- 
tion had wholly failed in consequence of the 
injustice and ambition of France, and it was 
still his opinion, that peace was attainable. 
Under the influence of these impressions, he 
moved an amendment to the address : 

'< To asittre his majesty of our firm determination to 
co-operate with his majesty in calling forth &e resources 
of the united kingdom, for the Figt>rous prosecution of the 
war in which we are inv^olved, and to pray his majesty, 
that he will, in his paternal goodness, anbrd, as far as is 
consistent with his own honour, and the interests of his 
MODle, every facility to any just arrangement by which 
the olessings of peace may be restored to ms loyal subjects." 

Mr. Canning expressed his surprise that 
no attempt was made by any of his majesty's 
ministers to answer the observation of the ho- 
nourable gentleman (Mr. Whitbread) whose con- 
sistency he admired, though he differed from 
him widely in his conclusions. Adverting to the 
three points insisted upon in Lord Howick's 
speech, he said, he was now perfectly satisfied ^ 
that tlie first overture for negociation came from * 
France ; with respect to the vti possidetis^ the 
more he considered the subject, the more he was 
convinced that the papers on the table did not 
make out the charge against the enemy ; that he 
opened the negociation on that basis, and that he 
afterwards departed from it; and though he 
derived great satisfaction from observing the 
good faith which government had preserved to- 
wards our allies, yet he did not think that a 
concert so perfect in principle had bpen acted 
upon, either towards Russia or Prussia, as the 
nature of our relations with those powers would 
have entitled us fairly to pursue. 

Mr. Perceval, from a review of all the circum- 
stances connected with the negociation, conclud- 
ed, that the enemy were never seriously desirous 
of peace, and that ministers were the dupes of 
the artifice of the French government. He 
lamented that^a man of Mr. Fox's great talents 
and incorruptible mind, had been betrayed into a 
private ana confidential correspondence with 
such a man as the friend to whom he was attach- 
ed,* Talleyrand. He blamed ministers for not 
having sooner put an- end to the negociations, 
and declared his firm conviction, that no peace 



1807 



could take place with France, at least, such a B00K1T« 

peace as would be worthy of the acceptance of 

tbis country, so long as the force and councils of ^^'}^^' 
the enemy were directed by two such men as 
Bonaparte and Talleyrand. 

Lord Howick observed, that some honour- 
able gentlemen blamed his majesty's ministers 
for having done too much in the way of negocia^^ 
tion, while his honourable firiend and relation, 
Mr. Whitbread, censured them for doing too 
little. But he thought it wad not a little in their 
favour that they had steered a middle course be- 
tween the two extremes. In this opinion the house 
seemed to concur, and Mr. Whitbread having 
withdrawn his amendment, the address was put 
and carried without a division. 

On the 29th of January Lord Henry Petty, 
the Chancellor of the Exchequer, brought for- 
ward a statement of the supplies and the ways and 
means for the year, combined with a permanent 
plan of finance, which had for its object to pro- 
vide the means of maintaining the honour and 
independence of the British empire, during the 
necessary continuance of the war, without per- 
ceptibly increasing the burthens of the country, 
and with manifest benefit to the interest of the 
public creditor. The total amount of the supplies 
for the year 1807, be stated at <£40,527,065 
Us. Bd. and the ways and means at <£41,100>000. 
The new plan of finance was adapted to meet 
a scale of expenditure nearly equal to that of the 
year 1806 ; and assumed, that during the war, the 
annual produce of the permanent and temporary 
revenues would continue equal to the produce of 
that year. Keeping these premises in view, it 
was' proposed that the war loans for the years 
1807, 1808, and 1809, should be twelve millions 
annually ; for the year 1810 fourteen millions ; 
and for each of the ten following years sixteen 
millions. Those several loans, amounting in the 
fourteen years to two hundred and ten millions, 
were to be made a charge on the war taxes, 
which were estimated to produce twenty one 
millions aiinually. The charge thus thrown on 
the war taxes was meant to be at the rate of ten 
per cent, upon each loan. Every such loan 
would therefore pledge so much of the war taxes 
as would be sufficient to meet this charge : that 
is, a loan of twelve nullions would be pledged 
for ^i'l, 200,000 of the war taxes. And in each 
year, if the war should be continued, a further 
proportion of the war taxes would in the same 
manner be pledged. And consequently, at the 
end of fourteen years, if the war should be of that 
duration, twenty-one millions, the whole produce 
of the war taxes, would be pledged for the total of 
the loans, which would at tbat time have amount^ 



♦ See Mr. Fox's Letter to M, TaUeyxaiid— p. 524. 



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HierroHir of tmb wars 



CUAJi. III. 

180(7 



BOOK IT. <eil to two hundred aad ten millions. The t(»i per 
— "— cent, charge thus necompanying each loan, would 
be appliea to pay Uie interest of the loan, and to 
form a sinking Qind> which sinking fond would 
eyidently be more than five per cent, on such of 
tiie several loans as should be obtained on a less 
rate of interest than five per cent. As a five per 
cent, sinking fund» accumulating at compound 
interest, wmild redeem any sum of ca{Nitai debt 
in fourteen years, the several proportions of the 
war taxes, proposed to be pledged for the several 
loans above-mentioned, would have redeemed 
their respective loans, and be successively liberat- 
ed, in periods of fourteen years from the date of 
each sttoh loan. The portions of war taxes thus 
liberated might, if the war should still be prolongs 
ed, become applicable in a revolving series, and 
might be again pledged for new loans ; it was^how- 



ever, material, that the ^operW tax dioiild not 
be pledged beyond the period for vrhioh it was 
granted, but should, in every ease, cease on tiie 
6th of Aprilnext after the ratification of a defi- 
nitive treaty of peace. 

In the result ttier^re of the whole meosare, 
there would not be imposed any new taxea for 
the first three years from this time^ New taxes 
of less tliaa .£300,000, on an average of seven 
years, from 1810 to 1816, both inclusive, were 
all that would be necessary, in order to procure 
for the country the full benefit and advantage of 
the plan here described, which would continue 
for twenty years ; during the last ten of which 
again no new taxes whatever would be 
required.* 

*^ Important as are the advantages which 
this plan presents,'* continued the chancellor of 



* FINANCES.! 



PUBLIC INCOME of Great Britaia for the Year 
ending the 5th of January, 1806. 



Braaehes 9f Revemme. Grots Receipur 



Ciutonis 9,104,799 4 \\ 

Exdao 17«83?,S86 15 M 

StraiM ^ 4,194.285 Vt lOl 

Land ft AMewd Tans 6,106,900 10 lo} 

PostOffioe 1,446,075 4 6 

MveeLPcnQUienCna. 150,469 7 9i 

Hflnd. ncffcnae 12S»7SS 19 8 

Eztnuird. Reiouroes. 

rCnstoma S,659,»9 IS 



'I i 



ExdM 6^106,870 17 



^Propeity Tax 4,546,88? 10 10 

Miaccl Income 9,470,288 6 8] 

Fiffltfif, indttdlntf^ 
Xl,450,000 for the > 25,150,404 19 ^ 
Senice of Irdand. } 



Gnmd Tot al— £80,172,176 5 gf 



Whitdiall, Tieanny Chamben, { 
28d of Mazch, 1806. \ 



PatdU^theEscheq . 



7,192,889 15 

16,552,885 10 

4,125,527 5 

6,261,778 19 

1,257,004 19 

146,072 1 

167«575 11 1 



2,652,147 
6,560,229 
4,426,986 
2,448,149 



d. 



19 10& 

15 A 

19 7{ 

5} 



25,150,404 19 61 



Jg76 , 46 9,4i0 15 4} 



(Signed) 
N. VANSITTART. 



PUBLIC EXP£NI>ITURE of Great Biftain ^ the 
Year ending the dth of January, 1806. 



Headt of BxpendUmftT 



Interest 

^ Cham <oi Ma 
Reductifln of Nalio 
Interest on Exchequer Bills ... 

Civil List 

Civil Govemment of Scotland . 
Payments in anticipation, &c. 

Navy 

Qrdhaace ^ 

Aimy • 

Extraordinary Services 

Inland 

Miscellaneous Servioes 



8wm»» 

T. 7. Z* 

19,598,305 18 Hi 

..... 271,911 11 

....• 7,615,167 7 

....- 1,478,516 3 

...... 1,827,184 10 

86,918 15 

..... 646,000 14 

...... 14,466,998 3 51 

4,752,286 1 3 

. ... 10,758,542 12 11 

6,261,586 16 2 

5,211,062 10 a 

2,846,728 7 Hi 



Deductions for Sums forming no part of flie \ 75,799,609 14 

Expenditare of Great Britain. J 3,211,062 10 

Grand Tota l.—. £70,588,547 T 

WhxtehaB,.TteaBuiT Cbamben,! (Signed) 

S N. VANsirr. 



of 
o 



24th of March, 1806. 



•ART. 



Thiinetain, which was omitted in its pfoper phee, is hiliodnoad hete to peifoet the anieb 



PUBLIC INCOME of Great Britain for the Year 
ending the 6th of January, 1807. 



Bnmehet gf Revenue, Grost JieedpU 



Customs . 
Bxdse ... 



BQunpa 



kAssessedTaxes 

Post Office 

MisceLPennanentTax. 
Hefed. Revenue ....m 
Extnund. Resources 

fCnstoms • 

Excise 

^ [Pwpetij Tax 

MisoeL Income • 

Loans* mdndhtgl 
£2,000»000 for the }- 
Service of Iidand. j 



9,456,255 8 

18,979,151 5 

4,422^196 

6,510,797 2 

1,511,859 11 

161,095 19 

60,482 11 



d. 

? 



7 



2,925,728 10 11 
6,260,059 
6,162,559 
2,515,694 

19,699,265 12 



10 11 

16 1} 



Grand To^l— ^£78,461,125 5 8f 
Whtu^,;iVeaBitiy Chttnben,! 



PMImtoUteEgehtq, 

IL J. 57 
7m*.049 4 9 

17,577,215 11 
4,538,915 8 

6,458,260 5 

1,291,756 4 

157,850 11 10 

84,545 5 5 




19,699,265 12 1 



.£74,681,299 1 Of 



25(h of Blaidi, 1807* 



(I 



N. VANSITTART. 



PUBLIC •EXPENDITURE of Great Britain for. the 
Year ending the 6th of January, 1807. 

Heads of AxpmdHure. Swm. ^^ 

£. u d. 

Interest m.. 20,410,716 8 1| 

Chane of Management 292,127 9 10 

Reduction oTthe National Debt 8,525,528 14 14 

Intenst on Exdietpier BiOs 1,510,686 18 9 

Civil List 1,582,572 2 8| 

Civil Govomment of Scotland 85,750 14 5} 

Payments in anticipation « 554,261 11 

Navy 16,084,027 17 10 

Ordnance 4,611,064 1 7 

Army , 9,282,491 O 

Extraordinary Ssrvioes 5,828,999 7 8 

Irdand 1,768,000 o 

MiseeOaneons Services ...«». 2,766,695 il| 

DeductionsforSumsfonuhignopoitof At 1 72,778,718 16 9( 

. Expenditure of Great Britain. j 1,768,000 

Grand Total— £71,010,718 16 ^^ 

Whitdian, Treasury Chamhea, \ (Surned) """^ 
25th of Mawht 1807. J N. VANSITTART. 



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HISTORY OF THE WARS 



33 



the exchequer, ** its pmeipal benefit coDsists 
in the impression which it must make, both in this 
country and out of it, where it will be seen that, 
without any further material pressure on the 
resources of the country, and by a perseverance 
only in its wont^ exertions, parliament now 
finds itself enabled to meet with confidence all the 
exigencies of the present war, to whatev^ 
period its continuance may be necessary, for 
maintaining the honour and independence of the 
empire. 

The fiivourable unpression made by the new 
method of supply (which was ultimately agreed 
to by the house) was immediately obvious upon 
the funds, which advanced very considerably, 
and gave the minister an opportunity of nego- 
ciating a loan on terms higlily advantageous to 
the public, and yet by no means unproduotive 
to the contractors. 

On the 16di of February, Lord Grenville, 
conformably to a notice given by his lordship in 
the last session of parliament, introduced into 
the house of lords a bill for the better regula* 
tion of the courts of justice in Scotland, and for 
instituting in certain cases the trial by jury in 
civil causes. The bill which his lordship had to 
offer made no alteration in the law of Scotland, 
but related solelv to the manner in which the law 
ought to be administered. The general out- 
line of tlie change now proposed, rebted to three 
objects : 

1st. To divide the court of sossions, which consists 
of fifteen judges, into three chambers of five judges each, 
having concurrent jurisdictions. 

!M. To introduce, or ralhei' to revive in Scotland, the 
trial by iunr in civil actions of » certain descriptioUy-namely, 
those wnico relate to personal rights ; all queatioas relative 
to landed property being left to oe decided on in the usual 
manner. 

3d. To constitute an intermediate chamber of appeal 
between the court of session and the house of lords. In 
formbgthis chamber of aj^^ it was proposed to make 
one new lord of session, and also to make the lord chief 
baron a member of the same court, in order that he 
nuffht also sit in the chamber of revision. These judges, 
ana one memb^ fiwm each of the other three cham- 
bers, would make five judges for the chamber of revision. 

It was his lordship's intention to propose, 
that the bill should not be read a second time 
until three weeks after this notice, that further 
tiiqe might be afforded for considering the 
pubject. 

Lord Eldon and Lord Hawkesbury gave 
their approbation in general to the measure, 
but reserved to themselves the right of propos- 
ing alterations in the detail of the bill. Lord 
EUenborough declared bis decided approbation 
of the bill, and stated with great energy the 
inestimable advantages derived by this country 
firom the trial by jury in civil cases, and the 
VOL. II, (No 40.) 



1807 



great boon which its introduction into Scotland BDDKIY. 

would confer on that country. The bill was 

then read a first time, and ordered to be read ^■^'^*^; 
a second time at the period proposed by Lord 
Grenville. 

This measure, which, under certain modi- 
fications, was calculated to produce the most 
beneficial effects in the administration of justice 
in the sister kingdom, and to diminish die im- 
mense number of appeals that are continually 
flowing into the house of lords from that part 
of the united kingdom, was arrested in its 
progress by the dissolution of parliament, which 
soon after occurred, and which, for the present, 
defeated the object contemplated by the framers 
of the bill. 

Three days after the introduction of Lord 
- Grenville's bill in the house of lords, for the 
better regulation of the courts of justice in 
Scotland, Mr. Whitbread moved for permission 
to bring a bill into the house of commons for 
amending the condition of the poor in England. 
/^I rise,*'* said the honourable gentleman, '^to 
submit to the consideration of this house, one 
of the most interesting propositions which ever 
occupied the attention of any deliberative asisem- 
bly upon earth. I wish to engage you in an 
attempt at the solution of one of tbe most difii- 
cult of all political problems ; namdy, how to 
reduce the sum of human vice and misery, and 
how to augment that of human happiness and 
virtue, among the subjects of this realm," Mr. 
Whitbread then proceeded to state, that by the 
abstracts then upon the table of the house, which 
were made up in the year 1803, it appeared^ that 
upon a population in England and YmJcs (exclu- 
sive of the. army and nayy). of eight millions 
eight hundred and seventy thousand souls, not 
less than one million two hundred and thirty-four 
thousand were partakers of parochial relief ; and 
that in the year ending in Easter, 1803, the sum 
of <£4,267,000 had been raised in poor rates, 
being almost double the sum raised on an 
average in the years 1783-4 and 5. His wish 
was not to get rid of the poor laws, but, by 
taking proper steps, to render them in time almost 
obsolete ^ and the principles on which he would 
proceed, to effect this most desirable object, were 
these : — ^to exalt the character of the labouring 
classes of the community : to excite the labourer 
to acquire property that he may taste its sweets ; 
and to give him inviolable security for that pro- 
perty when it is acquired ; to mitigate those 
restraints which now confine and cramp his 
sphere of action ; to hold out a hope of reward 
to his patient industry; to render dependent 
poverty in all cases degrading in his eyes, and 
at all times less desirable than independent 
industry." After a number of other preliminary 



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34 



aiSTORT OF TRB WARS 



BOOK IV. remarks, the honourable gendeman proceeded to 

" open the details of his plan, which may be com-^ 

^^^j^V™ • pressed into the foUowin; outline :— 

1807 (( In the front of his scheme for die ezaltatioo of the 

character of the labourer, he propoeed a plaa of ffeneial 
national education, and upon its effects he mainly reued for 
the consummation of his wishes. In Scotland the poor laws 
were almost totally in disuse, and yet, all in that country 
was regrularity and order* What was the day-star which 
shone forth on the other side of the Tweed, was it net 
education P 

" In order to excite die labourer to acquire property, he 
would propose the establishment of one great national 
institution, m the nature of a bank, fbr the use and adran- 
tage of the labouring classes alone ; that h should be 
placed in the metro^dis, and be under the controul and 
management of proper pe^ns ; that every man who should 
be certified by one justice to subsist principally or altogedier 
by the wages of his labour, shoula be at hberty to remit 
to the accountant of the poors' f&nd, in notes or cash, any 
sum from twenty shil}in|pB upwards, but not exeeeding 
more than twen^ poun& in one year, nor more in the 
whole than two hundred pounds ; that this money should 
be placed at interest in government securities ; and that 
faculties should be given for die transmission of die 
remittances duough die post office. Thu plan might also 
unite an annuitant society and an insttrance office for the 
poor. 

^' The next point which he wished to urge <m die 
consideration of the house, was the law of setdement, and 
he should propose, in addition to the means by which a 
settlement may now be acf^uired, that a residence as a 
householder, for five years, m any parish, without being 
' chargeable to diat or any other parish, should confer a 
setdement. 

** Mr. Whitbread next proposed a number of regula- 
tions respectiDjg^ parish -vestries, parish-rates, &c. and 
said that sodeties for offering premiums to the meritorious 
poor might be established in favour of the great olgect that 
ne was now labouring to promote. 

** He then adverted to a circumstance very materially 
concerning the health and comfort of the poor, and recom- 
mended the revival of the power formerly given to die 
dhurch- wardens and overseers to build cottages ; to which 
he would add the power of buying land to a certain ez- 
tenty not exceeding in the whole, perh^, five acres in 
one parish. 

** The last sulgect to which he should direct die atten- 
tion of the house, was one of primary importance, and 
oomjirehended a variety of details ; he meant die mode of 
administering relief to the poor. To age, infancy, and 
sickness, he would hold out me hand of support, protection, 
and care, widely extended, filled with blessinn the most 
copious charity could afford. But he would distinguish 
between the unfortunate and the criminal, he would do 
justiee to misfortuiie and punish profliga<^. He wouM 
remedy one very great grievance wbich prevails, as mudi 
to the disadvantage of ue parishes as to the oppression of 
the objects rdieved, he meant the custom of aeprivin^ a 
man of every woridtty possession before rdief was admin- 
istered. He would propose, in case of sickness, or any 
other great emergency, that the possession of funuture, 
tools, and live-stock, to the value of thirty pounds, and a 
, cottage not exceeding die annual value oi five poundau 

shouM not preclude the possessor from receiving relief. 
Thus a man who, as the law now stands, must, by the 
acoqitance'of the most.trifling assistance, be overwhenned, 
would be able to get afloat Wun in the wodd, and recover 
his independence when dieiSBictive visitation should be at 
an end." 



Mr. Whitbread conelnded a very elaborate, 
comprehensive, and anunated speech, trith the 
following peroration : *^ During the houi^ of 
anxious thought and laborious investigation 
which I have giTen to this subject, I have been 
charmed with uie pleasing vision of the meliora- 
tion of the state of society, aiid the eventtial 
and rapid diminiition of Us bnrthens. In tiie 
adoption of the system of education I foresee an 
enlightened peasantry, frugal, industrious, sober, 
orderly, and contented. Crimes diminisbingf, 
because the enlightened understanding abhors 
crimes. In the provisions for the secunty of the 
savines of the poor, I see encoura^ment to 
frugality, securi^ to property, and the large 
mass of the people connected liiOk the stai^, and 
indissolubly bound to its preservation. In the 
enlarged power of acquirmg settlements, the 
labourer oirected to those spots where labour is 
most wanted. Man, happy in his increased in- 
dependence, and exempt from the dread of being 
driven in age frt>m the place where his deafest 
connections exist, and where he has used the 
best exertions and passed the best days of his 
Bfe. Parochial litigation excluded mm out* 
courts, and harmony reigning in our cBlSerent 
parishes. In flie power of bestowing rewards, I 
contemplate patience and industry remunerated, 
and virtue held up to distinction and honour. In 
the power of building habitations for the poor, 
their comfort and health promoted. And, lastly, 
in the reform of the work-house system, and the 
power of discrimination in administering relief, 
an abandonment of filth, slothfulness, and vice, 
and a desirable and mariLcd distinctioti between 
the proflirate and the innocent. I move, sir, for 
leave to brin^ in a bill * for promoting and en- 
couraging industry among the labouring classes 
of the community, and for the rdi^ and regu- 
lation of the criminal and necessitous poor.*** 
From everjT side of the house Mr. Whitbread 
was comphmented on the ability he had dis- 
played, and the attention he had bestowed on 
this ^at and complicated subject, and leave 
was given to bring in the bill. On the 93d of 
February the bill was read a second time, and 
ordered to be printed and sent to the quarter 
sessions in the several counties for the consi- 
deration of the magistrates, who were requested 
to give their opinions upon the provisions it 
contained. But the progress of the measure 
waa interrupted by the change of administra- 
tion, and ihfi. concomitant dissolution of parlia- 
ment. In the new parliament this subject was 
again taken into consideration, on the motion 
<rf the original mover, and the bill for the gene- 
ral education of the poor, was passed throu^ 
the house of commons ; it was, however, ulti* 
matdy doomed to a fate that so enlightened a 



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OP THE FRENCH RETOI^UTION. 



$5 



measure did tM merit; and on the 11th of 
AngMt th0 bill waft^ on the motion of Lord 
Havrkesbury, the deeretafjr of State, for the home 
department, thrown out of the house of peers. 

The anxiety thftt was shewn by the British 
parliament to place ^e financial affairs of the 
country on a permanent b^is, arid to ameliorate 
the condition of the labouHng classes at home, 
did not close the ears of the legislature aeainst 
the Toice of outraged humanity in more distant 
regions. During the last session of parliament 
two resolutions were passed in both houses ; the 
former declaring, that the African Slaye Trade, 
being contrary to the principles' of justice, 
humanity, and sound policy, ought to be 
abolished with all possible expedition ; and the 
latter, that an addr^s should be presented to 
the throne, beseeching his migesty to take such 
measures as might appear most eflfectua! for 
obtaining the concurrence aad concert of fcNreign 
powers in the abolition of the sbve traded In 
pursuance of these resolutions. Lord GreuTille, 
on the 2d of January, brought into the house of 
peers a bill for the total Abolition of the African 
slaTe Trade, which bill was read a first time, 
and printed. On the 4th of February, counsel 
were heard at the bar of the house in favour of 
the continuance of the trade, and on the follow- 
ing day. Lord Grenyille concluded an elaborate 
speech on the subject, by moying that *^ the 
bill be now read a second time." The motion 
was supported by the Duke of Gloucester, the 
Bishop of Durham, the Earls Moira, Selkirk, 
and Koslyn, and the Lords Holland, King, and 
Hood. The opponents of the bill were the 
Duke of Clarence, the Earls Westmoreland and 
St. Vincent, and the Lords Sidmouth, Eldon, 
and Hawkesbury. At four o'clock in the morn- 
ing tho house divided, when there appeared for 
the motion one hundred ; and against it, thirty* 
six voices. On the 10th the bill was read a 
third time, and having passed, it was ordered to 
the commons for the concurrence of that 
assembly. 

On the 28d, Lord Howick, at the eonclu** 
sion of a luminous and eloquent speech, moved 
for the commitment of the bill, and was sup- 

K^rted by Mr. Lushington, Mr. Fawkes, Lord 
ahon. Lord Milton, Sir John Doyle, Sir 
Samuel RomiUy, Mr. Wilberforce, and Earl 
Percy, the latter of whom wished that a clause 
might be introduced into the bill by which all 
the children of slaves bom after January, 1810, 
•hould be made free. Gteneral Oascoyne and 
Mr. Hibbert opposed the bill; Mr. Hiley 
Ad&gton preferred a plan for gradual aboli- 
tion.^ All these gentlemen having delivered their 
sentiments, there appeared on a division, for the 



question two hundred, and eisrihty-three, and BOOR IV. 
against it only sixteen voices. The enthusiasm ' j 
in favour of this measure, which pervaded altCJoAF. IIl^. 
parts of the house, was of a moral nature, and ^^"^y^T^ 
seemed to extend to a conversion of the heart ; ^^^^ 
for several of the old opponents of this rip^hteous 
cause went away, unable to vote against it; 
while others of them staid in their places and 
voted in its favour. The bill, which was de- 
bated with great animation in all its stages, 
enacted, that no vessel should clear out for 
slaves from any port within the British dominions 
after the 1st of May, 1807, and that no slave 
should be landed in the colonies after the 1st 
of March, 1808. On the 16th of March, on the 
motion of Lord Henry Petty, the bill was read 
a third time, and passed without a division. 

On Wednesday, the 18th, Lord Howick^ 
accompanied by Mr. Wilberforce and others, 
oarried the biU to the lords for thdr concur- 
rence in certain amendments that had been in- 
troduced in the house of commons. Lord Gren- 
ville instantly moved that it should be printed, 
and taken into consideration on Monday. The 
reason of this extraordinary haste was, that his 
majesty, displeased with the introduction of the 
Roman cathoUc officers* bill into the house of 
commons, had resolved to displace the existing 
administration. On Wednesday, the 23d, the. 
house of lords -met; and such extraordinary 
diligence had been used in printing the bill, 
that it was then ready. Lord Grenville imme* 
diately brought it forward, and the amendments 
were adopted without a division. Thus the bill 
received the last sanction of *the peers. Lord 
Grenville then congratulated the house on the 
completion, on its part, of the most glorious 
measure that had ever been adopted by any 
legislative body in the world. 

But thou|^ the biU had now passed both 
houses, there was an awful fear throughout the 
kingdom lest it should not receive the royal, 
assent before the ministry was dissolved. This 
event took place the next day ; for on Wed- 
nesdav, the 35th of March, at half-past eleven 
o'clock in the morning, hu majesty's message 
was delivered to the different members of ad- 
ministration, commanding them to wsdt upon, 
him, to deliver up the seals of their respective, 
offices. It then appeared, that a commission for 
the rof al assent to tiiis bill, among others, had 
been obtained. This commission was instantly 
opened by the Lord Chancdlor (Erskine), who. 
was accompanied by die Lords Holland and 
Audand ; and as the clock struck twelve^ just 
when the sun was in its meridian splendour, . 
to witness thus august act-*this establishment 
of a Magna Charta for ^Jricans in Britain, it 



See Book III. Chap. YIII. p, 618. 



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36 



HISTORY OF THE WARS 



Chap. III. 



1807 



BOOK IV. nvas completed. The ceremony being oyer, the 
seals of the respectiTe offices were deUyered 
up ; so that the execution of this commission 
was the last act of an administration, which, 
were it only for its unremitting and successful 
exertions in behalf of the oppressed African 
race, would pass to posterity, liring through 
successiye generations in the love and gratitude 
of the most yirtuous of mankind. Thus ended 
one of the most glorious contests, after a con- 
tinuance for twenty years, erer carried on in any 
age or country. A contest, not of brutal vio- 
lence, but of reason. With respect to the end 
obtained by it, no man can appreciate its im- 
portance. To our own country, as well as to 
Africa, it is inyaluable. It proclaimed, in lan- 
guage too clear to be misunderstood, tiiat even 
commerce itself should hare itsmond bounds. 
They who supported this wicked traffic virtually 
denied that man was a moral being. They 
substituted the law of force for the law of reason. 
But the great aet now under consideration 
banished the impious doctrine, and restored the 
rational creature to his moral rights. The sym- 
pathies called into action by the long-continued 
agitation of this great <|^uestiqn were useful in 
the preservation of national virtue, and con- 
tributed greatly to form a counter-balance 
against the malignant spirit, generated by the 
almost incessant wars which prevailed during 
the same period.* 

For upwards of three centuries, during 
which period this detestable traffic in the bones 
and sinews of men had prevailed, benevolent 
individuals, men of piety, genius, and learning, 
had from time to time declared its existence to 
be diametrically opposite to the principles of the 
christian religion, and the dictates of humanity ; 
Mr. Chranville Sharne was the first individual in 
England who boldly stood forth the avowed 
protector of the Africans. With this benevolent 
man the first movement towards the abolition of 
negro slavery originated, in the year 1705 ; and 
history only discharges its duty in recording his 
name as the foundation stone on which was 
erected this glorious edifice, to the honour of 
fibertv and humanity. Other philanthropists, in- 
quired with the same spirit, afterwards came 
forward in the same cause^ and Wilberforce, 
Cldrkson, and a number of other illustrious 
characters, acting with a society of private in- 
dividuals, encouraged by men of all ranks, and 
of all reliffious denominations, but particularly 
by the Quwers, both in Elngland and America, 



succeeded, at length, in putting a period to a 
traffic, which, in tiie course of the ten years im« 
mediately preoedinff its abolition, had torn &i>mi 
their homes upwards of three hundred and sixty 
thousand of the natives of Africa! who had 
either been sold into slavery, or had miserably 
perished in their passage to the West Indies.t 

The political situation of the British em- 
pire, in consequence of the aggrandizement of 
France upon the continent, rendered the union 
of its members, and the concentration of its 
energies, now, more than ever, desirable. Al- 
most every regular power of Europe lay pros- 
trate at the feet of Bonaparte. He was sur- 
rounded by kingdoms or his own formation, 
and at the head of which were men who had 
fought under his banners, or were allied to him 
by blood, and whom the combined influ^ioe of 
gratitude and policy bound indissdubly to his 
interest. The complacency with which he sur- 
veyed his elevation seemed impaired only by the 
circumstance that the British nation appeared 
both to possess the power and the inclination to 
resist his advances towards universal empire. 
HerOj amidst all the devastation and convulsions 
of the continent, a barrier was erected, against 
which the waves of his furv were impotent and 
unavailing. Here, notwithstanding some un- 
happy deviations from the general system, was 
an asylum for justice, and a sanctuary for free- 
dom. In such circumstances, the attention of 
ministers was very naturally directed to the 
production of national unanimity and harmony. 
They knew that, by the removal pf those dis- 
abilities under which certain classes of his ma- 
jesty's subjects laboured, they should suppress 
the murmurs of discontent, and convert the 
lethargy of indifierence into the activity of wil- 
ling service, and thus procure a reinforcement 
of strength equal to the pressure of the cri^s. 
They knew that the vigorous hand will ever 
follow the conciliated heart ; and that all the 
compulsory conscriptions of power are infinitely 
inferior to those voluntary exertions which 
originate in ti^e gratitude and happiness of a 
free people. Accordingly, on the 5th of March, 
a bill was brought into the house of commons by 
Lord Howick, which, without having for its 
object what was called the emancipation of the 
catholics, was adapted to afihra them great 
satisfaction, and was doubtless intended as the 
precursor of a syst^n of enlarged toleration, 
which had for its object the removal of all the 
disabilities under which the catholic and proi 



* Cbikaon'8 «< History of the Rise, Progress, and AccompUAment of the AboUtion of the African Slate Tradk^^^ 
from which puUication this aooount is jurincipsUy extracted. 

f Sir Samud Rosiiny's Speech in the House of ComviODS, Jyne 11, 1806, grounded on documents laid before 
thala«renibly. 



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OF THE FRENCH RBYOLUTION. 



a7 



testant dissenters of the united kingdom had 
still the misfortune to labour.* 

In the year 1793, an act had been passed 
by the Irish parliament, by which the catholics 
of Ireland had been enabled to hold any rank in 
the army, except that of commander-in-chief of 
the forces, master-general of the ordnance, or 
general on the staff. No similar act had been 
passed bv the British parliament ; the conse- 

Juence of which was, that if any circumstances 
emanded the presence of an Irish regiment in 
Great Britain, its officers would be disqualified 
by law from remaining in the ^errice, and must 
either subject themsdves to certain consequent 
penalties, or relinquish a profession in which 
they had been educated, and to which alone they 
could look for their respectable establishment in 
life. At the time of passing the Irish act it had 
been distinctly promised thai this inconsistency 
should be corrected without delay ; this pledge 
however had not been redeemed ; and it was one 
of the objects of the present bill to do away 
so absurd an incongruity, t 

The objections to this measure of concilia- 
tion and union may be resolved into that dread 
of innovation which influences strong as well as 
imbecile minds. Innovation, it must be con-^ 
fessed, has sometimes led to the most violent 
and convulsive movements, in which institutions 
the most valuable and venerable have been 
swept away, and horror and massacre have in 
different degrees characterised every devolution 



of power through a long seri^ of rapid changes. m>6KlV. 

Yet a comprehensive survey will discbver tiiat ^ 

such evils have been often, if not always, iin- C^ap. III. 
putable to the want of previous innovation, to ^ -^ v ^ ^ 
that continuance of unnecessary and oppressite ^^^ 
restriction, and that connivance at experienced 
abuse, which have eventually exhausted the 
patience of the sufferers, and Urged on to re* 
medics more desperate than the disease. With- 
out innovation human affairs must necessarily b^ 
retrograde or stationary, and the detected errors 
and ascertained abuses of former times must b^ 
permitted to stain and darken every sueeeediilg 
age. 

It soon became a matter of notoriety thut 
objections to the catholic biU existed iti a quarts 
to which the British pubUo naturally Iwjk ^ 
with respect and deference. His mi^esly, wh^ 
had already gone far beyond all his predeoeesenr 
in regard to religious toleration^ and partieii« 
larly in concessions to his Roman eathoUo sub- 
jects, having maturely considered the nature 
and extent of this bilC regarded it ad contrtoy 
to the obUgations of his coronation oatfi,]: Md 
the principles of the British odnstitutien. L\fde^ 
such circumstances, ministers found it necessary 
to abandon the measure, and it was required 
from them to give a written obligationi pledging 
themselves never more to propose any tiling con- 
nected with the catholic question. Tms de- 
mand they resisted, as incompatible With their 
honour and duty. Swne portion of irritation 



* The following is an enumeration of the disabilities to which, by the subsisting Imrs of this resto, the CBtbolies 
of Ireland, who form three-fourths of the population of that island, are liable : — 

Theycanaotatin either of the houMs of psrfiament. They amnot be appomted to any of the feBowiiig offlsci' durf gowBMtfof 
tovemon of tliu kingdom ; chancellor, or keeper, or oommittioner of the seal ; loid high tzeaeurer ; judge in any of the oourtiof law, or in 
Ae admiralty ooart ; master of the lolls, secreCaiy of state; keeper of the privy seal ; Txce-treasurer, or his deputy ; teller, or cashier of the 
aidiaqpier; auditar^;eiieral ; governor, or costos lotuloram of counties; chief governor's secretary; privy-cotmsdlor ; king's comisel; 
seqeants, attorney, or solidtor>genezal ; master in chancery ; provost, or fellow of TiAdty CoBcise, IXdsfin ; pMt-mssler^geMnl ; master and 
lientenant-general of ordnance ; commander-in-chief; general on the staff; sheriff, and sub-diteiff; or to the oflioe of mayor, bailiff, re> 
eorder, burgess, or any other office in a corporation, unices the lord-lientenant^^all grant a written dispensation for ihat purpoee. No catfao- 
Kecan be goardian to a protestant ; and no catholic priest can be goazdian at lu. Catholics are only allowed to have arms under certain 
restrictions. No catholic can present to an ecclfsiasrical living. The peconiary qualifications of catholic jurors is made higher than that of 
piotestants, and no relaxation of the ancient rigraons code is permitted, eaoept to those who shall take the oath and declaration prescribed by 
the 13th and 14th Geo. III. c 5. 

f ABSTRACT of a bill introduced into the house of commons by Lord Howick, on the dth of March, 1807, 
** for enabling his majesty to avail himself of the services of all his liege subjects in his naval and military forces :"— • 

Thb bill provides, l8t,^Thatit shall be lawful Ibr bis mi^CBty to confer any commisskm or appoi n tment whatever, in his m^esty's 
naval or military feroes, upon any of his subjects without exception, provided tiiat every such person shall take and subscribe the 
ftfbwing oofh^^ 

«< I, A. B. being by this commisuon mpointed to be— (here set forth the appointment) do hereby solemnly promise and swear, in 
thepresenceof Almi|^tyGod, that I w31 be feitmul, and bear true allegiance to his Kuuesty King Geoiige III. and that I will do my utmoist 
to maintain and defend aim wmamst all treaaoos and traitorous oonspixaaes, and against all attempts whatever that shall be made against liis 
person, crown, or dignity ; and that I will, to the utmost of my power, resist all such treasons, conspiracies, or attempts, and wffl also disdoee 
and mske known the same aasoon as they riiaJl cometo my knowledge : and I do also promise and swear, in the presence of Almighty God, 



that I win, to the utmost of my power, maintain and support the succession to the orown of Great Britain and Irdand, as the same now stands 
limited by law ; and that I wi& also, to the utmost of my power, maintain and support the established constitation and government of the 
said united kingdom, against aU attempts whatever that shaD be made against the sarae.** 

The second, and only other dause of the bill, provides, ** That no person, employed in his miyesty*s sea or land service, shall,* 
nndfior any pretence, or by any means, be prevented from attending such divine worship of rdigious service asmay be c o nsistent with or ac- 
cording to his religious persuasion, or opinions, at proper and seasonable tunes, and such as shall be consistent with the due and fuQ dia- 
diarge of his naval or military duties ; nor shall any such person bo ccmpeHed or compellable to attend the wonhip or service of the 

" church.** 

X See Vol. I. Book II. Chap. XVIII. p. 341. 
T01.H. (N0.4O.) K 



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38 



HISTORY OF THE WARS 



Chap. III. 
1807 



BOOKIV. now operated iii both parties; the breach had 
extended too far to a^mU of being closed ; con- 
fidence was mutually impaired ; and the neces- 
sary consequence, the resignation of ministers, 
almost immediately ensued. 

After a period of suspense and agitation, 
such as might be expected to occur on so com- 
prehensive a change, the names of 'the new 
ministers were announced on the 85th of March.* 
A trial of strength between the newly appointed 
and the late ministeris speedily took place in the 
house of commons, on a motion deprecating 
ministerial pledges, and the result of which 
served to shew that power and office have a 
close affinity. The migority on the part of 
ministers, however, only amounted, in a house 
of four hundred and eighty-four members, to 
thirty-two ; and Mr. Canning intimated, that in 
the event of administration finding any impedi- 
ment^ from the numbers of their opponents, a 
dissolution of parliament* would be resorted to. 
This menace was soon after carried into effect, 
iuid on the 27th of April the session and the 

Sirliament were brought to an end by a speech 
om the throne, in which the commissioners 
were charged to state, '^ that his majesty was 
anxious to recur to the sense of his people, 
while the events which had recently taken place 
were yet fresh in their re<iollection." 

This abrupt dissolution of parliament was 
arraigned by the late possessors of authority in 
terms of no ordinary energy. It was denounced 
as impolitic, unconstitutional, and a mere wan- 
ton abuse of power. His majesty, however, 
had only exercised the right indisputably vested 
in him by the constitution. A refn^nce to the 
opinions of the people upon important topics of 
national policy is^ratherasubjectof congratulation 
than of censure ; and one of the worst mdications 
of the worst times in British history was the 
indifference or aversion manifested by tiie thlbne 



to these appeals to the people. The cry of the 
danger of^the church, which was first started in 
parliament b^ Mr. Perceval, on the introduction 
of the catholic bill, and reiterated in his address 
to his constituents at Northampton, was urged 
with inexpressibly more energy than truth, and 
'was eagerly adopted by many who had more 
zeal than understanding. But the increased 
information and tolerant spirit of every class of 
the people, served in general as a counterpoise 
aranst the zeal of the weak, or the insinuations 
of the artful, and prevented any extensive in- 
jury from the application of so critical an engine 
of policy. At Bristol, however, the populace 
were excited to a high pitch of resentment 
against one of thdr representatives, who had 
voted with the late administration on the catho- 
lic bill, and though his election was secured, 
the symptoms of popular violence became so 
manifest, that the ceremony of chairing was left 
incomplete. At Liverpool, the indications of 
public feeling announced that state of exaspera- ' 
tion, in which a contest of many days could not 
be presumed possible, without circumstances ac- 
companying it at which every feeling heart must 
shrink with horror; and under such circum- 
stances Mr. Roscoe deemed it prudent to wttii- 
draw his pretensions. In Surrey, Lord Russel 
was unable to carry his election. In the city of 
London, a di^line of that interest which had 
formerly predominated for Alderman Combe 
was stnkingly observable ; and he was indebted 

Srhaps for his return to the death of Alderman 
ankey, who had started as a new candidate, 
with the most flattering prospects of success, 
but who died in the midst of anticipated triumph, 
fumisliing a characteristic illustration of the 
pathetic remark of Mr. Burke, from the hustings 
at Bristol, on a former occasion — ^^ What 
shadows we are, and what shadows we pursue.^' 
In YorksUre, the contest was carried on 



* LIST OF THE NEW MINISTRY. 



CABINET MINISTERS. 



NOT OF THE CABINET. 



EartCundoi 

LordEldon 

E«rl of WestOMVcilaQd . 
Dukeof PortlaDd ...... 

LoidMu 
Earl or( 
Earl BathiiTBt.. 



Locd HAwkcBbmy 

Rt Hon. Geoige Canning 
Locd Castlereagfa 



Pmident of the CoandL 

Lord High ChanoeDor. 

Lord Pnyy SeaL 

Pint Lord of the Treaiuiir (Pkime Min.) 

Pint Lord of the Adminut|r. 

Master-General of the Ordnance. 

President of the Board of Trade. 

Secretary of State for the Home De* 
paitment. 

for Forcu[n Afflurk 
for the J>epartment 



( of War and Colonies. 

r Chancellor and Under^Treasnrer of 
Rt. Hon, Spencer Perceval < the Exchequer, and also Chancellor 
I of the Duch J of Lancaaten 



Rt Hon. Robert Saunders Dundas 

Bi|^t Hon. Geoige Rose.... 

Sir jQxpes Pulteney, Bart.... 

Lord Charles Somerset 

Ri|^t Hon. Charles Long.... 

EarlofChichefter... 

Earl of Sandwich 

WiHiBm Huskisaon, Esq..... 

Hon. Henry Welledey 

Shr William Grant 

SirVicflzyGibbs 

Sir Thomas Plomer 



r President of the Board of Coiu 
\ troul for the Affidrs of India. 

{Vice President of the Board of 
Trade, and Treasuier of thft 
Navy. 
. Seoetary-at-War. 

; \ Joint Pay-Masters-General. 



Joint Post-Matters-GcneraL 



PERSONS IN THE MINISTRY OF IRELAND. 



Duke of Richmond Lord-Lieutenant. 

Lord Manners Ixvd High CiuuiceUor. 



Sir Arthur Wellesley 

Right Hod. J(^ Eovler^H 



Secretaries of the Treasury. 

Master of the .Rolls. 

Attomcj-Genenl. 

SoUdtor-Genenl, 



Chief Secretary* 
Gh4Dcdkar.oftiie 



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OF THE FRENCH RBVOLCTION. 



30 



with a vigbur and expense unexampled perhaps 
in the history of elections. Mr. Fawkes, one of 
the late representatives, declined to offer himself 
to the suffrages of the freeholders on the present 
occasion ; aUeging, ^* that after what had lately 
passed, a seat in the house of commons, which 
was the first wish of jiis heart, had ceased to be 
an object of his ambition f ' and that he '^ could 
not, consistently with the duty he owed to a 
numerous and increasing family, consent to ex- 
pose himself to the danger of these sudden and 
unexpected dissolutions." On the subject of 
expense, Mr. Wilberforce cast himself upon the 
liberality of his friends, and the subscription was 
found more than sufficient to defray all his de- 
mands. The other candidates were, the Hon. 
Henry Lascelles, second son of Lord Harewood, 
and Lord Milton, the only son of Earl Fitz- 
William, both men of high respectability, and 
the most opulent connections. The two houses 
of Wentworth and Harewood had fixed their 
ambition so perseyeringly upon success, as to 
anticipate the necessary absorption of immense 

{iroperty in the conflict. Notwithstanding the 
imitations of the Grenyille act, and the pre- 
clusion of that Tast expenditure which used to 
attend the system of open houses, a hundred 
thousand pounds were calculated upon by each 
of these two candidates as requisite to defray 
the expense of their election ; and the eyent 

S'oved that this immense sum was not more 
an adequate to the demands. Mr. Lascelles, 
In his address to the freeholders, deprecated the 
bill introduced into parliament by the late minis- 
ters for granting enlarged privilege^ to the 
catholics ; he professed himself no courtier, but 
when the king called upon his subjects to sup- 
port him, he would be so far a courtier as to 
obey the call. Lord Milton, on the contrary ,^ 
avowed himself a friend to the relaxation of the 



existing laws against dissenters, both catholic BOOK IT. 

and protestant ; he too would support the king, p; 

but it should be a constitutional 8upi>ort ; he ™^\ijl* 
was zealously attached to the constitution, but "^^^^ 
his attachment was to the whole of that venerable ^^ 
edifice, and not merely to one of its parts. 
Such were thepublic grounds taken by the adverse 
candidates; and after a contest continued for 
fifteen days with unremitting energy and various 
success, victory at length ranged herself on the 
side of Lord Milton, and ultimately gave to his . 
lordship a majority of one hundred and dghty 
votes over his rival. In the prosecution of this 
memorable struggle, all tiie machinery of con-> 
tested elections was brousht into action. Every 
topic, both national and local, that seemed cal- 
culated to advance the interests of the respec- 
tive candidates, was urged by their partisans. 
The dangers of the church, and the benefits of 
an enlarged toleration, were alike relied upon. 
The conflicting interests of the merchants and 
manufacturers, which bad been long in collision, 
served to rouse the populous districts of the 
West-Riding into a state of unexapipled acti-' 
vity ; and at the close of the contest, the exul- 
tation of victory or the depression consequent 
upon defeat, spread from the city of York, and 
pervaded every part of that extensive county.^ 
,The Westminster election, generally so pro- 
ductive of interest and adventure, didnpt on this 
occasion vary from its usual character. . The 
candidates for public suftage were, Mr. Paull, 
Mr. Sheridan,, Mr. Elliot, and Lord Cochrane. 
Of these four gentlemen, Lord Cochrane alone 
was returned along with Sir Francis Burdett, ' 
who during the whole election stood at the 
head of the poll, though he had declined to 
offer himself as a candidate, and was, in fact, 
qonfined to his house, by ^ wound received 
iQ a duel with Mr. Paull.f 



* YORKSHIRE ELECTION— Daily State op the Poll. 



First Day, 



Mr. Wilberforoe, 

Lord MiltoQ 

Mr. LaneQes, ... 



751 
656 
774 



9d 3d \4ith\Sih tih 



923 1V75 146911641 1355 
1295 1081 11126: 1037 948 
914 1010 H96 140311159 



7<A 8^ i ^ 
* \ 



871 



936 766 600 



698 561 



845 6891 592 



\Olh 



459 
444 
465 



Uth 



12«^ 



487 37^ 
619 506 
504 363 



13^ 



14<^I15M 



891 
471 
341 



9 



381 

502' 362' 
401 334 



TVST 



11,808 
11,177 
10,290 



f It appeared that Mr. PauU, without the authority, and even. without the knowledge of Sir Franeus Burdett, had 
cassed an adyertisement to be in^rted in the public papers announcing tjiat Sir l^rancis would preside at a public dinner, 
connected with &e arrangements respecting the choice oi; nomination of proper persons for the representation of West- 
minster. JTbe surprise of Sir Francis. at the appearance of such^ an advertisement was very considerable, and his dis- 
pleasure little inferior to his astonishment. He ia^ae^ately cctmniunicated these feelings to Mr. PauU, by express, and 
peremptorily declined the honour intended him. Irritated' by this refusal, Mr. PauU repaired to the residence of Sir 
Francis Burdett, al^imbledon, after midnight, and condi^cted himself in such a manner as to produce a duel, in which, 
at the second fire, m>th parties were wounded, Mr. Paull in the leg, and Sir Francis in the thigh. Although the public 
were not in possession of all the information requisite to fopn a clear and full estimate of the conduct of the parties, yet, 
iVom appearances, striking and impressive, they almost unanimously agreed in censuring Mr. Paull for indecorum and 
brotality ; and the consequence was, not merely the loss of his election, but his entire extinction as a public character. 
Affording a fatal instance of the effects of disingenuousness and precipitancy, and of the want of that good sense in the 
^■diict of life which is. to be preferred to even the most splendid talents. 



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40 



HISTORY OF THB WABS 






Cfup. 
1807 



BOOK lY . Of the late ministry, Mr. Thomas GrenviUe 

was the only commoner in the cabinet, who, at 
III. the assemblinff of the new parliament resumed 
his situation tor the place he had represented. 
Mr. Windham declined standing for Norfolk ; 
Lord Henrv Petty was unsuccessful at Cam- 
bridge ; and Lora Howick, after representing 
his native county of Northumberland for a 
series of twenty years, was obliged to resign his 
pretensions to a more opulent candidate. Indeed 
the object intended by the new ministry in the 
dissolution of parliament, seemed to be effec- 
tually gained. They acquired that accumula- 



tion of power which jpreyented any impediment 
to their measures, and gaye them tiiat cdnunand 
and confidence, without which it is impossible 
for any administration to secure public estima«* 
tion or to dispatch the public business. The 
new parliament assembled on the S2d of June, 
and during the short session which ensued, 
much mutual recrimination took place between 
the contending parties ; but no business, of a 
nature demancung the notice of general history, 
occupied the attention of either of the houses of 
legislature. 



CHAPTER IV. 

Expeditions : To the Dardanelles — To l^tfpt — Against Monte Video— Against Buenos Ayres — 
Capture of the Dutch Settlement of Curagoa — Expe^tion to Copenhagen — War declared 
hy Russia (gainst England — New System of Commercial Interdiction — Disputes imth the 
United States of America — French Decrees — British Orders in Council. 



IT has already been seen that the war 
between Russia and Turkey led to an inter- 
ruption of the harmony which had so long sub- 
sisted between the latter power and Great 
Britain. Russia being engaged in a war with 
the Porte by the instigation of France, it was 
incumbent upon Englajid to attempt an accom- 
modation of the existinp^ differences, and to 
prevent, if possible, the direction of the strength 
of her ally towards the south of Europe. For 
this purpose, nfgociations were entered into 
with the cabinet of Constantinople, and Admiral 
Sir John Duckworth was instructed to proceed, 
withseyen sail of the line, a frigate, and two 
sloops, to force the Dardanelles, and bombard 
the Turkish capital, if certain terms should not 
be acceded to by that government. On the 10th 
of February the British admiral proceeded to 
force the passage. The fire of the enemy from 
the outer castles inflicted but little injury on 
his ships ; but in the narrow passage of Sestos 
and Abydos, a very heavy cannonade was di- 
rected firom both castles, within point-blank 
shot of each other, which opened their fire on 
the English ships as they continued to pass in 
succession. The very spirited return made to 
this fire considerably diminished its force, and 
prevented the stemmost ships from receiving 
any material injury. A small Turkish squad- 
ron, consisting of a sixty-four gun ship, four 
frigates, and several corvettes, at anchor to the 
north-east of the castles, was attacked by Sir 
Sidney Smith, and driven on shore, where it 



was destroyed ; while the guns of a formidable 
battery at Point Pesquies, were spiked by a 
detachment of marines. On the evening of the 
20th the squadron anchored near Prince's 
Islands, about eight miles from the city. The 
necociations between Mr. Arbuthnot, the Bri- 
tish ambassador to the Porte, who was then 
on board Admiral Duckworth's fleet, and the 
Turkish government, continued till the 27th, 
and in the interval, such was the unfortunate 
state of the weather, that it was not at any 
time in the power of the British admiral to 
occupy such a situation as would have enabled 
him to commence offensive operations. At 
length it became necessary to terminate an 
exhibition thus humiliating. The time which 
had been occupied by the English commander 
in empty menaces, had been employed by the 
Turks in the most active repairs and prepara- 
tions. The whole line of the coast now presented 
a chain of batteries. Twelve line of battle 
ships were ready, with their sails bent, and filled 
with troops ; an innumerable multitude of small 
craft, with five vessels had been collected ; and 
near two hundred thousand troops, meant to 
march against the Russians, w^e said to be in 
Constantinople. Had the weaKer favoured an 
attack, these accumulated means of resistance 
by the enemy must have been attended with a 
doubtful issue to the British squadron; and 
even had Sir Jobn Duckworth overcome all this 
opposition, the re-passage of the Dardanellee 
was still requisite to complete his triumph. 



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iThe idea of waiting for a wind to bombard tbo 
city was therefore now abandoned; and 
Wounded) as the British coiQiBander acknow" 
ledges himself to have heeif in pride and in 
nmbition, he wdigbed anchor on the first of 
March, and by the next day, before noon, e^ery 
ship under his eoSomanid had cleared the pas* 
sage of the Dardanelles. This eseapo, howev^i 
was only from destnictiofiy but by no voB»n» 
from serious loss and injury* The fire of ihe 
tamer castles, which had been severe in the first 
passage, was mereihaA doubly fermidable on tfa« 
Mum. The Windsor C^tle wa« struck by % 
granite shot of eight hundred pouads we 
asd the «nnber<»f killed atod wounded, wb 
in the ftrst instance had tiot been eonsiderablei 
was swelled to nearly three huiidred men. The 
damage done to most of tiie ships, in their huUS| 
masts, and rigging, was iFery severe, and the 
expedition was productive of nothing but disaster 
and bumiliatioii. 

While Admiral Duckworth was advancing 
to Constantinojde, to. fix between the two 
countries Ihose relations which were in a situa^ 
tion highly critical, an linglish expedition was 
proceeding towards another point of the Turkish 
dominions^ On the 6th of March, a detachment, 
oonsistiiig of about five thousand men, under 
the command of 'General Fraser, was embarked 
at Messina, in forty^nine tranqports, for the 
purpose cf taking .poissessipn of Alexandria; 
and on the Idth, they came to anchor before 
that city. The intelligence which was received 
from Major Missett, tiie British resident at that 
place, stated, that the inhabitants were well 
effected to the British, and that he had san* 
guine hopes that our troops would be able to 
gain possession of this important station without 
firing a gun. Accordingly, on the morning of 
the 19th, the British commander occupied the 
spot rendered memorable by the victory under 
the heroic Abercrombie ; and on the 21st Ge- 
neral Fraser took possession of the place, in 
virtue of a capitulation executed by Seed Ma« 
hamed Naim &TOndi, on behalf of his excellency 
£men Bey, the governor* 

Immediately after the fall of Alexandria, 
Major-general Wauchope, with a detachment 
of fifteen hundred m<«, consisting of the 3 1st 
regiment, and chasseurs Britanniques, was dis-^ - 
patched to take possession of Rosetta and 
Hhamanie, under die persuasion that the pos- 
session of these places was necessary, to pre- 
vent the inhabitants of Alexandria from being 
exposed to the horrors of famine. The troops 
dispatched on this service encountered no oppo- 
aition on their march towards Rosetta, and the 
heights of Abourmattdour^ which command that 
city, were occupied without any loss. Instead 
of retaining possession of this post ; General 
Vol. ir. — no. 4©. 



aaRnffign 



W^ttohope was induced^ wiflio.^t apy previous fiOOSL IV 
examination, to. ^nter the tpwn with his whole ■ ■ ■ ■ 
force. Her/? he found* to his surprise, that ^e* p"^ > ^^- 
parations k%d b^en ly^ade for his reoeption* ^^T^CT^ 
Th^ Turks and AU>anians, in great numbers. ^^' 
had posted themselves in varioua buildings ai)4 
adv^aata^eousaituations; and from every windaw 
and irool in the st^ofots tbro¥gli^ which the Bri- 
tish troops mturcbedy they were assailed by such 
a severe fire of musKcitry* that they were obliged 
at length to evacuatejtjUe place, with a loss of 
three hundred uien {silled and wounded* The 
coi^mander himself m»a among the slain ^ and 
Brigadier-^genei^al Meade, on wl^umi the com- 
mand now dev4>lved^ w^ mewereij wounded in 
the retreat. In this trying situation, to which 
the troops were thus rashly ei^osed, they con- 
ducted themselves with the most admirable 
oourage and disciplines, fuid SHUCceeded in efiect* 
ing their retreat to Aboukir, from whence thcf 
soon after returned to Alexandria. 

Provisions were now become ettremdj 
scarce in this place, and the renewed repre- 
sentations of Major Missett, on the necessity of 
taking Rosetta, were corroborated by the Sor- 
bagi.or Chief Magistrate of Alexandria, who 
stated that famine must be the inevitable conse- 
quence if this measure was not promptly exe- 
cuted. Another corps, amounting to about two 
thousand five hundred men^ under Brigadier- 
general Stewart, was accordingly dispatched on 
&is important and indispensmle service. On 
the 9th of April this force took post oppo« 
site the Alexandrian gate of Rosetta, and began 
to form their .batteries. From the great extent 
of the town, it was found impossible that the 
small British army sentoU thiit service could in- 
vest more than one half of it ; and a line was in 
consequence taken up from the Nile to the front 
of the Alexandrian gate, thence retiring towards 
the plain where the dragoons were posted. A 
mortar and some guns were brought into play 
early in the afternoon ; these were answered 
by the shouts oS the Albanians from their walls ; 
and by incessant discharges of musketry through 
the loop-holes and crevices, which were innu- 
merable. From the 13th to the 20th, the opera- 
tions against the city were prosecuted with much 
vigour. Great damage was done to the. town, 
and not fewer than three hundred shells, from 
.mortars alone, were tiurown into it. During all 
this time General Stewart was in daily and 
almost hourly expectation of assistance from the 
Mamelukes ; but after waiting for this promised 
assistance till the 2lst, a resolution was taken 
on the evening of that day, to retire from before 
Rosetta on Sie fpUowing mpming. Early in 
the morning of the 22d, Colonel Macleod, who 
had been dispatched to defend the post of 
Hamet, informed the general that sixty or 
hi 



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42 



HISTORY OF THE WARS 



Chap. IV. 
1807 



BOOK IV. seventy large vessels, full of hostUe troops, 
were descending the Nile. The danger was 
now alarming, and not a moment was to be lost. 
Orders were immediately dispatched to the 
colonel to abandon his position, and return to 
the main body ; but diese orders were most 
unfortunately intercepted. General Stewart 
himself immediately withdrew, with his army 
formed in a hollow square, takine with him all the 
cannon and amtnunition which me circumstances 
of the case would permit. The British troops, 
impressed with the exigencies of their situation, 
kept the most compact order, and presented in 
each direction so formidable a front, that the 
pursuers, with all their superiority of numbers, . 
and impetuosity of attack, found them imper- 
vious to all their assaults. The detachment at 
Hamet, however, was completely cut off, and 
the whole loss in killed, wounded, and missing, 
from the commencement of the expedition under 
General Stewart, consisted of upwards of a 
thousand men. 

This succession of disasters made a strong 
impression on the public mind. To be defeated 
on the plains of Egypt, which had produced 
some of the fairest wreaths to adorn the brow of 
British valour, was particularly mortifying. 
Disaster, however, was totally unconnected 
with ignominy in the British troops, who, in 
both tne cases above related, exhibited all that 
discipline, intrepidity, and perseverance, for 
which they are so nobly distinguished. The 
expedition itself to Egypt appears to have been 
by no ipeans either necessaiy or prudent at the 
time it ipras under^ken. The influence of such 
an et^terprise upon the operations on the Vistula 
must have been extremely remote, and the 
troops engaged in this expedition miffht have 
been much more beneficially employed on the 
shores of the Baltic. 

The anticipations entertained of a famine 
at Alexandria were happily not verified by 
events. For several months the British troops 
remained in possession of that city, and although 
Rosetta was not added to their conquests, pro- 
visions became daily more plentiful. Prepara- 
tions, however, were making at Cairo upon a 
larg^ scale,, to ^jRTect their expulsion ; and on 
the Sth of August^ the Governor of Egypt, at 
the ])ead of a Connidable force of infantry and 
cavalry, advanced towajrds Alexandria. The 
views of the new ministry with respect to the 
possession of this place hao, no doubt, regulated 
their instructions to the commander with regard 
to his conduct ; and the diminished state of his 
forces, the disafiection of the inhabitants towards 
the invaders, and the vast body now collected 
to proceed ^gain^t them, induced General Era- 



ser to abandon the idea of defence. On the 
approach of the enemy to the town, he sent a- 
flag of truce, announcing, that on condition of 
the. British prisoners being delivered up, the 
army under his command should immediately, 
evacuate Egypt. This condition was accepted 
with as little hesitation as it was made. The 
English force almost immediately embarked, and- 
on the 92d of Septemb^ the standard of Maho- 
met again waved on the towers of AJexapdria. 

Intelligence was received by the British 
ministry of the enterprise undertaken by Sic 
Home Popham, against Buenos Ayres, in the 
month of June, 18M,* just at the moment when 
the negociations between this country and 
France were pending; and it was not until 
October, when all hope of the successful, ter- 
mination of that negociation was^ at an end, that 
a reinforcement was sent from England to 
co-operate with the troops under Gen. Beres- 
ford in Maldonado. The command of the 
troops was given to Sir Samuel Auchmuty, 
and Sir Charles SterKng was appointed to con- 
voy the transports in the Ardent ship of war, 
and on their arrival at La Plata to supersede Sir 
Home Popham on that station. On the 5th of 
January this force arrived at Maldonado. Ad 
attack on Montevideo was now determined upon^ 
and on the morning of the 18th a landing was 
effected in a small bay on the coast. The enemy, 
who were in possession of the surrounding 
heights in gpreat force, suffered the troops to 
disembark, and to take possession of a strong 
post about nine miles from the town, without 
opposition. On the lOth the army moved 
towards Monte Video. Two heights, in the front 
and to the left, were occupied by about four 
thousand of the enemy's horse, and a heavy fire 
of round and grape shot was now opened ; but 
by a spirited charge from 'the light battalion 
under Colonel Brownrigg, the corps opposed to 
him was dispersed, and one of their guns taken. 
The enemv on the flank also commenced a 
retreat, and the British commander was per- 
mitted to occupy a position two miles from the 
citadel, without any further opposition. On the 
following morning, the whole force of the 
Spaniards, consisting of about six thousand 
men, came out of the town to meet the English, 
and commenced an attack in two columns, one 
of which was defeated and driven b&ck with the 
loss of about twelve hundred men ;. and the 
other retreated without coming to action. The 
siege of Mente Video almost immediately coiii-> 
menced ; batteries were in a few days opened 
upon the town, and all the frigates and smaller- 
vessels approached as closely as possible to. 
assist in the cannonade, A battery was eipected^ 



* Sw Vol. I. fiooV yW. Chap. IX. f. 533- 



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OF THE FRENCH EfcVOLUTION. 



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as near as possible to the wall, by the south gate 
of the citadel, which communicated with the 
sea, from which a yigorous fire was kept up, 
and on the 2d of February a breach was report- 
ed practicable. Orders were now giyea for the 
assault to commence an hour before day-break 
on the following morning. The troops- clestined 
for this service were commanded by Colonel 
Browne; and the remainder of the British force, 
including a corps of seven hundred marines 
and seamen, were encamped under Brigadier- 
general Lumley, to act as a cor]^s of reserve 
and protect the rear. The mormng was ex- 
tremely dark, and the troops had approached 
near to the breach before they were discovered. 
But no sooner had the garrison become aware of 
their danger, than a destructive fire, from every 
gun that could be made to bear upon the breach, 
was opened, and showers of musketry were 
poured down upon the assailants. The head of 
the British column, owing to the continued 
darkness, had the misfortune to miss the breach, 
which, in the course of the night, had been 
closed up and stronely barricaded with hides^ 
notwithstanding all the fire of the besiegers. In 
this situation the troops remained, under a 
heavy fire, for a quarter of an hour, when the 
breach was discovered by Captain Renny, who 
pointed it out, and gloriously fell as he mounted 
it. The soldiers, difiicult as was the access, 
forced their way to the ramparts, and from 
thence into the town', overturning the cannon 
which had been placed at the head of the princi- 
pal avenues, and clearing the batteries and the 
streets with their bayonets. By eieht o^ clock in 
the morning, every thing was completely in their 
possession ; perfect tranquillity reigned through- 
out the place, and the women were seen walking 
about the town vnthout the slightest alarm. 
From the first landing to the complete occupation 
of the citadely the British loss amounted to about 
six hundred inen ; Major Dolrymple was killed, 
and Lieutenant-colonels Vaissal and Brownrigg 
died of their wounds. The loss sustained by 
the enemy was about eight hundred killed, and 
five hundred wounded; about two thousand 
Spaniards were made prisoners, including the 
Governor, Don Pasquil Ruis jSuidobro; and 
fifteen hundred were supposed to have escaped 
in their boats or to have secreted themselves in 
the town.* 

In the month of June, a British expedition, 
onder General Crawford, cpnsisting of about 
five thousand troops, arrived in the river Plata, 
and was joined by the troops which had at 
different times arrived in South America since 
the first attack upon the Spanish settlements, by 
(General Beresford. The command of tliis 



-1807 



united force was given to General Whitelocke, BOOK IV. 
and an attack upon Buenos Ayres was immedi- \ 
ately resolved upon. After several delays, occa- ^^^-J^; 
sioned by the unfavourable state of the weather, 
a landing was efieeted on the 28th of June 
without opposition at Ensenada, about thirty 
miles eastward of the town. Colonel Mahon, 
to whom the bringing up of the heavy artillery 
was intrusted, was directed to wait at Reduc- 
tion till further orders ; and the army, divided 
into two columns, after surmounting various 
(iifiiculties, arrived before Buenos Ayres on the 
following day, when the fortress was summon- 
ed to surrender. This demand, as might have 
been anticipated, was peremptorily declined, 
and preparations were made for the attack. The 
British line was formed by placing General 
Auchmuty^s brigade on the left, extending 
within two miles of Recoleta ; the 36th and 88Ui 
regiments were on the right ; and the brigade 
of General Crawford occupied the principal 
avenues to the town, about three miles distant 
from the great square and fort, his right being 
well supported by an appointment of dragoons, 
and the 45th regiment extending to the Rest- 
dencia. The town was thus nearly invested. 

Understanding that the inhabitants meant 
to occupy the flat roofs of their houses for de- 
fence and annoyance, and that the town was 
divided into squares of about one hundred and 
forty yards each, General Whitelocke resolved ^ 
to adopt the following plan of attack -.—Every 
division, being provided with cannon, was to 
proceed along the street directly in its front, till 
it arrived at the last square ac^oining the river, 
there to occupy the flat roofe of the houses, and 
to await further instructions ; A corporal's 
guard was to march at the head of each column, 
with instruments to break open the doors of the 
houses ; and the muskets were to be kept un- 
loaded till the columns were formed at theii: 
appointed final stations. 

These arrangements having been given out,, 
the strong post of the Retiro and ' Plaza de 
Toros, was approached early in the morning of 
the 5th of July by General Auchmuty ; and 
notwithstanding the severe discharges of grape 
shot and musketry from the Spaniards, the 
general gained possession of the place, taking 
thirty-two pieces of cannon, six hundred^ pri- 
soners, and a v^ast quantity of ammunition. 
The 5th regiment advanced to the river, after 
experiencing very little opposition, and took 
possession of the church ana convent of St. Ca- 
talina. The 36tji and 88th regiments, under 
Brigadier-general Lumley, movmg In the ap- 
pointed order, were opposed in their mai'ch by an 
fncen^ant fire of musketry from the tops of tho^, 



Sir Samu^ Auchmuty'ft B^ip^tchea, dated M^ntf Video, F^bruarjr ^^ 18P7. 



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HISTORY Ot^ THE WAtta 



BOOK IV bouses, the dooris.df ^bich were so fimly balri* 

cadedy that scarcely any effort could force thein 

Chap. IY. opeO) while the streets were intersected by deep 
'^^"^^ ditches, in the inside of which were planted 
1807 cannon, which poured grape shot on the advance 
ing columns. The 36th regiment, howeyer, 
Was enabled to oviercome aU this opposition, and 
to reach its final destination. The 88th regi- 
ment, which was more exposed to the fire of the 
forts, and to the principal defences of the 
Spaniards, was completely OYcr-powered and 
taken. This misfortune rendered unayailing the 
success of the other regiment, and botli the 
36th and the 5th regiments were at length 
obliged to retreat upon the post of General 
Auchinuty. In the mean time, the British six- 

Sounders, wMch had been appointed to more 
own the principal streets, covered by four 
troops of carabineers, led on by Lieutenant^ 
colonel Kingston, advanced to take the battery ; 
but this gallant officer being unfortunately 
wounded, as well as Captain Burrell, next in 
coipmand, and the fire, hoth from the battery 
and the bouses, proving very destructive, they 
were obliged to fall back on a position in front 
of tlie enemy's principal defences. Lieutenant- 
colonel PacK, with the left division of General 
Crawford's brigade, had advanced nearly to the 
riv^r, where he was to occupy the Jesuits* 
College, M'hieh commanded the principal Spanish 
line of defence ; but on turning to the left, the 
fire of the enemy became so overwhelming as to 
render all further advance absolutely impracti- 
cable.. Part o^ this division took possession of 
a house, which was almost immediately found 
untenable, and no alternative remained but 
surrender or absolute destruction. The re* 
mainder of the division, after sustaining with 
intrepidity the incessant discharges of the enemy, 
by which tiieir commander was wounded, 
retired upon the right division, commanded bv 
General Crawford in person. The general, 
learning the fate of his left division, and being 
BOW opposed by immense superiority of numbers, 
thought it advisable to take possessibn of the 
Cqnvent of St. Domingo. The Residencia had 
been gained by Colonel Guard, with very slight 
opposition, and leaving this position in posses- 
sion of his light companies, the coloh^l advanced 
with liis principal force towards General Craw- 
ford, and joined him at the convent. The 
building was almost instantly surrounded by 
the enemy. In this emergency. General Craw«- 
ford was obliged to confine himself to the 
defence of the convent ; but the quantity of 
round shot, grape, and musketiry, to which the 
troops were exposed, at length obliged them to 
quit the top of the building ; and the Spaniards, 



to the number of six thousand, bringing u]^ 
cannon to force the wooden gates, tlie general^ 
vdth all the troops under his command, surren-* 
dered at four o'clock in the afternoon. 

*^ The result of this day's action," says 
General Whitelocke, *^ left me in possession of 
the Plaza de Toros, a strong post on iixt 
enemy's right, and the Residencia, another 
strong post on his left, while I occupied thfe 
advanced position towards his centre ; but these 
advantages had cost two thousand five hundred 
men in killed, wounded, and prisoners. The 
nature of the fire to which the troops were 
exposed was violent iu the <^xtreme. Grape-^ 
shot at the comers of the streets ; musketry, 
hand-grenades, bricks, and stones, from the tops 
of all the houses ; every householder, with his 
negroes, defending his dwelling, each of which 
was in itself a fortress; and it is not, perhaps, 
too much to say, that the whole male population 
of Buenos Ayres was employed in its defence.*'* 
The night of the 5th exhibited an impressive 
pause in the work of destruction. On the follow- 
ing morning Cren. Liniers addressed a letter to 
the British commander, ofiering to deliver up 
the prisoners taken on this occasion, and also 
those taken from General Beresford, on con- 
dition that the attack on the town should be 
discontinued, and that, within two months from 
that date, Monte Video, and the other stations 
on the river Plata, occupied by the English 
troops, should be evacuated. It was stated, in 
this dispatch, that the exasperation of the popu- 
lace against th^ English prisoners Was un< 
bounded, and that, if hostilities were persisted 
in by General Wliitelocke, it would be impos- 
sible to insure their safety. These terms were no 
sooner proposed than they were yielded to by tlie 
British general, who was determined to this 
assent principally from a reference to the situ- 
ation of the prisoners, which, from unques- 
tionable intelligence, he understood to be highly 
critical; and from the consideration that the 
possession of a country, whose inhabitants were 
so decidedly hostile to Uie conquerors, could be 
attended with no permanent advantage. 

The conduct of General Whitelocke, in 
conducting this expedition, called forth the 
most severe reprehension ; and the entire failure 
lotf the enterprise produced universal dissatisfac- 
tion and disappointment. The general, on his 
return to England, after the eAtire evacuation 
6f South America, was put upon his trial before-* 
a cdurt-martial, assembled at Chelsea, on the 
tSiik of January, 1808, and continued by ad- 
journment for two and thirty days. By this 
tribunal he was pronounced guihy of all the 
)chargcs preferred against him, except that part 



* Genenl Wbitclocke't DiMj^hek, dsted BtiMos Ayreiv July 7^ ISOT. 



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OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 



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of (he second vrhick related to the order^ that the 
muskets of the columns should be unloaded, and 
that no firing should be permitted on any ac- 
count, and hemg declared totally unfit and un- 
worthy to serve his majesty in any military capa- 
city whateyer, was cashiered.^ 

An enterprise of considerable consequence, 
and terminating in a much more happy result 
than the expedition against Buenos Ayres, was 
accomplished the first day in the year 1807, by 
a squadron of four frigates,t commanded by 
Captain Brisbane, under the orders of Vice- 
admiral Dacres. The expedition was directed 
against the Dutch settlement of Cur»goa. The 
harbour was defended by regular fortifications 
of two tiers of guns ; Fort Amsterdam alone con- 
taining sixty-six pieces of cannon. The entrance 
was only fifty yards wide, and across it were 
moored two frigates and two large schooners of 
war. A chain of forts was on the commanding 
height of Miselburg; and Fort Republique, 
deemed nearly impregnable, was within the dis- 
tance of grape shot, and enfiladed the whole 
harbour. Soon after day-break, the British 
frigates made all possible sail in close order of 
battle. The vessels appointed to intercept their 
entrance were taken by boarding ; and the lower 
forts, the citadel and the town of Amsterdam, 
by storm. The port was entered at about six 
o'clock in the morning ; before ten a capitulation 
isras signed, the British flag was hoisted on Fort 
Republique, and the whole island was in com- 
plete possession of the assailants. The loss of 
the British amounted only to three men killed, 
and eleven wounded ; and the inhabitants of the 
town, to the amount of thirty thousand, swore 
allegiance to the British government. 

The year 1807 beheld the continent of 
£iVope apparently prostrate at the feet of 
France. The discipline of Austria and Prussia 
had disappeared before the numbers and the 
enthusiasm of the French armies, and the pre- 
dominant genius of their leader. The sove- 
reigns of those countries had seen their capitals 
filled with hostile armies, and their flying courts 
hovering on the frontiers of their former do* 
minions. The house of Uapsburg had ceased 
to give emperors to Germany : and the downfall 



1807 



of a constitution transmitted firom the feudal I^OOK ffV. 
ages, was beheld without astonishm^it, and '^ 

probably without regret. The battle of Fried- <^"ap- ^^* 
land had convinced the Emperor of Russia of 
the necessity of peace ; and the treaty of Tilsit, 
concluded on the Sth of July, rather proclaimed 
than confirmed the power of Etonaparte, and 
the weakness of his adversaries. In these cir- 
cumstances, the eyes of all Europe were fixed 
upon Eno^Iand. In her they beheld a power 
which had uniformly resisted with vigour, and 
with comparative enect, the encroachments of 
the continental colossus ; and in struggling to 
support the political system of civRized Europe, 
she had respected the laws by which it was 
regulated. In the midst of the disasters and 
errors of the continent, Denmark had remained 
unmolested — ^protected by the firm but temperate 
politics of her court ; by the attachment of 
the inhabitants to the family of the sovereign, 
and to their own national independence ; by 
the jrigid observance of a strict neutrality ; and 
by tlie moral turpitude attached to unprovoked 
aggression. From the general policy of the 
French Emperor, every thing was to be appre- 
hended ; and the Crown Prince of Denmark, 
draining the rest of his dominions of their forces, 
had for three years kept the flower of the Danish 
youth assembled on the borders of Holstein, to 
protect the only quarter in which aggression 
seemed to be possible, from the entrance of that 
a^my which had long hovered on its frontier. 

Snch was the posture of affairs when the 
British government determined to dispatch to 
the Baltic a powerful armament, consisting of 
twenty thousand troops, under the command of 
Lieutenant-general Lord Cathcart ; and a fleet 
of twelQty- seven sail of the line, and vessels of 
all other descriptions, to the number of nearly 
ninety pendants, under Admiral Gambier. When 
the intelligence of this expedition first arrived in 
Copenhagen, it was universally supposed, in that 
city, tbat^the English army was intended to co- 
operate with the Swedes in the defence of Stral- 
suiidj and in the re-conquering the rest of 
Pomerania ; and the only apprehension was that 
it would arrive too late. The illusion was, 
however, speedily dissipated, by the arrival of 



* The chargvs againtt General Wlntek>cke were four, and were in substance as fbHows :— 

tst Having, contrary to the tenour of instructions, in the summons to Buenos Ayres, required that the dvH officers and magistrates 
shooM be made prisoners of war, wliich, it is averred, is contraiy to all the customs of war, and had a decided effect in inflaming the dvil 
*^6pafaUion to resistance. 

«d. Expoong the army, m marching against Buenos Ayrcs, to a destructive discharge of musketry ftom tlie town, without providing that 
vnoy with the proper means of oflencc or attack, and ordering the whole of his brigades to be unloaded, and no firing to be- permitted on any 
AoeouDt* 

3d. Not being present personally off the adinmoe against Buenos Kym ; also not keeping open a comm nnfeat ti wi between the main body of 
Che tioopa and the detBchment under General Crawford, which compelled that officer to surrender. 

4th. SoiieDdeiing the fortress of Monte Video wttunxt necessity, which was capable of midiing an effiBCtnal resiiUulce against any force tte 
could be httn^ against iL 



VOL. ii.-*-iio. 41. 



t The Arethusa, Latoaa, AnsoD, and Fisbguard« 

M 



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4S 



HISTORY OF THE WARS 



Chap. 



1807 



JBOO&iV. Mr. Jackson in the Danish oapital, on the let of 
August, as plenipotentiary on behalf of his 
IV. Britannic Majesty, The English negociator, as 
might have been expected, failed in con vine* 
iug the Crown Prince that it was incumbent 
upon him to deprive his own kingdom and 
capital, during a period critical beyond example, 
of a defence, provided at an enormous expense, 
in order to ^ dd to the naval power, or to pro* 
mote the security of Great Britain. Accord* 
ingly, on the 16th of August, Lord Cathcart dis* 
embarked his forces at Wybeck, and nearly at 
the same time the British troops from Stralsund 
effected a latiUng in Keoge Bay, swelling the 
land force under the British commander to 
twenty^eight thou/sand men. On the day after 
the landing of the troops, they advanced in three 
columns^ with very trifling opposition, to invest 
Copenhagen, which was effected on the north 
and south by the military force, and by the naval 
power on the east. The regular works were 
now commenced and carried on with gpeat 
spirit ; and while they were rapidly advancing, 
the frigates and gun- boats took advantage of 
a favourable breeze to station themselves near 
the entrance of the harbour, from which they 
might throw shells into the town. Brigadier- 
general Decken, who bad been sent against 
Frederickswork, succeeded in surprising that 
important post, by which a depot of cannon 
and powder, and upwards of eight hundred 
Danish soldiers, fell into the hands of the be- 
siegers. The country being now roused into an 
extreme state of irritation against the invaders. 
General Castenschield was enabled to accumu- 
late a formidable voluntary force, and in addi- 
tion to these irregular troops, three or four 
" of disciplined soldiers contriboted to 
general^s ranks. 



battalions 
swell the 



On the 36th this 



army was attacked by Sir Arthur Wellesley, and 
defeated, with a loss of sixty officers, eleven 
hundred men, and ten pieces of cannon. Hav- 
ing dispersed these troops, the British general 
moved towards the centre of the island, with a 
view to disarm and. keep down the rising spirit 
of the country, in which endeavour he so effec- 
tually succeeded as to prevent the besieging 
army from experiencing any further molestation 
from this quarter. 

In the mean time, the contest wns carried on 
with great vigour between the Danish gun- 
boats and praams, supported by the crown bat- 
tery, a block-house, and some other works, and 
the advanced squadron of the British gun-boats, 
when the latter were at length obliged to retire 
before the destructive fice of the red-hot shot of 
the enemy. Between tlie British batteries on 
shore, and the enemy^s gun-boats, the conflict on 
the part of the former was more successful, and 
the Danes were, in their turn, obliged to retreat 
with considerable loss. The besieging army 
had now advanced its positions to the inundation 
in front of the city ; and the moment rapidly 
approached in which the more serious operations 
of the siege were to commence. As no over- 
tures for accommodation had been made or 
yielded to by the Danes, and as every thing 
evinced their determination to endure the horrors 
of a bombardment, the heavy ordnance were 
landed on the 26th, and by the Slst the platform 
was laid, and the mortar batteries were ready 
for action 1 A summons was now dispatched by 
the Britisii Commanders to General Pieman, the 
Governor of Copenhagen, containing the same 
oflers which had been originally made by Mr. 
Jackson, and which were now again most 
peremptorily refused.* 

^' The mortar batteries, whicli had heen 



♦ SUMMONS TO THE CITY OF COPENHAGEN, 
Addressed to his Excellency General Pieman, Governor. 

<* BrUish Head-quarlerSj before Copenhagen^ September 1, 1807^ 

** Snt,— We, ibe oommanden-in-chkf of his vm^etlbft sea and land forces now before Copenhagen, judge H expedient at this time io 
nnnmons you to sunender the place, for the purpose of avoiding the ftirther efPosion of blood, by giving up a defence, which, it is 
fvident cannot long be continued. The king, our gnidous master, used every endeavour to settle the maUer now in dispute, in the most 
conciliating manner, through his diplomatic servants. To convince his Danish Majesty and oil the world, of the reluctance with which his 
mr^y feels himself oompdled to have recourse to arms, we, the undersigned, at this moment, when our troops ore before yoor gates, and 
our batteries ready to open, do renew to you the offer of the same advantageous and conciliatory tenns which were prope«ed tfaroagh his 
miuesty*8 ministets to your court. 

« If you will consent to deliver up the Danish fleet, and to our carrying it away, it shall be held as a deposit for his Danish Majesty, 
and shall be restored, with all its equipments, in as good a state as it is received, as soon as the provisions of a general peace shall re- 
move the necessity which has occasioned this demand. The property of all soru, which has been captured since the commencement of 
iiostilities, will be restored to its owners, and the union between the kingdoms of Great Briuin and Irehmd, and Denmark, may be re- 
newed. But if thb ofibr be rejected now, it cannot be repeated. The captured property, public and private, must then belong to the 
captors, and the dty when taken must share the fate of conquered places. 

*' We must request an early decision, because, in the present advanced position of the troops, so near your glacis, the most prompl 
and viganms attack is indispensable, and delay would be improper. We have the honour to be, 

" J. GAMBIER, Commander-in-chief of his Majesty's ships and Teasels. 

** CATHCABT, Commander-in-chief of the land forces." 



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OF THE FBENCH REVOLUTION. 



4T 



erected by the army in the several positions they 
had taken round Copenhagen, together i;vith 
the bomb vessels, ivhich were placed in con- 
venient situations, bet^an the bombardment on 
the morning of the 3d of September, with such 
power and effect, that in a short time the town 
was set on fire, and, by the repeated discharges 
of our artillery, was kept in flames in different 
places till the evening of the 5th, when a con* 
siderable part of it being consumed, and the con- 
flagration, arrived at a great height, threatened 
the speedy destruction of the whole city, the ge- 
neral commanding the garrison sent out a flag 
of truce, defliring an armistice to afford time to 
treat for a capitulation.'** It was explained to 
General Pieman, in reply, that the basis of the 
capitulation must be the delivering up of the 
fleet ; which in a subsequent letter from the 
general was admitted ; and on the morning of 
the 7th, the articles of capitulation, which had 
been settled daring the night of the 6th, were 
ratified. By these articles, the British forces 
vrere to be put in immediate possession of the 
citadel and dock yards; all the ships of war and 
naval stores of his Danish Majesty were to be 
delivered up ; the prisoners were to be mutually 
restored ; private property was to be respected ; 
the functions of the civil and military officers 
were to receive no interruption ; and within six 
weeks the citadel was to be restored to his Danish 
Majesty, in the state in which it was occupied, 
and the British troops were to have evacuated the 
island of Zealand. The navy, delivered up in 
consequence of tlvis agreement, consisted of six- 
teen ships of the line, fifteen frigates, six brigs, 
and twenty-five gun-boats, besides vessels on 
the stocks; in the arsenals were found stores 
sufficient to fit for sea all this formidable fleet ; 
and all the ships of the line and frigates were 
laden with the masts, spars, and timber that 
remained. A considerable part of the stores of 
this description were put on board the Leyden 
and Inflexible ; and some of the more valuable 
articles on board others of his megesty's ships ; 
notwithstanding which there still remaiued 



sufficient to load ninety-two transports, and HOOK \Y. 

other vessels, chartered for this purpose, and -^ 

whose cargoes amounted to at least twenty v H ^' 7^; 
thousand tons. The loss sustained by the Bri* ^JjfZ^ 
tish, before Copenhagen, did not exceed two 
hundred men; that of the Danes was much more 
considerable, it amounted to about two thousand 
persons: four hundred houses were destroyed, 
and the venerable edifice of Frederick Kirk was 
laid in ruins. 

In calculating the amount of the gain by 
this unprecedented operation, England had ob- 
viously to set off^ first, the expense attending 
the expedition to Copenhagen, fvfiich probably 
amounted to the prime cost of the captured 
vessels ; second, the implacable animosity of the 
whole Danish nation against this country, de- 
voting them, with all the resources of Denmark, 
to the service of Bonaparte ; third, the resent- 
ment expressed and acted upon by the Emperor 
of Russia, which cemented, if it did not dictate 
his ^liance with France ; and lastly, and above 
all,. the diminution of that high national cha- 
racter, and consequent influence, which Great 
Britain had hitherto enjoyed among the nations 
of Europe. It was indeed asserted, in justifi- 
cation of this measure, that ^' his majesty had 
received the most positive information of the 
determination of the present Ruler of France to 
occupy with a military IVwrce the territory of 
Holstein, for the purpose of excluding Great 
Britain from her accustomed channels of com- 
munication with the continent; or inducing or 
compelling the court of Denmark to close the 
passage of the Sound against British commerce 
and navigation ; and of availing himself of the 
aid of the Danish mai*ine for the invasion of 
Great Britain and Ireland ; and further, *^ Hol« 
stein once oecupied, Zealand would be at the 
mercy of France, and the navy of Denmark at 
her disposal."t The evidence of the positive 
information here alluded to was never exlnbited ; 
but it was contended, and from high authority,, 
that ministers had no occasion to produce proof 
of their assertion ; that the facts which justified.. 



ANS\VEir, 

Addressed to his Excellency Admiral Gambler and Lord Catlicart; 

'* Copeiihagett^ September 1, 1807; 
*« Mt Loss,— Our fleet, our own indisputable propertf, we are oonvinoed is as safe in his Danish Mi^esty's hands as ever it can be ^ 
ia those of the King of England* as our master never intended any hostility against yoois. If you arc cruel enough to endeavour to destroy 
• dty* that has not given any the least cause for sueh treatment at your hands, it must submit to its fiite ; but honaur and duty bid 
^«s to r^ea a proposal unbecoming an independent power; and we are resolved to rq>el any and every attack, and defend to the utmost^ 
the dty and our good cause, for which we axe ready to lay down our lives. 

" PIEMAN, CoBunaader-in-duaf of his Danish Majesty's land force.'* 

^^^ Appendant to General Pieman's reply, was a proposal to send te hie royal master, at Kolding, for his final instnictions; but teh 
BdBA oonunanden did not consider themsdves authorised to acquiesce in this proposal 

* Admiral Gambler's Dispatches, dated Copenhagen- Road, September 7, 1307. 



t British Declaration, dated September 25, 1807. 



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HI&TOBY OP TUB WARiS 



Chap, IV. 



1807 



BOOK VI. the seizure of the Danish fleet were piriUie and 
notorious, and were to be found in the power 
and aBiiiiogity of France; the weukneas imd 
hostile disposition of Denmark; and the import- 
ance of her navy Awards the success of any 
plan wliich the enemy mi^rht adopt for the in- 
Yasion of tliese realms. These circumstaJices, it 
was insisted, made out a ocise of necessity ; ami 
the measure adopted was one of self-preserra- 
tion, the iirst law of nature. To establbh these 
positions, it was necessary to shew the inability 
of Denmark to resist the seizure of her fleet by 
France ; and that, even in such case, Great 
Britain was menaced with a danger so imminent 
as to justify an attack on a neutral power. On 
the first of these points, it was affirmed by Earl 
8t. Vincent, one of the best naval authorities in 
this country, in the presence of Lords Catheart 
and Gambier, in the house of peers, and uncon- 
tradicted, that it was easier to invade Great 
liritaiu from Boulogne, than Zealand from 
Funen ; and consequently, that ^^ Holstein once 
occupied, Zealand was (not) at the mercy of 
France, and the navy of Denmark at her dis-- 
posal." On the second, it Ccinnot be seriously 
stated, that this nation would have been in a 
state of tremendous and unparalleled ^peril, 
although the navy of Bonaparte had been ac- 
tually augmented by sixteen ships, fifteen fri- 
gates, six brigs, and twenty-five gun-boats. 
When the war was renewed in 1808, the victories 
of our naval heroes had not completed the des- 
truction of the French marine. France had 
still a powerful fleet; and Russia, Prussia, 
Sweden, and Denmark, were united in a con- 
fetieracy Itostile to this country* Yet, did our 
measures at that time argue pusillanimity, or 
beget despondency ? Did any man tiien ven- 
ture to state to the British natioq, that the im- 
minent peril which menaced these reahns had 
rendered obsolete the political code of o«ur an- 
cestors, and that safety could only be found in 
imitating the violence and atrocity of the enemy ? 
It ought also to be recollected, that at the 
time she was required to surrender up her fleet 
to British protection, Denmark could not con- 
sent to the sacrifice demanded. Her continental 
possessions were exposed to French invasion ; 
her capital might be laid in ruins by an English 
fleet; and her foreign possessions were at the 
mercy of Great Britain. A strict neutrality was 
therefore a line of conduct imperiously prescribed 
to the Crown Prince, by the local peculiarities 
of his territory ; and it is a circumstance highly 
honourable to the people of Great Britain, that 
BO consideration of present advantage, or of 
permanent security, ever fully reconciled them 
to an enterprise, by which they conceived the 
national honour to be tarnished, and felt that 
their moral sensibilities were outraged. 



The conduet of the Emperor of Rus^a, in 
acceding to the treaty of Tilsit, had tended con- 
siderately to relax the bond of union between tlie 
courts of London and St. Petersburg ; and 
the long interviews held on the Niemen betw<M^ 
the two emperors, the exchanges of imoerial 
insignia at Tilsit, and the ascendency of Bona- 
parte's understanding, rendered it far from im- 
probable that Russia might soon join in hostility 
against England, with which she had so long, 
but so unsuccessfully, co-operated. At length, 
every doubt on this subject was dissipated ; and 
apprehension was. converted into certainty. The 
season of the year having arrived in which an- 
noyance from Great Britain could not be appre- 
hended, the British ambassador was ordered 
to leave Petersburg, and on the dlst of Oc- 
tober, a declaration of war was issued against 
England. 

In this paper, the emperor regrets the existing 
^ienation of his Britannic Majesty in proportion to the 
fi»reat value which he bad piace'd upon bis frienibhip. 
Twice had the emperor taken up arnui m a cause in which 
England was peculiarly concerned, but in the accomplish- 
Dient of her own projects he had in vain solicited her co- 
operation. When peace was re-established with France 
by Russia, the latter had offered her mediation to Eng- 
lanit. This had been rejected, unquestionably on a deter- 
mination to break off all the exisiing ties between the two 
nations. At the moment when it was tlius in the power of 
England to complete that general peace which was so 
much desired, her fleets and troops were summoned to 
execute an act of outrage unparalleled In history, and to 
attack a power whieh, by its moderate comluct and wise 
nentrality, maintained a sort of moral dignity amidst sur- 
rounding- and conflicting monarchs. The Prince Royal 
of Denmark had communicated all the insidious proposi- 
tions of England to the emperor, and reposed in him a just 
confidence. The emperor, touched wiih the confidence 
re|»osed in him, and havtn&r considered his own peculiar 
complaints against England, and his engagenients with 
the powers ofthe north, had resolved to recafl his embassy 
from England; to terminate all communication with her** 
to act on the principles of the armed neutrality, and never 
to recede from them ; to procure the restoration of all 
unjustly detained vessels and merchandise ; not to re- 
establish any communication before complete satisfaction 
was given to Denmark ; and to require of his Britannic 
Majesty, instead of ** suffering his ministers to scatter 
the seeds of fresh war,, to conclude such a treaty with tlie 
Emperor of France, as should prolong intermmably the 
invsJuable blessings of peace." 

To this declaration, an answer was re- 
turned by the British government on the 18th 
of December, in which it was stated, 

" That his Britannic Majesty was aware ofthe na- 
ture of those engagements impose<l on the Emperor of Rus- 
sia by the peace of Tilsit, but had hoped that, in a season* 
of reflection, he would have extricated himself from the 
new councils and connections which had been adopted in a 
moment of despondency and alarm, and returned to tliat 
policy which he had so long professed, and which had 
conduced so much to the prosperity of his dominions ; but 
the declaration of Russia had disapp<)inted these expec- 
tations. AVith respect to the chaise aguinst Great Britain, 
of having neglected to support the military operations of 



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OF TUB FRENCH BSTOLUTION. 



40 



seassBeamm 



Russia, it ijl observed, that tbe war m%h the Porte was 
vudertaken by Great Britain at tbe inst'^tion of Buasia, 
and solely fbr'tlie purpose of maintaining Russian interests* 
The offer of mediation by Ruissia was not declined but ac- 
cepted, cm ^nditiofis in themselves perfectly natural, and 
whicb it would hare been higbly mi^preper to omit. The 
conditions required by his .i^ajesty wer&— a stalement of 
the basis upon which tLe enemy was disposed to treat ; 
and a communication of the articles of the treaty of Tilsit; 
but these conditions had neither of them been fulfilled. 
With respect to the expedkion to Copenhagen, it iJl becamb 
thoae wIm were partiea to the secret arrangenaente at Tilsit 
to demand satis&ction for a measure to which those ar- 
rangements gave rise, and by which one of tlie objects of 
tliem was happily defeated. The requisition of an imme- 
diate conclusion of peace with France, was as extraordinary 
in substance as it was offensiTe in its manner. His ma- 
jesty would ne?eT udmit the preteiisioQS of the Emperor of 
Russia to dictate the time or the mode of .his negociation^ 
with other powers, nor would ever endure that any govern- 
ment should iridertinify itself for the' bumiliat^6n of sub- 
serviency to Frauds j by adopting tin insolent and per- 
emptory tone towards Great Britain-. His majesty,^' 
continues the declaration^ *^ proclaims anew those prin- 
iriples of maritime law, against which the armed neutrality 
was originally directed ; and against which the present 
hosdtities of Russia are denounced. Those principles 
wliieb have been recognized and acted upon in the best 
aeriods of the history m. £arope^ it is like vighft, and tbe 
duty of his m^esly to maintain ; .and against every coiib- 
federacy, his majesty is detenpinedi under the blessing of 
divine providence, to maintain them. When the oppor- 
tunity for peace tetween Great Britain and Russia shall 
arrive, his majesty will embrsece it with eagerness. His 
im^esty, as he has nothing to concede, so he has nothing 
to require : satisfied, if Russia shall manifest a disposi- 
tion to return to her ancient feelings of friendship towards 
Great Britain ; to a just consideration of hef own true 
interests ; and to a sense of her own dignity as an inde- 
pendent nation.*^' 

One immense power noiv occupied Europe, 
mnrangiBg and controuling cTery. tiling in con- 
formity to its views. The subjugation of Russia 
to Freneh influence was, on this account, sin- 
cerely to be deplored ; nor could it be concealed, 
that the substitution of her hostility for her 
alliance, was greatly to be lamented by this 
country, as adding to die pressure of a situation 
idready full of embarrassment. Amidst the difli- 
culties pressing upon this country, the vast ter* 
ritory of Europe being now subseryient to the 
designs of an enemy, meditating its downfall 
aa the consummation of his policy, there was 
sometlHng calculated to produce inspirationssof 
the noblest heroism. The antipathy of the 
enemy arose principally from that effectual op- 
position afforded by England to the universal 
dominion of his arms ; and the magnitude of 
the confederation of nations, united willingly or 
by compulsion against her, was a confession that 
lier prowess and resources were incapable of 
being subdued but by the most extraordinary 
means, and implied, indeed, those doubts of 
suoeess,' which never iail to add confidence to 
the spirit with which aggression is opposed. 
This impressive, because reluctant compliment 
VOL. n. — NO. 41. 



fipom an adversary, was felt at this moment by BOOR l\\ 

the British nation in its full force, and all hearts — 

•nd hands wepe united to sustain the urgency of ^'^^ap. IV. 
tbe cFitis. ^^Toivr^ 

Theefibrts of Bonaparte to exdnde Bug- ^^7 
Ush commerce, and to establish his ^^ continental 
system," Irerc, this year, continued with rigor- 
ous perseverance and undiminished pressure. 
To embarrass the trade and finances of Great 
Britain, Europe was obliged, in a great degree, 
to abandon those luxuries which long habit had 
almost" rendered necessary supplies. The n$- 
strietions enforced against England Were fol- 
lowed on her part by a system of retaliation, 
which deprived multitudes in France of the 
means of honest industry, and even of relief 
under disease and pain. The cotton manufac- 
tures languished for want of raw material. 
Sugars, and Various other articles cf colonial 
produce, had attained a price that exceeded by 
three hundred p^ cent, their former vdue ; and 
•rhubarb and bark, the usual palliatives of dis- 
ease, were scarcely to be procured. Similar 
distresses, flowing from tlie same causes, ei^ 
tended to almost all the countries of the conti- 
nent^ which presented a striking picture of pri- 
'Vation and patient endurance: At the same 
time, this country felt vrith no eominon pressure 
the consequences of these restrictions. The. 
regular channels ,of communication, througli 
which British manuihctures and , ootonial pro- 
duce had poured in immense supplies, extend- 
ing in opposite directions to the fiemotest points 
of the continent, were now dried up. Those 
connivances and elusions which had fmtnerly . 
rendered {Positive restraints formidable only upon 
paper, were in a great measure precluded, and 
the distress in the manufacturing and commer- 
cial districts of the kingdom was such as tt> 
excite the most poignant re|^t in the philan- 
thropic observer, who could derive no consola- 
tion from the idea that these evils were felt with 
equal force throughout the greatest part of 
Europe. The distress of the West India 
planters, in consequence of the exclusi^m of 
their produce from the usual markets, -excited 
particular attention ; and to remedy this evil, a 
committee of the house of commons, appointed 
to inquire into the most eflfectual means of afford- 
ing them relief, recommended a decrease of duty 
upon coloniiLl produce, an advance of bounty 
upon its importation, and the interruption of the 
intercourse carried on by American ships be-* 
tween the colonies of Cuba, Porto Rico, Mar- 
tinique, and Guadaloupe, through the medium 
of the United States, to Europe. 

The suggestion of the committee relative 
to the suspension of French and American in- 
tercourse, leads to a view of the relative situation 
of the United States and Great Britain. Tbe 
N . 



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50 



HISTORY OP THE WARS 



BOOK \V, spirit of disaflfeetioii between the two countries 

originated in causes that hare already been 

Oiup. jy. stated and discussed.* . With respect to the 
^^•^^^"^^^ practice of searching American vessels for Bri- 
1807 tish seamen, incidents were perpetually occur- 
long to keep alive the spirit of exasperation. 
In the former year, John Pierce, an American 
seaman, was lulled by a shot fired from on board 
.the Leander ; and in the course of the present 
year another fatal occurrence took place, .which 
threatened consequences of the most serious 
nature. A British squadron, under Admiral 
Berkeley, had been for some time stationed at 
the entrance to the river Chesapeake ; and while 
the American frigate, the Chesapeake, of forty- 
iCour guns, was equipping for the Mediterranean, 
under Commodore Barron, several seamen had 
deserted from the English ships, and engaged 
themselves to serve on board the American 
frigate. Representations of these circumstances 
having been made to the agents of the Ame- 
rican government without effect, an order was 
in consequence issued by Admiral Berkeley to 
the captain of the Leopard frigate, to cruise off 
the cape, for the purpose of intercepting the 
Chesapeake, after she had passed the linuts of 
the American waters, and examining her for 
deserters. In compliance with these directions, 
Captain Humphries sent a boat on board the 
American frigate on the 2dd of June, as she 
was advancing on her voyage, apprising the 
commodore £at he had deserters on board, 
and that he bad received orders to search for 
them. The demand of Captain Humphries 
not being acceded to, he fired several shots, 
without injuring the American vessel ; no at- 
tention being paid to these demonstrations, a 
broadside was poured into the Chesapeake, 
which she returned with six or seven detached 
shots, and, on receiving a second broadside, 
struck her colours. On examination, several 
deserters were found; and the object of the 
conflict being accomplished, the Chesapeake, 
which had suffered a loss of six men killed, and 
twenty-one wounded, was dismissed in a shat- 
tered condition to her port. 

No sooner had intelligence of this distres- 
sing event reached the American government, 
than a proclamation was issued by the president, 
in which, after stating the constant recurrence 
o( British officers, on the coast, to a state of 
insubordination to the laws, violence towards 
■the persons, and trespasses o;i the property of 
the citizens of the United States, whde they 
were enjoving all the means of refitment ; the 
ofiair of the Chesapeake was noticed as a deed 
iranscending all which the Americans had seen 
or suffered, and which brought their sensibilities 



to a crisis, and their forbearance to a pause. 
Hospitality, in such circumstances, ceased to 
be a duty ; and all armed vessels of Great 
Britain were ordered immediately to quit the 
American harbours, and were interdicted en^ 
trance into any of the ports of the United States. 
That a high tone of animation should have been 
assumed on this occasion is by no means sur- 
prising, nor that interdiction should be copsi- 
dered necessary, in return for an aggression of 
such violence. The right of searching the 
ships of war of neutral states, though formerly 
claimed by the British government, bad been 
tacitly abandoned, and its exercise had latterly 
made no p«urt of the instructions of British 
officers. With respect to the abstract question 
of such a right, if it attached to Great Britain, 
it might be presumed equally to belong to Ame* 
. rica ; and unless right was to be regulated by 
power, this reciprocity was indispensable. On 
the arrival of the first intelligence of the unfor- 
tunate affair of the Chesapeake in England, 
considerable surprise and regret were univer- 
sally expressed ; and ministers hesitated hot to 
declare in parliament, their readiness to make 
every reparation, for whatever might appear, on 
full and accurate information, an unauthorised 
act of hostility. In pursuance of this disposi- 
tion, Admiral Berkeley was, not long after, re- 
called from the American station ; and in a pro- 
clamation issued for recalling British seamen, it 
was stated, that force might, if necessary, be ex- 
ercised for the recovering of deserters on board 
the merchant vessels of neutrals, but that, with 
respect to 6liips of war, a requisition only should 
be made to deliver up deserters ; and on their 
refusal, information was to be given to the Bri- 
tish ministers at the neutral couVts, or to the 
British government at home. By this proola^ 
mation, the conduct of Admiral Berkeley was 
tacitly disavowed, and Mr. Rose, the son of the 
treasurer of the navy, was soon after dispatched 
on a special mission to America, with overtures 
of conciliation. 

Had the dispute between the two countries 
been confined to the question of impressing sea* 
men it is probable that an accommodation would 
have taken place; but it involved also the 
rights of American commerce. Ever since 
the breaking out of the present war, America 
had been made the medium of commerce be- 
tween the colonies of France and the mother 
country. This trade, which now begui to be 
considered as a species of war in disguise, was 
eminently advantageous to both countries, and 
some idea may be formed of its extent, when it 
is known, that in one year forty -five thousand 
hogsheads of sugar were introduced, in Ameri- 



« Vol. I. Book III. Chap. IX. p. 535. 



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OP THB FSBNCH BSTOLUTION. 

■■ ■ ■' ■■■ ■ ■ ..It. 



51 



^ 



ettn bottoms, into the single port of Amsterdam. 
To terminate this connection appeared an im^ 
portant object of policy with Qreat Britain ; but 
the case invoWed questions of great delieafy, and 
demanded deep consideration. The inevitable 
consequences of a war witli America would be 
to cut off one of the most e^Ltensive and bene- 
ficial sources of British commerce. The exports 
of British manufactures to that country were 
immense, and the growing population, and con- 
sequently increasing consumption, would every 
year enlarge its demand upon English indus- 
try and ingenuity.* The enterprise of the Trans- 
Atlantic merchants was perpetually enlarging 
their connections with distant markets, already 
opened to them, or discovering others stUi more 
remote, to which they convey^^ the merchandise 
of Ghreat Britain, pouring in return into her 
lap, both the price of the commodity and the 
profits of the voyage. All these advantages 
would not merely he put to hazard, but in many 
eases absolutely destroyed, by an appeal to arms. 
The balance of property also, due firom America 
to England, amounted, at this time, to at least 
^ht millions sterling ; and the mere suspension 
of the payment of this sum, would involve incal- 



culable distresses. The calamity to which the BOOK IK 
West Jndia Islands themselTes might be exposed, ■ ■ 

from a measure intended chiefly for their relief, C"ap.^JV. 
was also an important consideration, as Ameri- ^^jjTT^ 
can hostility would certainly inflict on these ^^^ 
colonies new and most formidable evils, by pre- 
cluding those supplies of articles of the first 
necessity, which seemed incapable of being (iro- 
cured from any other quarter. The possible 
advantage of America, as a source of supply for 
timber and warlike stores^ vrhen the ports of the 
Baltic were likely to be shut against us, and 
even as a granary to Great Britain herself, was 
not to be overlo(dced. Considerations of this / 
nature mnst, undoubtedly, haye weighed with 
Mr. Pitt, to prevent the adoption of hostUe mea^ 
Bures against America ; and his immediate sue* 
cessors in oflice were influenced by similar rea* 
sonings; even the publication of the Berlin 
decree, for blockading the British Islands, could 
not prevail upon them to break ofi^ this circuit- 
ous connection between France and her colonies, 
and thus expose England to the perils of a 
rupture with America: but, on the 7th of 
January, ld07, an order of council was issued, 
which prevented neutral vessek from trading 



• AMERICAN COMMERCE. 



RETURN of the average Imports of America, lor the 

three yean 1802, 1803, 1804. - 

CFrtm a Report made to Congress in 180d.> 

iMPORTg from the DominioDB of Great Britein, 8,095,000 

from HoOandf Fnine, Spun, and Italy* ... 5,731fOQO 

from Northern Powen» Pmnta, Germanj, 1 • ^xc aaa 

and Portiigal, / 1,845,000 

from China, and other NatiTO Powers of 1 ^ ^^ ^^ 

fion^ other Countriet, 188,000 

Total amount of Imports— £l6,950,000 



Of the annexed Ibiports, Manufactured Ctooda 
of Cotton, Wool, SUk, Leather, Glaas, Iron, Paper, 
&c. constitute about .f 9,000,000, and come fr>om the {iA- 
lowing countries : — 

The Dominions of Great nritain, 6,845,000 

Russia, S80,000 

Cermanf, Sweden, and Denmaik, 550,000 

Holland, «55,000 

Fiance, •••....••.•• • ...• „, ..^, 275 qqo 

Snain, Portagal, and Ital/, .,. ..*....7 ...^ 870,'ooo 

China, 525,000 

£9,000,000 



ExpoBTB from America, on an ayemge of the same yeara^ 

( CoOeded from ih€ same mttharity,) 

£. 

Eiporfeed in domestic pnduee, 9,000,000 

in fiveign produce re-exported, 6,400,000 



Total I 



Amcticsn Imfiorta from Gnat 
codes, 

Exports to them, «... 



«Bt of £xport8^£l5,400,OOe 
and her Depend- 1 



^J 8,095,000 
. . . 5,800,000 



Leaving a bahmee in our fimmr of £Stjfm/XM 



The Exports of America are distrihuted in the followrag 
manner :-^ 



To theDominionf of Great Britain, « 5,900,000 

Viz. In Europe, ..^ £j,5S5,000 

Arfa, ^ «. 89,000 

The West Indies •..• 1,458,000 

North America, ^ 188,000 

To the Dominions of all the other Powers, 10,200,000 



£15,400,000 



Thus it appears, that the yalue of the importations fit>m the domhiions of Great Britain, are equal to that from all the 
countries of Europe and their colonies together ; and notwithstanding European manufactured articles are admitted- fiM>m 
all countries at ^e same rate of duties, and although the halance of trade is in favour of America with the continent, 
and against her with Great Britam, yet, that in tiie years referred to in these returns, which may be considered as a 
fair criterion of the state of the trade in general, France did not furnish one twenty -fourth part, and all Eiuvpe collec- 
lively not one foortii part, of the amouot imported from this coimtiy. 



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» 



HltfrORT OF THB WASS 



1808 



BOOKCV. from wy'port in the possession^ or under the 
■ ■■'■■ * oontroul.pf 4heenei^y. By this edict, the neutral 
C^AP. ly. tradey^iirect from neutral nations to the enemy's 
*- - ' ports, received no molestation, though the neu- 
tral trade from one port of the eneipy to another 
Vfas prohibited. Although this order in council 
could be no matter of astonishment in America, 
after the promulgation of Bonaparte's decree, 
vet it was received with the most animated 
indignation. It was alleged that, as the Bri« 
tish government wa» at wa,r with nearly every 
nation on the Atlantic and itfediterraneaa Seas,^ 
American vessels were now required to sacrifice 
their cargoes, in the first port they touched at» 
or to , return home without going to any other 
market ; and that, under this new law of the 
ocean, the American trade must be sw^t away 
by seiiure and confiscation.* But if tlie mea* 
aures adopted by the late ministry called 
down the animadversions of the American 
government, the system of vigorous retaliation 
against France, and of consequent pressure 
upon the trade of neutrals, determined upon by 
the new ministry, was still less favourable to the 
hope of speedy accommodation. On the 11th of 
November, 1B07, additional orders in council 
were issued by the court of St. James's, by 
which every port of every country from which 
Great Britain was excluded, was declared to be 
in a state of blockade. All trade in the produce 
and manufactures of these countries was pro- 
nounced illegal, and the vessels employed in 
such trade were liable to seizure. Ihe docu- 
m^ts granted by French agents in neutral 

e)rts, certifying that the cargoes were not of 
ritish produce or manufacture, were no longer 
to be allowed, and all neutral vessels in posses- 
sion of them were to be seized wherever met 
with. Thus was the trade along the coasts of 
France and of her allies, in neutral vessels, com- 
pletely prohibited ; and though the Americans 
might still freely trade with the enemy's colonies, 
for articles ot their own consumption, the 
double restriction was imposed upon the inter- 
course by them between France and her colonies, 
of calling at a British port and paying a British 
duty. The object of these restrictions was, to 
burthen the enemy's produce with charges 



which would make it cost more than the same 
commodities imported into the continent by 
Great Britain, and thereby to afford relief to the 
West India merchants and planters. 

What effect these edicts would produce in 
America, became immediately an mteresting 
subject of consideration ; and in the high wrought 
resentment of that coun£ry against Englan4y 
owing to the difficulties she had already thrown 
in the way of her commerce,, and the recent 
indignity offered to her flag, it was imagined 
that the government would immediately ciecide 
on open hostility. The republicans, however, 
well aware of the ruinous consequences of war, 
determined on a middle course ; and in order to 
avoid the losses and hostilities which were to be 
apprehended from the measures respectively 
adopted by England and France,, congress, on 
the 32d of December, resolved to lay a strict 
embargo on all the vessels of the United States. 
By this act, their own vessels were prohibited 
from departing from any of their ports ; and 
ships from all other nations were commanded 
to quit the American harbours, with or without 
cargoes, as soon as the act was notified to 
them. With respect to the effects flowing 
from the embargo law towards England and 
France, there could be no doubt but both of 
them must suffer heavy loss and extreme 
inconvenience ; yet, as the former carried on a 
much more extensive commercial connection 
with America than the latter, the pressure upon 
the merchants of Great Britain would be infi- 
nitely more severe. The first impression made 
by the intelligence of the embargo in this 
country, was a general feeling of alarm among 
commercial men ;. and the merchants of Liver^ 

1>ool, aware that this act of congress proceeded 
rom our orders in council, petitioned for their 
speedy removal ; but parliament did not think 
proper to comply with their requests.f 

Bonaparte, well aware that all restrictions 
upon commerce would, from the situation and 
pursuits of England, fall upon this country with 
a much heavier pressure than upon France, felt 
no disposition to relax in this new species of 
warfare ; and accoi'dingly, on the 23d of No- 
vember, a decree was issued from Milan, enacting 



* This was a miscoHCeption of the Order in Couneil of the 7tb of January ; American vesseb might still proceed from 
•ne enemy's port to anodier, provided they had not come to entry or broken balk.§---And Lord Howick, in an official 
note, dated the 17th of March, 1807, and addressed to Mr. Hist, the Danish minister, says, ** It is not our izitention 
that our orders should affect the general trade of neutrals ; but only prevent the coasting trade of France and her 
dependencies from hemg carried on by neutrals, as that species of trade is such as properly belongs to France herself, 
and to which neutrals are to be considered as lending themselves unfairly." 

f The average trade of the town of Liverpool, from the year 1797 to 1807, amounted to ^10,000,000 annually ; aad 
in the year 1807, the amount of the trade with America exceeded half the whole amount of the trade of that port.|J 

§ Ezplanatian ^Tcn by the King*! Adrocate. 
II GsDcad GasooifDe't Speech m die Howe of Canunons on the Oiden in Council* Msicfa 3d. 1808. 



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OF THE FBBNCIT RBVOEtJTION. 



09 



M that all vessels ivhich^ after haying touched at* 
England, from any nation whatever, shall enter, 
the ports of France, shall be seized and confis- 
cated, as well as their cargoes, widiout exception 
or distinction of commodities or merchandise." 
This interdict was, on the L9th of the following 
month, followed by a rejoinder to the orders in 
council of the 11th of November, by which 



it was declared, that every .neutral iffaioh sub- BOOKIVii 
mitted to be searched by an EngUsh ship, orpaid ■■ ■ ' 

any duty whatsoever to the English government, p^^'J^* 
should be considered as thereby denationializedf ^"^[^iC^ 
and having forfeited the protection of its own towi 
government, should in consequence be liable' 
to seizure as a lawful prize by French ships ; 
of war.^ Neutral, powers were thus placed^ 



ANTI-COMMERCIAL DECREES and ORDERS w COUNCIL* 



FRENCH. 

Berlin Decree. 

** Ffwn (mr Imperial Camp at BcrUn^ Ncv. iltt, 1806. 

** Napoleon, Emperor of the French', and King of Italy. 

** Whereas, 1. That Eneland. has ceased to observe the law of 
Bationst TCO^gniaed by all dvilued 8tate6.«-S. That «he ooosiden every 
individual as an enemy who belonn to an hostile state, and oonse- 
oMiitlr makasv prisoners, not merely the. crews of ships of war, but 
also tne ciewb of merchant vessels^ and even the members of com- 
mercial fiwtories, and penons- connected with commerce, where era- 
ployed in their mercantde affidrs. — 3. That she extends the rights of 
conquest to the cargo and oommodities, and to the property m indi- 
vidoils ; which riofat of conquest, however, ought only to be applica- 
ble to that which bdonei to the hostile state.-^^. That she extends 
bar fight of blockade to piaoes not fortified, and to commerdal porta, 
in bays, and the mouths of navigable rivers ; which blockade, acoord- 
xnff to the principles and practice of all civilized nations, is applicable 
only to fortified places. That she considen a place in a state of 
blockade befoce which she has not even a sin^e ship of war, although 
a nlace can only be considered as blockaded when it is so dxcumsciUi- 
ea in its communication that it is impossible to approach it without- 
visible danger. That she even declares phu^es in a state of blockade 
which, witih their whole united strength, she would be unaUe efibc- 
tnallv to blockade ; for instance, who^ coasts and whole kingdoms.— 
5. That this monstrous abuse of the r^t of blockade has no other 
object but to impede the communicBtion between, nations, and to 
swgrandize the commerce and industry of Englanri by the ruins of 
the commerce and industry of the continent— 6. Tliat as this is the 
object of England, all those who carry on traffic in EngUsh oommo- 
diueaupon the continent, by doing so, second her views and render 
themselves her accomplices.— 7. That this conduct of Engbmd, which 
b altoigether worthy of the age of baitiatism, has become advanta* 
I^Qs to that power to the prejudice of every other.— 8. That it is a ■ 
nsfat confenea by nature to oppose to an enemy the weapons he em- 
ploys against you, and to fight against him in the same manner in 
which he attacks, and that this principle is recognized by all ideas of 
justice and by all liberal sentiments, the result of that dvilization by . 
which societies are distinguished. 

'* We therefore determine to employ a^nst England those 
principles which she has adopted in her mariume code. The conse- 
quence of the present decree shall be considered as fixed fundamemal 
laws of the empire, so long as England refuses to acknowledge one 
nnd the same law as applicable both to sea and land, dll^he ceases to 
consider private property, be it wliat it may, a good pnze-^till she 
ceases to extend to the persons of individuals who are not engaged in 
military o])entions the principles by which she at present treats them 
as prisoners of war— and until she shall applv the rights of blockade only 
to tliosc places which she has a force fully aaemiaie to cut off finom com- 
munication. We have therefore decreed and do decree as follows :— 

Article I. '* The British isUmds are declared to be in a state ot 
bkjdnde. 

II. ** All commerce and all correspondence with the British isles 
are prohibited. 

III. ** The letters or packets whidi are addressed to England, or 
to Englishmen, or which are written in the English language, shall' 
not be forwarded by the posts, and shall be taken awayii 

IV. ** Every individual who is an English subject, of whatever 
condition he be, who is found in the conntnes occupied by ouf troops 
or those of our allies, shall be made prisoner of war. 

V. ** Every magazine, eve^ commodity, every aitide of oro- 
perty, of whatever sort, which belongs to an English subject, snsJl 
be declared good prize. 

VI. <« The trade in English commodities is prohibited, and every 
artide which belongs toEnriand, or is the produce of her manufac- 
tures and colonies, is declared good prize. 

Vn. '^ The half of the proceeds of the confiscation of the articles, 
pmpcrty, and goods, dedared good prise by • the pnoedtog aitide, 

will 
V©L. II. — NO. 41. 



fiNGLISH. ^ 

Order in Council. 

At the Court at the Queen's Palace, January 7th, 1807; Present, 
'the King's most ercellent Miyesty, in CounclL 
** Whereas the French government has issued certain orders* 
whidi, in violation of the tisages of war, purport to prdiibit the 
commerce of all neutral nations with his nudesty's dominions, and 
also to prevent such nations from trading with any other country, in 
any articles, the growth, produce, or manufacture of his mige^'s' 
dominions: and whereas the said government has also taken upon 
itself to dedare all his m^esty** dominions to be in a state of' 
blockade, at a time when the fleets of France and her allies are them- 
sdves confined within thdr own ports by the superior valour and dis* 
dpiine of the British navy : and whereas sudn attempts on the part 
oi the enemy would give to his migesty an unouestionable rig^ of 
retaliation, and would warrant his miuesty in enforcing the same pro- 
hibition of all commerce with France, which that power vainly hopes 
to effect agninst the commerce of his migesty *s subjects ; a prohibi-. 
tion which me simeriority of his majesty's naval forces might enable 
him to support, by actually investmff tlie ports and coasts of the 
enemy witli numerous squadrons and cruisers, so as to make th« 
entrance or approach thereto manifestly dangerous ; and whereas his 
migesty, though unwilling to follow the example of his eannies, by 
proceeding to an extremity so distressing to all nations not ennged in 
the war, and carrying on their accustomed' trade, yet feels nimsdf 
bound, by a due regard to the Just defence of the rignts and interests 
of his people, not to sufier such measures to be taken by the enemy, 
without taking some steps on his part to restram this violence, and to. 
retort upon them the evils of their own iiyustice ; his migesty is there- 
upon pleased, by and with the advice of his privy ooundl, to order, and' 
it is hereby ordered, that no vessd shall be permitted to trade from one' 
jMrt to another, both whidi ports shall belong to or be in the posses- 
sion of France or her allies, or shall be so far under their controul, as 
that British vessds may not freely trade thereat : and the commanders 
of his m^esty's ships of war and privateers shall be and are hereby 
instructed to warn every neutral vessd coming- from any such port» 
and destined to another such port, to -discontinue her voyi^ and not 
to proceed to any such port ; and any vessd aiWr being so warned, or. 
any vessd coming fVom any such port, after a reasonable time shall 
have been afforded for recdving information of this his migesty'a 
order, which shall be found proceeding to another such port, sliall be, 
captured and brou^t in, ana, to^[ether with her carjgo, shall be con- 
demned as lawful prize : and his majesty's prindpal secretaries of 
state, the lords oommisnoners of the admirdty, and the judges <^ 
the hi^ court of admiralty, and courts of vice -admiralty, are to 
take me necessary measures herein as to tliem shall respectivdy 
appertain* 

(Signed) ^ <• WM. FAWKENER.*' 

Order in CotmciL. 
At the Court at the Queen's Palace, November Iltb, 1807T 
Present, the Kill's most excellent Majesty, in Coundl. 
" Whereas certain orders, establishing an unprecedented system 
of warfare against this kingdom, and aimra especially at the destruc- 
tion of its commerce and resources, were some time since issued by 
the government of Frsnce, by which * the British Islands were de- 
dar«i to be in a state of blockade,' thereby subjecting to capture and 
condemnation all vessds, with thdr cargoes, which should continue 
to trade with his majesty's dominions : — And whereas, by the same 
orders, • all tradinff in English merchandise is prohibited ; and every 
artide of merchandise bdonging to England, or coming from her 
colonies, or of her manufacture, is dcdared lawful pnze :' — And 
whereas the nations in alliance with France, and under her controul, 
were required to give, and have ^ven, and do give, effect to such 
orders :— And whereas his m^estys order of the 7th of January last 
has not answered the desired purpose, dther of compelling the enemy 
to recall those oideit, oc of isdudng neutral nations to interpose with* 

cSStctg 

o 



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54 



HISTORY OF THE WARS 



Chap. IV. 



1808 



BOOK IV. between confiscation and confiscation. If they 
proceeded to a French port, without first 
paying a duty upon their cargoes in England^ 
they were liable to be captured by British 
cruisers ; and if they came to England and . 
paid the duty, they liien became subject to 
confiscation in the ports of the enemy. The 
case was one of extreme hardship ; and in this 
country, where war had not obliterated all sense 
of moral obligation, and where a spirit of hos- 
tility had not entirely silenced the voice of dis- 
cretion^ the justice and the policy of the orders 



in council underwent a serere scrutiny, and 
called forth the most animated discussions. 

By the advocates for these interdicts it was, 
urged, that previously to the publication of the 
British orders in council, France enjoyed, by the 
assistance of neutrals, as many advantages of 
trade as were possessed by England with her. 
triumphant navy. That navy, indeed, asfar-aS' 
trade was concerned, was neutralized and render- 
ed useless, by neutral ships carrj^g to France, 
Spain, and uoUand, the produce of their colo- 
nies, and all that it was important for them i» 



ANTI-COMMERCIAL DECREES and ORDERS. 



FRENCH. 

CBerUn Decree corUimied,) 

wffl b« employed to indemmfy the merchants for the losses which 
tfae^ sufier hy the capture of trading vessels seised hy the English 
cruisers. 

VIII. ** No ship which comes direct from England, or the Eng^ 
eblonies, or ha^. been theie after the publicatioa at the present de- 
cree, shall be admitted into any harbour. 

IX. ** Every ship which trades with a false declaration, in oon- 
travention of the above pnnciples, shall be seized, and the ship and 
caigo confiscated as if they were Eng^lish property. 

X. ** Our prize court at Paris is invested with power definitively' 
to settle. aU diq[>utes which may^ arise in our empire* or in the coun- 
tries occupied by the French armies, in regard to the execution of the 
oresent decree. Moreover, our prize court at Milan is invested with 
ran power finally to decide all disputes which may arise within the 
dominions of our kingdom of Italy. 

XI. **' The present decree snail be communicated to the Kings 
of Spain, of Naples, of Holland, and Etruria, and our other allies* 
l^ose subjects, as well as our own, have been the victims of the ii^us- 
tice and barbarity of the English maritime code. 

XII. ** Our ministers of foreign afiairs, of war, of marine, of 
finance, of police, and our post-masters general, each of them, in as 
6ur as oonccms his department, is intrusted with the execution of the 

UCCTM. 

(Signed) » "NAPOLEON." 



SoJbMqtiait to the publication of the above interdict, and in aid 
of Its provisions, it was decreed, " That all neutral vessels coming into 
•ny port m Prance, or her dcjpendencies, should bring with them a 
* certificaie of origin ;' being a dedaiation, under the hand of the 
French Consul at theplaoe of shipment, that the cargo was not of 
British produce or mamifactnrt ; and that aU vessels met at sea with- 
>tttt such certificate should beliable to capture." 

Milan Decree — First. 

•• Milan, November 93d,* 1807* 

^ Napoleon, Emperor of the Frenob, King of Italy, and Pro- 
tector of the Coofederatioo of the Rhine. 
" Upon the report of our minister of the finances, we have 
decreed, and do decree as follows :— 

I. ** An vessels whidi, after having touched at Enghmd, 
tnm any motive whatever, shall eiiter the ports of Frsnce, shall be 
seized and confiscated, as wdl as their cargoes, without exception 
or distinction of commodities or merchandise. 

II. ** The captains of vessels who shall enter the ports of 
France, shall, on the da^ of their arrival, psoceed to the office of 
the imperial customs, and there make a declaration of the place 
from which they sailed, of the ports thry have put into, and ex- 



intenogate the sailors separately, in the presence of two overseers. 
If it results from this examination that the vessel has touched at Eng. 
land, independent of the seizure and confiscation of the said ship 
and cargo, Uie captam, as well as those sailorB, who, upon examina- 
tions, shaU have made a false dedantion, shaU be deemed prisoners, 
SiBd shall oot be set at lihertjf until taring paid the nun of 6o,oou 

fianks^ 



ENGLISH. 

f Order in Council continued.) 

effect, to obtain their revocation ; but, on the contranr, the nme 
have been recentlv enforced with increased vijgour :— Ana whereas hi* . 
miyesty, under tnese drcumstanoes, finds himself compelled to take 
further measures for asserting and vindicating his just rights, and for 
supporting that maritime power which the exertions and die valour 
of his people have, under the blessing of Providence, enabled him 
to estaUish and maintain ; and the mamtenanos of which is not more 
essential to the safety and prosperity of his majesty^s dominions, than 
it is to the protection of such states as still retain their independence, 
and to the general intevooarse and happiness of mankind :— His 
migestv is therefore pleased, by and with the advice of his privy 
council, to order, anid it is hereby ordered, that all the ports and 
places of France and her alltes, or of any other country at war with 
nis maiesty, and. all other ports or places in Europe, fiom whidi, 
although not at war with his nugesty, the British fiag is excluded, and 
all ports or places in the oolonies belonging to his migesty^s enemies, 
shall from nenceforth be subject to the same restrictions, in point of 
trade and navigation, with the exc^ons herein after mentioned, as 
if the same were actually blockaded by his miuesty^s naval forces, in 
the most strict and rieoious manner : and it u nereby further ordered 
and declared, that all trade in articles which are of the produte or 
manufacture of the said countries or colonies, diall be deemed and 
considered to be unlawful ; and that every vessel trading from or to 
the said countries or colonies, together with all goods and merchant 
dise on board, and all articles ofthe produce or manufacture of ihe 
said countries or colonies, shall be captured and condemned as prize 
to the captors.— But although his mi^^sty would be f^^ justified, by 
the circumstances and considerations above recited, m establishing 
such system of restrictions, with respect to all the eountries and colo« 
nies of his enemies, without exception or qualification ; yet hia 
migesty being nevertheless desirous not to subtject neutrals to any 
neater inconvenience than is absolutely inseparable from the carrying 
mto effbct his majesty's just determination to counteract the ^-^ — 
of his enemies, and to retort upon his enemies themselves r* 
quences of theur own violence and injustice ; and being yet 
hope that it may be possible (consistently with that obj< 
allow to neutflds tine opportunity of furnishing themselves 
nial produce for their own consumption and supply ; i 
leave open, for the present, audi trade with his majesty^s en 
shall be carried on directly with the ports of his miyesty^s ^^ 
or of his aDies, in the manner heremafter mentioned :— > 

** His migesty is therefore pleased further to order, ^ 
hereby ordered, that nothing herem oootaintd shall extend to 
to capture or condemnation any vessel, or the cargo of any 
belonging to any country not deoaied by this order to be i ' ' 
the restrictions mddent to a state of blockade, which shall 
ed out with such caqsp f tom some port or jJace of the country to 
she belongs, either m Europe or America, or from some free 
his majesty's cokmies, under circunutances in which such tn 
such fMe port is permitted, direct to some port or jdace in the 
of bi«mi^|esty*s enemies, or from those oolotties direct to the ooaD' 
. ID whidi such vessel belongs, or to some free portin hismajeatu: 
oolonies, in such cases, and with such articles, as it may be unla' 
to impozt into such free port; — nor to any vessel, or the cargo oC 
vessel, bebnsing to any country not at war with his mi^esty, wl^ 
shall have deand out from some port or place in this Idngdonm-- 
fiom Gibraltar or Malta, under such regulations as his ma' ^ 

think fit to prescribe, or firom any port belonging to his'., 
allies, and shall be proceeding direct to the port specified _ 
deanmce s— nor to any nsacit or the cargo of any veM^y bel^^^i 



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6F THE FRENCH EEVOLUTION. 



55 



obtain from distant regions.* This had long 
Ibeen the case, and it became a matter of grave 
deliberation, whether we ought not, eren before 
ibe promulgation of the Berlin decree, 'to hare 
resorted to the rule of the war of 1756 — which 
declared, that a neutral had no right to carry on, 
tn> time of war, a trade prohibited to him in 
time of peace. It was well known that French 
houses were established in America, to facilitate 
ihgi trade with her colonies^ and it was from these 



houses that the late groundless outcry against BOOK IT 
Great Britain proceeded : It was also ascer- 
tuned that the import trade of America amount- r° ^'^ ^ 
ed annually to one hundred and four millions of igijaT^ 
dollars, seren millions of which were gained 
by France.f As to the justice of our orders in 
council, America, as a neutral, must be well 
aware that they were merely retaliatory, pro- 
▼deed by the decrees of the enemy, and carrying 
within them their own justification.^ Now that 



ANTI-COMMERCIAL DECREES and ORDERS. 



FRENCH. 

(Milam Decree continued.) 

^tuikMf u a personal penaliT in the canCain, and 500 ftanki toft 
etch of the failoiB to arrested, over and above the pains incurred by 
^ose who falsify their paper* and log-books. 

III. ** If advice or iaformation communicated to the direc- 
tors of our. customs jrive rise to any suspidons as to the origin of 
the cargoes, they shall be povisionally warehoused until it is ascer- 
Udned and decided that they do not come from Enghmd or ber 
colonies. 

IV. '* Our commissaries for commercial relations, who de- 
liver certificates of orifpn for merchandise laden in the ports of 
thdr reaidenoe destined for that of France, shall not confine them* 
selves to an atttsUtion that the merchandise or commodities do not 
come from England, or her colonies, or commerce ; they shall indicate 
the place of origin, the docmnents which have been laid before them 
in support of the declaration which has been made to thaan, and the 
name of the ship on board of which they have been primarily tians- 
ported from the place of origia into that of their residence. 

(Signed) ** NAPOLEON." 

MilaM DBcan^^-SECONDk 

** MUan^ December 17<^ 1807. 
V Napolsoit, Emperor of the French, King of Italy, and Frk 
^ tector of the Confederation of the Rhine. 
«< Observing the measures adopted by the British government, 
on the 11th of November last, by which vcsseb bdooging to neutral, 
fiiendly, or even powsrs the allies of Enghmd, an made liable, not 
only m be seirched by English cruisers, out to be compiiIsorilv.de- 
talned in England, and to have a tax laid on t|iem of so much ner 
cent on the cargo, to be regulated by the British ^^iskiture— Ob- 
serving that by mese acts the British jgovemment denationalizes ships 
<^ every nation in Europe^ that it is not competent for any govern- 
ment to detitet froth its own independence and rights^ all the sove- 
xdgns of Europe having in trust the sovereigntieB and independence 
of the flag ; and if, by an unpardonable weakness, and which^ in 
the eyes of posterity, would be an indelible a'aia» suchatyianay 
were aUowcd to be established into principles, and consecrated by 
usage, the English would avail themsdves <n it to assert it as a right* 
as tney have availed themselves of the tolerance of governments to 
establish the infamous principle, that the flag of a nation does not 
cover goods, and to f^ve to their lisht of blockade an arbitrary 
extension, and which infringes on the sovereignty of every state ; 
we have decreed and do decree as follows <^^ 

I. ** Every ship, to whatever nation it may belong, that 
shall have submitted to be searched bv an English ship, orto a 
voyage to England, or that shall have paid any tax whatsoever to the 
JEngiish government, is thereby, and for that abne, declared to be 
denationauzed, to have forfeited the protection of its king, and to 
have become English property. 

II. «• Whether the ships thtbi denatidnaiized by the arbi- 
ticry measures of the English covemment, enter into our ports, or 
those of our allies, or whether they fall into the hands of our ships of 
war, or of our privateers, they are declared to be good and lawful 
prizes. 

III. *' The British ishmds are dedared to be in a stite of 
blockade, both by land and sea. Every Bhq;», of whatever nation', or 
whatsoever the nature ot its cargo so may be, that sails from the 
'^lU of Eo|^d, or these of the English colonies, and of the cdun- 

tries 



ENGLISH. 

(Ordtr in Cmtncil eonthmed.) 

to any country not at war with Ms miyesty, Which shall be oomiDf 
from any port or place in Europe which is declared by this order to be 
subject to the restrictions incident to a state of blockade, destined to 
some poet or place in Europe bekmging to Ids majesty, ahd whidi 
shall be on her voyage direct thereto : but these exoeptioos are not to 
be understood as exemptbg from capture or confiscation any vessel or 
goods whidi shall be liable thereto in respect of having entered or de- 
parted from any port or place actually blockaded by • his majesty's 
souadrons or bhips of war, or for beine enemies* property, or ror any 
other cause than the contmVentbn of mis present oroiEr. 

** And the oommanden of his migesty's shins ot war and pnva* 
teers, and other vessels acting under his mi^esty s commission, shaD 
be, and are hereby instructed to warn every vessel which shall have 
commenced her voyage prior to any notice or this order, and shall be 
d<islined to any port of France, or of her allies, or of any other 
country at war with his nuuesty, or to any port or place from whidi 
the Bntish Bag as aforesaid is excluded, or to any ctdony belonging 
to his majesty's enemies, and which shall not have cleared out as is 
herein before allowed, to disoontinne her voyage, and to psooeed to 
some port or phice in this kingdom, or to Gibraltar or Malta; and 
any vessel whioi, after having been so warned, or after a reasooiahle 
time shall have been afforded tor the arrival of information of this his 
maiiesty^s order at any port or pUce from which she safled, or which, 
after liaving noticeor this order, shall be found in the prosecution of 
any voyage contrary to the restrictions contained in this mer, shall be 
captured, and, together with her cargo, condemned as iawftil prize to 
the captors. — 

<* And whereas countries, not etamed in the war, have ae- 
ouiesccd in the orders of France, prohibiting all trade in any articles 
we produce or manufacture of his ^ii^esty's dominions ; and the 
merchants of those countries have given countenance and effect to 
those prohibitions, by accepting from persons styling themselves com- 
mercial agents of the enemy, resident at neatzal ports, certain docu- , 
ments, termed * Certificates of Origin,* being certificates obtained at 
the ports of shipment, declaring that the artides of the cargo are not 
of tne produce or manufacture of his miuesty*s dominions ; or to thsl; 
effect :*-And whereas this expedient has been directed by France, and 
submitted to by such merchants, as part of the new svstem of warfare 
directed against the trade of this kingdom, and as toe most effectual 
instrumfct of accomplishing the same, and it is therefbre essentially 
necesiarv to resist it :— His mi^esty is therefbre pleased, by and with 
the advice of his privy coancil, to order, and it is hereby ordered. 
That if any vessel, after reasonable time shall have been idForded for 
receiving nodce of this his minesty*s order at the port or place from 
which such vessel shall have cleared out, shall be found carrying any ' 
such certificate or document as aforesaid, or any document teEatihg 
to or authenticating the same, such vessel shall be at^d^ lawful 
prize to the captor, together with the goods hden therem, belong- 
mg to tlie person or persons by whom, or on whose behalf, any sudi 
document was put on boarcL-^And the right honourable the lords 
oohumssioners of his mi^esty^s treasury, nis miuestv's principal 
secretaries of state, die knrds commissioners of the admiralty, and 
the judges of the hu^ court of admiralty and courts of vice-admi- . 
ralty, are to take die necessary measures herein as to them shaU 
respectively appertaja, 

(Signed) " WM. FAWKENER." 



Two other Orders in Council were issued on the 11th of Novem* 
ber, 1807» by the former of which the future sale and transfer of ene-< 

mios'.. 



* War in Disgwift f Bod BathuzsU $ Loid Hawkcibury, 



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56 



HISTORY QF THE WABS 



BOOK« IV the peace of Tilsit had established the influence 
« r , > of France on the continent, the prohibition <^ 
CitAf>. IV. British trade ivould be universally enforced ; and 
^■^^^^^^ unless some principles of retaliation were adopt* 
IMS- ed on our part^ JSngland would be compelled 
to submit to such terms of peace as France 
might be disposed to dictate; but if, by our 
retaliation, France should be deprived of many 
of the articles of daily consumption^ the subjects 
of that country would, in a litUe time, be forced 
to become the violators of the prohibitions of 
their own government. It was the anxious 
wish of his majesty^s government to preserve 
peace with America; her prosperity was tlie 
prosperity of Great Britain.* But it must be 
recollected, that in all engagements, expressed 
or implied, between belligerents and neutrals, 
there were neutral duties, as well as neutral 
rights, and that belligerents had direct obliga-. 
tions towards themselves, as well as collateral 
obligations towards their neighbours. If a 
neutral power allowed its territory to be violated 
by one belligerent, it was bound to allow an equal 
latitude to an opposite belligerent. The same 
principle held at sea, and if America submitted 
to the intervention of France, a similar inters 
vention should be permitted to England, f 
When the French Directory, in 1798, piuilished 
a decree similar to the edict lately issued at 
Jfterlin^ it waa immediately denounced in the 



congress by the American President, as a viola^ 
tion of the rights and independence of tlie.» 
American states, but on the present occasion the^ 
president had taken no sudi step, though it waa^ 
a well ascertained fact, that an American vessel 
had been oaptured under the operation of the> 
Berlin decree. There was no contract without, 
a reciprocal obligation, and if neutrals did not 
oblige France to adhere to the law of nations,, 
they could not complain of England if her ad*- 
herence to that law was less strict than usual. 
The orders in oouncil only declared the ports of 
France and her aUies to be in a state of blockade^ 
and their produce contraband of war ; and 
France had done the same by tUs country. The 
French certificates of origin, by prohibiting 
neutrals from carrying British goods, violated the; 
law of nations, and neutrab^ hy thus admitting 
France to legislate for them, had made them- 
selves the instruments of France against Great. 
Britain.]: As to the policy of the orders in 
council, we must use the same weapons against 
France that she wielded against tnis country ; 
and the nation nsust not perish because the mea- 
sures which were necessary for its preservation, 
might press upon neutral commerce, which Bona--' 
parte had not hesitated to violate.^ The orders 
in council, though not intended as a measure of 
finance, would levy a contribution upon the 
enemy, and since the continent must have colo^ 



ANTI-COHMERCIAL DECREBS anp ordebb. 



FRENCH. 

(Decree a§am8t En^liah Commeree cantimted.) 

triei occupied by Engliah troops, and prooeedioft to Endand, or to 
iht En^ish colonies, or to the countries occapieaby En^h troops. 
Is good and lawftil prize, as oontmy to the present decree ; and may 
be captured by our ihips of war or our privateen, and a^udged to 
the captor. 



IV. " Thes^ measures, which are resorted to onlv in just 
x^ydiadon of the barbarous system adopted by Enfl^and, which asd- 
muates its legislation to that of Algiers, snail cease to hare any 
effect with reject tv an nations idio shall have the finnness to compd 
the English govenunent to.respect their flag. They shall oontimie to 
be rigorously in force as long as that government does not return to 
the principle of the Uw of nations, which regulates the rektions ot 
dviuzed states in a state of war. The provisions of the present de- 
cree shall be abro^^ated and null, in &ct, assoon as the English abide 
si^ bv the prinaples of the Uiw of nations, which are also the pxin- 
aples of justice and honour.— -All our ministets are charged with die 
execution of the present decree, which shall be inserted m the BuUe- 
lin of the Laws. 

(Signed) « NAPOLEON." 

»Aiiodier Decree, dated at Fkris, on the llth of January, 1808, 
*• That when a vessel shall enter into a French port, or in 
any country ooaqued bv the French armies, anv man of the 

crew, or any passenger, who shall declare to the principal of the cus- 
tom house, that the said ship came fimn England, or her colonies, or 
»om any country occupied by English troops, or that it has been 
^nasM. by an Eiigliah vessel, shall, on proof of his declaration, 
veceive^ a third part of the produce of the net sale of the ship and 
?'8mL- ^^ ** "17 fimctionary or agent of the government, who 
sball be convicted of having favoured the contravention of the Milan 
Deoeesof the «»d of November and the 17th of December, 1807, 
•hafl be ai^iudied guilty of high treason." 



ENGLISH. 
fOrdet im CaumoU eoHHtmed.) 

mies* resMls to the snl^ects of a neutral country, was declared- 
invalid ; and by the latter, the goods of those countries fnta wUch 
the British flag was excluded vrere allowed to be imported by neutrals 
into England. 
The following analysis of the Orders in Council was given by tho 
English Board of Trade to the American Merchants: — 
" An trade direcdy from America § to every port and country of 
Europe at war with Great Britain, or from whidi tiie British flaig is 
e](diiaed, is totally prohibited. The trade fttxn AmeA to the colo- 
nies of all nations, remain unaltered by the present orders. America 
may export the produce of her own country, but that of no other, 
directly to Sweden. With the above exception, all articles, whetiier 
of domestic or colonial produce, exported by America to Europe, 
must be landed in Endand, and can be only re-exuorted on payment 
of certain duties to toe British govemment-^wiUi an exception in 
favour of such articles as are aoUiallv the produce of the United 
States, (cotton excepted.) Anv vessel, the cargo whereof shall be 
aooooiponied with oertifiates «r Fren^ Consuls abroad of its oriffin' 
(callea certificates of origin), shall, together with the cargo, be liabla 
to seizure and condemnation, 

I Tke$e Orden ipeak qf maHnOi gemnUg, tmiaMuUtke mmrithu powem 
^ Bunpe [Sweden •tested) wnv, at tkt tkmt (k«y wre pronuUgated, at KOt 
wUh Bnglamd, they w0n tii </ecl ujfpUceMe ojiijr to Anmka. 

[One of the most striking features of the Wars of the French 
"^ Revolution, is to be found in the code of commercial interdic- 
tion, contidned in' the French Decrees and the British Orders 
in Council, and in order that a dear and comprehensive view 
may be taken of the nature of a spedes of warfare— so oppres- . 
sive towards the subjects of belligerent statas, and so ni^jusl 
towards neutrals, the above documents are given entire.] 



* Mr. Rose and Lord Castlcici^h, f Sir John NidioH^ the AdTocate^gotanL t ^ Williim Scott. | The Lord Chanccto 



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OF THB FRENCH REVOLUTION. 



57 



/Dial produce, it was a wise and politic measure, 
/ to oUige th^m to receive it only through our 
ports at the price we might think proper to 
fix upon it. The question was now reduced 
to this — are we to he conquered by France or 
not ? Bonaparte had essayed his miMtary war- 
fare against us ineffectmlly, and was now to 
try the success of a commercial warfare. 

Such ti^erc~the arguments by t^hich the 
orders iA council wfere suprported, and such the 
views of those who pvrt this new engriie of hos- 
tility in motion. It was on the othe^ hand 
contended, that these measures of retaliation were 
neitiier just nor expedient— just towards neu- 
trals, nor expedient as regarded the true in- 
terests of this country. The first feature of this 
war oft trade went nearly to annSiilate the com- 
merce of nevtrals, and the inevitable tendency 
of the second must be to cIrctiMscribe our own. 
The defence offcAred for this measure was, that 
our blockade was but a retaliation of that Which 
had been imposed by the enemy ; and that neu- 
trals having subnsitted to the one, had no ri^ht 
to compkun of the other. In assuming £at 
Aneiica had -a^quie^^M in the orders of France^ 
and sabmittcfd to tbis new system of war, a fiict. 
vras taken for granted that had no existence. 
Gteneral Armstrong, the American miik!ster at 
Paris, on the appearance of the Berlin decree, 
fdtt it his duty to call for an cixplanation of that 
document ; in answer to which inquiry he was 
informed by M. I>ecr6s, the French minister 
of marine and of the colonies, under date of the 
24th of December, 1806, <^ That ah American 
vessel cannot be taken at sea firom the mere 
reason that she is going toor coming firom aport of 
England,'' and ^^ that the imperisu decree lately 
passed was not to aflfect American commerce, 
which would still be governed by the rules of 
the treaty established between France and 
America.'' The fact, however, which seemed 
to set at rest the question of the execution of 
the Berlin decree, previous to the issuing of 
our orders in council was tbis, that so late as 
the 18th of October, 1807, Messrs. Monroe and 
Pinkney, the American residents in London, 
communicated to the English secretary of state 
the construotion which France had given to that 
decree, and officially assured him that the prac- 
tice had been* in^oonformity to that construction. 
Nor was this all^ the matter did not rest on the 
authority of public papers, or assertions, or 
admissions, on one side or on the other. It was 
ascertained, bv facts public and notorious, and 
by evidence laid before the legislature ; and so 
far Was America from acquiescing in this order 
of blockade, that she did not limit or disguise 



1808 



her trade with this country, but up to the very BOOK It 
date of our orders in council of November 11, — — — 
1807, she went on ifrom day to day increasing ^^-^j 
that trade in the sight of the whole world. 
InstesNl of acquiesdhg in the ordfer'of Mdckstfie, 
it Waa manifest tiiht America utterly disregarded 
it. It was equally obtain that FraAc^ never 
resented this resistance of her order by America, 
and that her last sol^mn and boastful decrees, as 
far as they respected neutrats, fell into the same « 
neglect as those thatt' had gone befdre them. 
AU this time, nientral vesstis were pdblicly and 
regularly chartered on voyages firom tiuis country 
to the continent of Europe ; the price of articles 
of our colonial produce and home manufacture 
continued unaltered in the continental markets ; 
and the rate of insurance on'^dch Voyageli did 
Hot experience the least advknce in consequence 
of the Berlin decree, "but remained precisely at 
the point where it had stood formerly, till out 
orders in ctondl raised it so high as to put an 
end to the trade altogether.^ These observa- 
tions apply to the justice of the orders in coun- 
dl: as to llheir policy or expediency, it hait 
already been staited, that^ on an average of the 
three years pi'eceding 1805, the United Stateisi 
had imported annuafly firom Great Britwi and 
her dependencies to the value of upwards of 
eight millions sterling, while their exports to 
Oreat Britain scarcely exceeded five millions 
for each of those years. For the three years 
next after 1804, tne average exported to Ame- 
rica was upwards of ten millions, and not more 
than four millions and a half was received in our 
ports firom that country. And the inevitable 
effect of the orders in council would be to reduce 
our American trade from ten millions annually 
to something a little above four. The degree 
of misery and impoverishment produced by 
throwing two-thirds of the articles destined fos^ 
exportation to the United States back on the 
hands of thousands, and turning out of em- 
ployment the capital and the workmen occupied 
in proriding them, may be conceived by those 
who are aware of the delicate balance on which 
commercial prosperity is suspended. The risk 
of permanently losing the market of America, 
by a temporary suspension of our trade with 
that country, and the possibility, not to say 
probabilitv, of involving the two countries in 
a state or actual war, were considerations that 
pressed heavy on the minds of the British mer- 
chant and manufacturer; while the politician 
was well aware that the enemy must suffer 
much less from this system of eonunercial pro- 
scription than ourselves. 



* Evidence laid before Parliament by the London and Liyerpool Petition^nu 
vou II. — wo. 42. P 



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CHAPTER y. 

FoBBioN History iStaie of France— The Code ijf CanKryptian—The Bmperar*s Address to the- 
Assemblies — Territcrial Change in EMland — State of Portugal — I%reats cf French Inoanon 
held out to the Court of Lisbon'— Removal of the British Settlers-^Emigration of the Court 
to the Brazils — Entrance of the French Army into Lisbon — Situation (f Spain — Conspiracy 
agamst the King by his Son — Secret Treaty for tJte Partition of the Khgdom of Portu- 
gal—Introdiiction of a French Force into Spain — Abdication rf Charles IV—^The Royal 
Family of Spain allured to Bayonne to meet the Emperor Napoleon — Intrigue at that 
Place — Abdication of Charles and Ferdinand in Faxmir of Bonaparte — Insurrection at 
Madrid— Prostration of Spain at the Feet of the Invaders. 

BOOK IV. • WHILE Bonaparte was pursuing, his con- 1807, a message was communioated to the 

! quests on the banks of the Vistula and the Nie- senate by Renaud Si. Jean D'Angely, in the 

Cbap. V. men, the trancj^uiUity of France experienced not delivery of which the ovator of goTemment shed 

>V^ v ^«^^ the slightest interruption. No dUsposition. ap- tears of sorrow while he announced the necessity 

1808 pears, to have been manifested to cabal and of anticipating the conscription of 1808. This- 

party in the higher orders of society, or of sedi- order for the anticipated conscription, howeyer^ 

tion or insurrection in the lower classes. The did not require that the recruits should, as oir 

military glory of the ^ great nation' covered former occasions^ immediately repair to the 

from the view those embarrassments and dis« armies, but permitted them to be traincMi and 

tresses wluch were iheyitably occasioned by disciplined for six montlis within the frontiers of 

5 retracted hostility, even, amidst, all the splen- France. Thus sedulously attentive was Bona* 

our, of conquest; and tiie conscript laws, the parte to that instrument of his triumphs and 

least popular, but the most efficient part of elevation — a numerdus and highly disciplined 

Bonaparte's policy, had in a great degree lost army ; and, while he possessed a standing 

their terrors, and were acquiesced in, as neces- force such as Europe never before witnessed^ 

sary to the external security, or the unexampled his anxiety was continually displayed to secure 

renown of the empire. In the month of March, for this engine of conquest a permanent supply.^ 

* The Cdde of CoMcnptian.-^Fnsieey at the time now under ccmsideratien, was dirided into tfiirty miUtsrj' 
gOYernmentSy each of which was subject to a general of dirimon and his staff, to which commissaries were attached 
as executive officers. The civil divisions consisted of one hundred and twenty. two departments — ^twenty- four of which 
had been acquired since the overthrow of the monarchy, exclusive of Tuscany. The departments were divided into dis- 
tricts or arrondiisements, the districts into cantons,^ and the cantons into municipalities — amounting to about fifty •&▼« 
thousand. Each department was governed by a prefect ai^d his council, composed of a commissaiy of police, a mayor, 
and certain inspectors, denominated counsellors of prefecture : the district, by a sub-prefect and his council, of a 
MmiJar formation ; the cantons and municipalities were under the supervision of an administration, composed of the civil 
authorities, with a president at their head ; and a mayor, a commissary of police, and two officers of the governments 
styled adjuneUy were aflotted to every division having a population above five thousand souls. |f These several autho- 
rities, standing in strict subordination to each other, were at the controul of the prefects and sub-prefbcts ; who, them- 
^ves, were charged-with a weighty and inflexible responsibility as to the military levies. The conscription was fijrst 
published in tbe form of a general law by the council of ancients, in the year 1798, and subsequently underwent some 
slight modification. The directorial plan is attributed to Camot The law by which the whole number of conscripts 
was limited, regulated at the same time the contingent of each department; proportionally to its population. Within 
eight days after pubUcation, the prefect distributed the contingent among the districts, by the same rule.^ and thesub- 
l^refect among the cantons and municipalities. All Frenchmen between the full age of twenty and twenty-fiiracon- 
plete, were liable to the. conscription. They were each year thrown into five classes ; the first of which conaisted^of 
those who had completed their twentieth year» on the 16th of. September preceding ; ti^e second, of those.- wbo' at the 
same period had terminated their twenty-first year, and so on in the ^rder of seniority, Eigit^t. days were > allowed for 
the preparation of fists.; the conscripts were then assembled in each canton, and examined by the administaalion, or by 
a speoal commission created by the prefiict. . By these meetings all pleas of exemption .were scrutinised ; but the finaL 
decision of all doubtful cases was referred to a commission of higher resort. The.-claims being disposed of^ lists were 
then formed of those who were adjudged competent to serve, whether present or absent ). and the sub-prefect pcoceeded 
to the drawing or designation by let of such as were to constitute the ftfolm of the district; Tickets, regularly numbered, 

to. 



I Pcudict, Statistiqqs de to Fiance^ 180r. j 

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HISTORY OF THE WARS, <&C. SO 

No sooner ivere the objects of the inmmal burg, which was the first to combine against the BOOK IV. 

interyiews at Tilsit accomplishedy than Bona- independence of France, was permitted to reira : 

parte proceeded to Paris, where his arrival only through the friendship of the powerral p^*^\ 

was anticipated with all the ardour of curiosity, emperor of the north ; that a French Prince -^"j^ 

and hailed with every demonstration of satisfac- would speedily reim on the Elbe; that the *^^ 

tion. The birth-day of the emperor was this house of Saxony hiad regained the independence 

year celebrated with peculiar distinction ; and it had lost for fifty years : that the inhabitants 

a grand fSte took place, in which ingenuity of the duchv of Warsaw and Dantzic had re^ 

exhausted itself in endless devices expressive of coveved their country ; and that aH nations 

ffratitude and admiration. On the following concurred in joy at the extinction of the per- 

day the legislative body and the tribunate were nicious influence of Ekigland 'en- the continent* 

assembled in the usual forms ; on which occa- By the confederation of the Rhine, France was 

sion the emperor in his address observed, that united with Crermany; and by her own peculiar 

since their lastmeeting, new wars, new triumphs, system of federation, she was united with Spain^ 

and new treaties, had changed the political rela-- Holland, Switzerland, and Italy. Her new 

tipns of Europe; that the house of Branden- relations with Russia were founded on> the mur 

to the amonnt of the names on the Usts, were then publicly dep^Mnted in an urn, and indiBcriminately drawn out by the 
conscripts or their friends, the lot falling upon those who drew the number below the amount of the q%Mtit. The h^her 
numbers drawn by the rest were annexed to their namer, that they might be forthcoming in their order, should any 
casualty disable their predecessors. Absentees not presenting diemselTes- within a month after the drawing, were de^ 
clared refract&ty,. proclaimed throughout the empire, and pursued as deserters. These were the conscripts^of *' active, 
service ;" but b^des these, the law required an equal number to form ^' the conscription of reserve." The members. * 
of tile reserve were nominated with the same formaUties, to march only in case of emergency, but regularly organized, 
snd'carefullydisciplined within theur own department, from which they were not suffered to absent themselves. X, 
third body was then created of *< supplemental conscripts," equal in number to one-fourth of the whole contingent, and^ 
destined to fill up the vacancies which might be occasioned before junction at head-quarters, by death, desertion, or 
other causes. No Frenchman under the 8^e of thirty could travel through the empire, or hold any situation under, 
government, or serve in any public office, without the production of a certificate, duly authenttcated, attesting, that he 
had discharged lus liability to the conscription. All the authorities were bound; under the severest sanctions, to observe - 
that the conscripts were assembled, reviewed, and dismissed to tfieir destinations without delay. They marched, under 
an escort of gendarmerie, || and in bodies strictly limited to the number of one hundred, to various quarters or depots, 
through the e^ipire, and were there first supplied with arms and clothing. No exemptions were originally allowed to the 
law of " active service^" but by the modifications subsequently introduced, the ddest brother of an orphan family, the 
only son of a widow, or of a labourer above the age of seventy, or of one who might have a brother in the active service,, 
might, on solicitation, be transferred to the reserve. Parents continued responsiUe for their absent childreip, until they, 
eould produce an official attestation of their death. The directory admitted of no substitutes ; but the severity of thb, 
principle^ was relaxed by Napoleon in favour of such as were adjudged * incapable of sustaining the fatigues;' or. 
' whose labours and studies were deemed more useful to the state than their military services.'. PersonSt of this descrip* 
tion were allowed to find a substitute, for which more than two hundred pounds sterling was frequently given. The - 
proxy was to be between the age of twenty-five and forty, of the middle size at least, of robust constitution, of good 
character, and beyond the reach of the conscription laws. AU the exactibng clauses or this system were fortified by 
heavy denunciations against public functionaries, parents, or others, who should contribute to defeat, or to retard its 
operation; Conscripts detected in counterfeiting infirmities, or mutilating themselves, were placed at the disposal of the 
Ijieveniment for five years^ te be employed in such Ubours as might be ju^^ most usefhl to the state. Absentees, or 
refractory conscripts^ were amerced in a sum of fifteen hundred firancs^ together with the expense incurred in the pur^^ 
suit, wkdch was levied inexorably on the real property of the fkther ot mother, should the fugfitive possess none in his* 
own right. Every conscript absenting himself for twenty-four hours from his depot, became liaUe to be punished as a 
deserter. A special council of war decided upon the cases of desertion ; and the penalties were, first, death ; second, the 
punishment of ^ ball ; and third, public, or hard labour. De^ith. was, inflicted on the deserter to the enemy, and on 
those who, in deserting frpm the punishment of the ball,. carried off their own, arms, or those of their comrades ; the 
punishment of the ball, on sucH deserters as escape into the int^pr of the empire with theur uniforms, or with the effects 
of another ; and hard labour for three years on die mere deserter. A person under the punishment of the ball had an 
iron ball, of eight pounds weight, fastened to an inon chain seven feet in length, attached to his leg. He, in the first in- 
.stance, heard his sentence read on his knees, and'was coi^demned to hard labour during ten hours ^ily, being in the 
interval of rest chuned in solitary confinements The duration of this punishment, which was ten years, was pro- 
longed, end en additiottal ball fettered to the leg;*, in case of contumacy or serious disobedience. § By the operation of 
tbe law of consoriptioB, the.leviesraisedfor the French amy exceeded 100,000 annually— constituting a drain o$ 
^ne-teveiitieth partof the whole male population between twenty and forty years of age. 

11 A qpedes of armed Coiutable«, about flixteoa Hioiiaandin number.--/ViM^. 
g See " Code de la ConecripdoD/' and Edinburgh Review^ V6L XIIL p. 427. 



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IMS 



BOOK iV. taal esteem of two great natimis. The emperor 
■ wished for pesee by sea, And would never 

Oha». V. Miffer any inntation to inflnenee his decisions on 
Ais smbjeet ; there oould indeed be no room for 
ivritatiGn aprinst a peopAe^ the sport and viotim 
of the parties Whi<» deroured it, and which was 
mhled as ranch with respeet to the affairs of 
other nations as to its own. The tranquiflity 
and order of the Frendi nation, dnrins bis ab- 
sence, had exoited his ardent gratitude. He 
bad contrived the sseans of simplifying their in- 
stitatioas ; be bad extended the principle on 
v^oh had been founded the legion of honour ; 
the finances were )>rosperou8 ; the eontributiotts 
on land were diminished ; various jpublic works 
bad been eompleled; and R was bus resolution, 
that in the remotest parts of the empire, and 
even in the smallest baad^ the eeseffort of the 
okisMi, and the value of the land, should be in* 
oreasod by the developement of a general sjrs- 
t«n of improvement. On the same day, tke 
report on the state of the empire was delivered, 
and while the government orator detailed the 
internal improvements which had taken place 
with the usual pomp and minuteness, he an- 
nounced, that it was the wish of the emperor, 
that henceforth there should be no sects among 
the learned, and no political parties in the state. 
The details contained in these documents, 
undoubtedly preeented circumstances well cal- 
culated to excite congratulation, and aaokong the 
most prominent of these was that external seen- 
rity wnieb France ei\|oyed after one of the most 
protracted and bloody conflicts recorded in 
history. Many of the internal regulatiotts spe« 
cified were calculated for public happiness, and 
displayed a laudable attention to domestic policy, 
amidst the anxieties and embarrassments of 
foreign war. The simplification of political in- 
stitutions alluded to in the emperor^s address, 
consisted particularly in an absorption of the 
tribunate m the legislative . body, which was 
speedily accomplished after this intinntion. 
The tone of compassion towards England, ^^ the 
sport and victim of parties,*' was so far interest- 
inar that it was calculated to amuse. By this 
inmecile and pitiful nation, France had been 
baffled in her menaces of invasion ; her com- 
merce bad been annihilated ; her navy swept 
firom the ocean ; and though her range through 
the different kingdoms of the continent had not 
then been arrested, she found in her conquests 
only a more extended prison. But not the least 
important passage in these papers was, the ex- 

Eression of the imperial desire that there should 
e no sects among the learned, and no parties 
in the state. Such has ever been the cant of 
despotism. The most interesting questions were 



benoeforth to present but one view, and to ad- 
nut but one comment. Those collisions of 
opinion, which have marked all preceding ages, 
were, at the behest of the conqueror, to be 
superseded by an influx of light wbidi was 
to penetrate all minds, and dissipate all error. 
Unless this marvellous irradiation could be ac- 
complisbed, the extinction of parties could only 
be elected by the jprevention of discussion, it 
was therefore agamst discussion that the blow 
was levelled. Part^ might be fatal to tyranny. 
Hence that denunciation of political communi- 
cations, under the invidious designation of party 
and faction. The animation of debate is apt 
to interrupt the tranquillity of despotism, and 
the recommended exclusion of party is the tor- 
pid acquiescence of slaves. 

In the territory of Holland a cbange took 
place soon after the mrangements at Tilsit. 
The strong fortresses of the Maese, to its dis- 
charge into the sea, were taken within the limits 
of France, and in return for this diminution of 
security, Holland was obliged to acquiesce in 
an accession of territory S'om the conquered 
dominions of Prussia. 

The close of the present year presented a 
new and interesting phenomenon in modern 
history — the migration of an European court 
into a southern hemisDhere. It had long been 
a topic of serious demeration between the ca- 
binets of Great Britain and Portugal, whether^ 
in Ae case of actual invasion by France, the 
Portuguese court migbt not be advantageously 
transferred to its dependencies in South Avike- 
rica ; and the assembling of an army of forty 
thousand men at Bayonne, for the avowed 
purpose of invading the territories of the bouse 
of Braganza, threatened speedily to demand 
from the Prince Regent this weighty sacrifice. 
In vain had Portugsd exhausted the royal trea- 
sury, and made innumerable sacrifices to pre- 
serve her neutrality ; in vain had she shut the 
ports of her dominions to the subjects of an 
ancient and royal ally;* the French troops 
were preparing to march into the interior of tho 
kingdom, and the French ambassador, having 
failed in his endeavours to involve the Prince 
Recent in the war against England, had quitted 
Lisbon in disgust. These events were notified 
to the chamber of commerc<B for the informa- 
tion of the British factory ; and the preparations 
which had been previously commenced oy them, 
for settling their affiiirs, and withdrawing from 
the country, were now continued with redoubled 
urgency. The activity and confusion in the 
ports were extreme; the most extravagant 
terms were demanded for the conveyance of 
settlers, with their families, to England, inves- 



* By the Decree for the Exclusion of British Ships, dated LisboD, October 22, 1807. 



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OF TlUS FRENCH REVOLUTION. 



ai 



8el0 but ill adapted for accommodation, or even 
for security, and towards the end of October, 
scarcely any thing British, except British feel- 
ing, remained in that country. - 

In the mean time the Portuguese navy 
was prepared with all possible expedition ; the 
royal furniture and treasures were packed up, 
the conveniences fiad necessaries for a long 
voyage, and for various establislmients on the 
arrival of the fleet at its destination, were as- 
siduously collected, and arrangements were 
made for the new government abroad, and for 
a regency at home. Lord Strangford, the Bri- 
tish ambassador, was indefatigable in his endea- 
vours to confirm the waveriug purpose of the 
court, and perpetually contrasting the inde- 
pendence and glory of the new empire in South 
America, with the abject vassalage, and con- 
temptible insignificance, which alone could be 
expected were the prince to continue in his 
European dominions. A reluctance, however, 
to quit the shores of that country which he had 
8o long governed, and which had given him 
birth, was not unfrequeutly manifested by the 
prince; and in proportion as the time ap- 
proached for his embarkation on an enterprise 
of such magnitude, he appeared the less in- 
clined to make the momentous sacrifice. So 
far indeed did his wishes to conciliate France 
prevail, that on the 8tii of November, he signed 
an order for detaining the few British subjects, 
and the small portion of British property, that 
remained in his dominions. On the publication 
of this decree. Lord Strangford demanded his 
passports, and, presenting a final remonstrance 
to the court, proceeded to join the squadron 
under Sir Sidney Smith, which had been sent 
to the coast of Portugal to assist in saving the 
royal family, or, in the worst event, to prevent 
the Portuguese fleet from falling into the pos- 
session of the enemy. A most vigorous blockade 
of the Tagus was immediately resolved upon ; 
but after a few days the intercourse of the Bri- 
tish ambassador and the court was renewed, at 
the request of the former, who, on proceeding 
to Lisbon, found all the apprehensions of the 

Erince now directed to a French army, and all 
is hopes to a British fleet. To explain this 
singular change in the politics of the Portu- 
guese court it must be observed, that, in the in- 
terval between the departure and the return of 
Lord Strangford, the prince had received intel- 
ligence, that Bonaparte had fulminated against 
bim one of those edicts which had almost inva- 



Chap. V. 
1808 



riably been followed by the subversion of thrones. BOOK IV, 
The proclamation that ^^ the house of Bragansa 
shall cease to reign''^ had gone forth; attdto 
this alarming denunciation, which cut off all 
hopes of compromise, even by the mosthumili- 
ating submission, was to be ascribed the com- 
placency with which the renewed intercourse 
with England was accepted. So great was the 
agitation exhibited by the court, that it now 
manifested as much avidity to accomplish the 
enterprise, as it had previously shewn hesita- 
tion and reluctance towards it. The interview 
with the English ambassador took place on the 
27th of November, and on the morning of tlie 
29th, the Portuguese fleet sailed out of the 
Tagus with the whole of the royal family of 
Braganza, and a considerable number of faith- 
ful counsellors, and respectable and opulent ad- 
herents. The fleet consisted of eight sail of 
the line, four large frigates, and several other 
vessels of war^ besides a number of Brazil ships, 
and amounted in all to thirty-six sail, contain^' 
ing about eighteen thousand Portuguese sub- 
jects. As they passed through the British 
squadron a reciprocal salute was fired, and the 
singularity and magnitude of the enterprise, 
combined with the.circumstance of two squaarons 
meeting in cordial friendship, which but two 
days before were in a state of open hostility, 
served to render this interesting specti\^le at 
once grand and impressive. ,So critical was 
the juncture, that before the Portuguese fleet 
quitted the Tagus, they recognized the French 
army, under Gleneral Junot, with their Spanish 
auxiliaries, on the heights of Lisbon, and on the 
following day the invaders entered the capital 
without opposition, t Sir Sidney Smith, vritli 
a British squadron, accompanied the royal emi^ 
grants to Rio de Janeiro, . in Brazil, where they 
arrived on the 19th of January following, after 
a prosperous voyage ; and U'om this period, 
England became the only connecting link, com- 
mercial and political, between the Brazilian 
court and their European dominions. 

Spain, once the most potent and flourish- 
ing of the European monarchies, had, during 
more than two centuries, been in a state of de- 
cline. A wretched system of government, had 
almost extinguished the ancient Castilian spirit ; 
and the Spanish armies, which in former ages 
had been acknowledged superior to those of all 
other nations, liad lost their ancient reputation 
for courage and discipline. In this state of 
national degradation, Spain was one of the first 



* Moniteur of the 18th of November, 1807. 

t On the arriyal of die French and Spanish army on the Portuguese frontier, the invaders wrote to the Marquis of 
Alomo, the commandant at filvas, to enquire whether tliey were to be ** received as friends or as enemies ?" to which the 
marquis l'«zconicalIy replied : « 

♦* l^iR,— Weare unable to entertain you as friends, or to resist you as enemies, Yours, &c. AX-ORNO." 
TOL. II. — NO. 42. Q 



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HISTORY OP THB WARS 



Cbaw. 
18W 



OOOIC IV. countries &t the continent that fell under the 
Gontroul of reToIuttonary France, and appeared 
of all others the least capable of throwin|f off 
the yoke of Yassalage. The flower of the Spanish 
»rniy was serving under the banners of Franee 
in the north of Europe ; the iron frontier of 
Spain to the north-east, was in the hands of 
Brench garrisons ; and the metropolis, as well as 
the greater part of the interior, were occupied 
by one hundred thousand foreirn troops, com- 
manded by Bb\e and experienced officers. The 
Spaniards, without arms, without ammunition, 
and without a public treasury, were abandoned 
by their government ; and not a few of their 
grandees, and other persons of high distinction, 
to whom ihey might have looked up for bringing 
the resources of the monarchy into one uniform 
direction, they had reason to rank ^ among the 
enemies of their coiintry. The bands of society 
in Spain Were in fact broken in sunder. There 
was no visible mode of combining; their separate 
force ^ into any regular plan of co-operation. 
Yet, under all these circumstances, the people 
did not hesitate to enter on a conflict with the 
most numerous and the most war-like nation of 
Europe. To trace these great and unexpected 
events to their source, requires a retrospect of 
those intrigues at the court of Madrid, of those 
family contentions, and of that foreign interfer- 
ence, which led to the subversion of the throne of 
the Bourbons in Spain, and to one of the most 
memorable contests m modern history. 

After the conclusion of the peace of Tilsit, 
the machinations of Bonaparte against the royal 
family and the throne of Spain began to appear ; 
and his first step in furtherance of his designs 
vras to draw out of Spain sixteen thoijisand of 
her best troops, and to place them in a situation 
where they could not mterfere with his views. 
He afterwards proposed to Ferdinand, the 



Prince of Asturias, and heir apparent to the throne 
of Spain, a marriage with a Fraich Princess, and 
obtained his consent to the union. Soon after 
Ferdinand had acquiesced in tlie widies of Bona- 

Sarte on this point, a conspiracy was said to 
ave been dete<^ed at Madrid, against the life of 
Charles, the reigning monarch, and a decree, 
dated the 30th of October, 1807, was issued by 
the king, charging his son with having conspired 
against the life of his royal parent. *^ My lUFe,^' 
says the king, '^ which has so often been in dan- 
ger, was too long in the eyes of my successor, 
who, infatuated by prejudice, and alienated from 
every, principle of Christianity that my paternal 
care and love had taught him, had entered into 
a- project to dethrone me. Informed of this, 1 
thought proper to inquire personally into the 
truth of the ract, and surprised him in my room ; 
I found in his possession the C3^her of his cor- 
respondence, and of the instructions he had 
received from the vile conspirators.' ' The king, 
under the first impression made by this alarming 
discovery, convoked the governor in council, and 
ordered his son and his accomplices into confine- 
ment ; but, softened by the penitential expression 
of the prince, and the entreaties of the queen, 
he was soon after liberated, and restored to the 
royal favour.* 

At the period when this mysterious con- 
spiracy was agitated at Madrid, a secret treaty 
for the partition of Portugal was executed at 
Fontainebleau,t between the plenipotentiaries of 
France and Spain, by which it was provided, 
that part of the kingdom of Portugal should be 
bestowed upon the King of Etruria, as an 
indemnity for his Italian dominions, with the 
title of king of Northern Lusitania ; that the 
province of Alantejo and the kingdom of the 
Algarves should be allotted to the Prince of the 
Peace, with the title of Prince of the Algarves ; 



• DECREE OF THE KING of SPAIN. 
** The Toice of nature unntrres the arm of rengeance ; and when the offender's want of consideration pleads for 
f>ity, a father cannot refuse to listen to his voice. My son has already declared the authoi-s of that horrible plan which 
has been suggested by the eril-minded. He has laid open every thing in a legal form, and all is exactly consistent with 
Ihose proofs that are required by the law in such cases. His confusion and repentance have dictated the remoiistraneet 
which he has addressed to me, and of which ihe following is the chief:-*' 

« Sme and Father,—" I am guilty of faUing in my duty to your migesty ; I have failed in my obedience to my 
fbther and my king. I ought to do nothing widiout your majesty's consent ; but I have been surprised. I have de* 
Bounced the guilty, and b^ your majesty to suffer your repentant son to kiss your feet. 

« St. LnarmU, No9. 6ih. (Signed) " FERDINAND.** 

** Madams and Mother, — ** I smcerely repent of the great fault which I hare committed against the king and queen 
my father and mottier! — ^With the greatest submission I beg you pardon, as well as for my obstinacy in denying the 
fruA the other night. For this cause I heartily intreat your mi^esfty to deign to interpose your meditation between my 
father and me, that he may condescend to suffer his repentant son to kiss his feet. 

" St. Lma-ent, Nov. 61*. (Signed) " FERDINAND." 

*^ In consequence of these letters, and the entreaty of the queen, my well-beloved spouse, I forgive my son ; and 
he ahall reoorer my fcvour as soon asiiit conduct shall give proois of a res] amendmeat in his proceedings. 

« Mtidrid. No9. 6th, 1807. (Signed) •« CHARLES R.** 

t ^ttt«^ October 37tb, 1807. 



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md th^t ihe vewaiDing proidnceft ^bQuld be held 
in seque^tratioa, to oeTolve at a general peace 
to the house of Brai^nza, \n exchange for Gib* 
f altar, Trinidad, and other colonies which the 
English had conquered from Spain and her 
allies. This treaty of course required the means 
by nvhich it was to be put in execution, and a 
secret convention was accordingly concluded on 
the same day, and by the same parties, by which 
it was stipulated, that a French army of twenty-* 
five thousand infantry, and three thousand 
cavalry, should enter Spain, and march directly 
for Lisbon ; and that they idiould be .joined by 
eight thousand Spanish infantry and three thou^ 
sand cavalry, with thirty pieces of artillery ; 
that sixteen thousand Spanish troops should also 
occupy the other parts of Portugal ; and that a 
body of forty thousand French troops should be 
assembled at Bayonne, by the 20th of Novem* 
ber, 1807, to be ready to proceed through Spain 
into Portugal, in case the English should send 
reinforcements to menace it with attack. Thus 
did Napoleon procure the admission of a large 
army into Spain. Charles having agreed to a 
treaty, the provisions of which were to be carried 
into execution by means of this army, could not 
.object to his territories being entered by foreign 
troops ; Ferdinand was still less capable, from 
the situation in which he was placed, of opposing 
the schemes of Booaparte ; and the Prince of 
the Peace,* the Prime Minister of Spain, and 
the obsequious supporter of French policy at 
the court of Madrid, was disposed rather to ad- 
vance than to resist ^e will ot the French EmpO' 
ror. It is difficult to conceive a combination 
of characters and circumstances more favour* 
able to the ambitious views of Napoleon. The 
characters of Charles, Ferdinand, and the pre- 
mier, were all suited to lus purpose, and required 
only to l>e worked upon at different times, and in 
an appropriate manner, to promote tlie objects of 
this consummate intrigue. 

It was not sufficient for Bonaparte that he 
had introduced his army into the heart of Spain ; 
but in order to possess the firmest power over 
that kingdom, it was necessary also to occupy the 
principal fortresses. Under the plea therefore 
of consulting the security of his troops, he 
obtained possession of the forts of Pampeluna, 
St. Sebastian, Figueiras, and Barcelona ; and by 
thus holding the keys of the kingdom, he had it 
in his power to introduce, through the passes of 
the Pyrenees, any. additional number of soldiers. 
It is impossible accurately to ascertain the num- 
ber of French troops marched into Spain, under 
the pretence of occupying Portugal, and fulfiiyag 
the treaty of Fontainebleau ; but, from an official 



Char. V. 
1808 



return published about the end of January, ^PO&iV. 
1808, it appears, that bu^twcen tlie lOtb of Oc- 
tober, 1807, and the 18th of January followijig, 
upwards of seventy thousand infantry, and tea 
thousand cavalry, entered by the Pass of Iruu. 

In this manner the revolutionarv volcano, 
by which the Spanish monarchy was about to be 
convulsed, had secretly and silently collected its 
powers, and iu the month of March the explo- 
sion took pla^e. It appears that his Catholic 
Majesty, influenced probably by the suggestions 
of his ally, had formed a design of removing 
the seat of government to Mexico, and that the 
measure was approved of by the Queen and the 
Prince of the Peace, but reprobated by tlie 
Prince of Asturiaa and his brother, with the 
insyoritY of the grandees of the court. The mo* 
tive which led to this extraordinary project, like 
all the affairs of the court of Madrid, frqm the 
period of the alleged conspiracy of the heir 
apparent till the journey of the royal family to 
llayonne, is enveloped in mystery ; but the 
scheme of emigrating beyond the Atlantic was 
probably communicated to the king through the 
medium of IsquierQ, the Spanisli negociator of 
the secret treaty of Fontainebleau. No sooner 
had the intended emigration of the royal family 
transpired, than the capital of Spain present^ea 
a scene of confusion and turbuleqce. A report 
having been spread, on the 17tli of March, that 
the guards had received orders to march to 
Aranjuez, where the court then resided, the 
inhabitants of Madrid rushed in crowds to the 
road to prevent their departure. At the same 
time several of the ministers and grandees, who 
disapproved of the emigration, circulated hand- 
^ bills in the surrounding country, stating the 
designs of the court, and the danger to which 
the kingdom was exposed. The night was a 
scene of tumult, and on the foUowuig day im- 
mense crowds of people hurried to Aranjuez, 
where the palace oi the favourite, although de* 
fended by his guards, was forced, and the furni- 
ture destroyed. The Princess of Peace was 
conducted to the royal palace with all the respect 
due to her rank ; but the Prince, her husband, 
had disappeared, and his brother, Don Diego 
Godoy, commandant of the life-guards, was 
arrested by the soldiers of his own corps. lit 
this emergency the king found it necessary to 
issue two decrees, by one of which he declared 
the favourite stripped of all his power and em-* 
ployments, and in the other he assured his sub^^ 
jects that the army of Fi'ance had entered Spain 
only as bis friends ; and that the life-guards, 
instead of having left Madrid for the purpose 
of aecompaBying him on a voyage, whieh he 



* Hie title of Prince of the Peace was conferred on Don Manuel Godoy,. cTh tile ntiftcslioa, eC the treaty, of 
|>eare concluded between France and 8j>sun at Basle, in the year 1795. 



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HISTORY OP THE WARS 



BOOK IT. 

Chap. V. 

180S 



(kclared he never had any iDtention of taking, 
had quitted it solely for the purpose of proteot-* 
Ing his person. These proclamations, however, 
failed in their effect ; the scenes of popular 
tumult spread from Aranjuez to Madrid, where, 
on the 18th, the populace rushed in crowds to 
the palace of the Prince of the Peace, and to the 
houses of several of the other ministers. The 
result was, that the favourite, after having with 
difficulty escaped the fury of the mob, was after- 
wards arrested. In the midst of this popular 
effervescence, the king resolved to withdraw 
from so tumultuous a scene, and issued a royal 
decree, by which he abdicated the crown in 
favour of liis son.* The first act of Ferdinand 
VII. was to issue an edict, in which he declared 
his resolution immediately to confiscate the pro- 
perty of Don Manuel Gddoy, the Prince of 
the Feace, and to use all the means in his pow^ 
to repair the wrongs done to such of his suVjects 
as had suffered from their attachment to his 
cause. It naturally becomes a question, not only 
of considerable interest, but of great importance, 
to determine how far this act of abdication was 
** free and spontaneous.'* This inquiry involves 
the character both of Ferdinand and of his 
Father, and will be found intunately connected 
with the future events of the Spanish revolution. 
Don Pedro Cevallos, Secretary of State to 
Charles IV. in his exposition of the pi*actices 
atad machinations which led to the usurpa- 
tion of the crown of Spain by the Emperor of the 
French, declares that no violence was done to 
his majesty in order to extort ^ abdication of 
bis crown, either by his son or by tfre people. And 
for the purpose of shewing that this was not a 
sudden and unpremeditated act, it is further 
asserted by that minister, that three weeks before 
the disturbance at Aranjuez, the king, in his 
presence and in the presence of all the other 
ministers of state, addressed her majesty, the . 
queen, in these words : " Maria Louisa, we will 
retire to one of the provinces, where we will 
pass our days in tranquillity ; and Ferdinand, 
who is a young man, will take upon him the 



burden of government." This testfanony may be 
pierfectly correct, and yet the abdication might 
not be voluntary, in the fair and liberal cons- 
truction of that term. The conclusion indeed 
seems probable, though by no means certain, 
that the alarm of the king, aided perliaps by 
the expectations of Ferdinand and his friends, 
hurried him on to the execution of that act, about 
which he had before conversed, but which, 
in all probability, he would never have per- 
formed under the pressure of less urgent and 
distracting circumstances. 

These events were soon succeeded by a 
counter-revolution, more extraordinary in its 
nature, and in the circumstances by which it 
was accompanied, than any of the other changes 
which have stamped a peculiar character 
on these unstable times. Murat, the Grand 
Duke of Berg, to whom the command of the 
French forces in Spain had been confided, no 
sooner heard of the occurrences at Aranjuez, 
than he hastened the march of his army to- 
wards the capital. Ferdinand, unassured in what 
way his accession to the throne would be re- 
ceived at the court of St. Cloud, alarmed at 
the proximity of the French troops, appointed 
a deputation of three grandees to proceed to 
Bayonne, to compliment the Emperor Napo- 
leon on bis arrival in that city. Murat, in the 
mean time, held an official communication with 
the deposed monarch, by whom he was informed 
that his calamities were not of a common cast,, 
since his own son had been the author of them. 
His abdication, he said, had been effected by 
treachery and compulsion. The Prince of As- 
turiasjand Caballero, the minister of justice, were 
chiefly concerned in the disgraceful transaction ; 
and had he not given up the throne in favour of 
his son, his own life and that of the queen 
would most probably have been sacrificed to Ids 
resistance. Under these circumstances, Charles 
had protested jagainst the act of abdication, and 
wished Murat to be informed that he had writ- 
ten a letter to the emperor, his master, into 
whose hands he resigned his fate.f 



* ACT OF ABDICATION of CHARLES IV. 
" My habitual infirmities not permitting me to support any longer the important weight of government of my 
kingdom ; and having need, in order to re-establish my health, to enjoy private life in a more temperate climate, J have 
decided, after the most minute deliberation, to ab<licate my crown in favour of my hen-, my most beloved son, the Priitce 
of Asturias. Conse<^eiitly, it is my royal will, that he be forth^vith acknowledged and obeyed as king and natural 
lord of all my kingdoms and sovereignties ; and that this royal decree of my free and spontaneous abdication, may be 
exactly and directly fulfilled, you will cononnunicate it to the council, and to all otliersto whom it may appertain. 

«* Given at Aranjuez, the 19th of March, 1808. (Signed) " I, THE KING.« 

t Protest of Chables IV. ACAnisT thk Act of. Abdication. 
" I protest apd declare, that my decree of the 19di of March, in which 1 renounced my crown in favour of my 
son, is a deed to which I was compelled, in order to prevent ^ater calamity, and spare the blood of my beloved sub- 
jects. It is therefore to be considered as of no authority. 

*« Given at Aranjuez, the 35th of March, l«li8. • (Slgru^d) " I, THE KI^O." 



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OF THE FKBNCR KBVOLUTION. 



es 



Aflxions to conciliate the farour of Bona* 
parte, and alhired by the promises of his gene- 
rals, Marat and Sarary, Ferdinand was preyailed 
upon to quit Madrid and to repair to Bayonne, 
the station which the French Emperor had taken 
for the more convenient accomplishment of his 
designs. Ferdinand had no sooner entered 
France, than he peroeiyed too plainly that his 
authority was departed from him, and it was 
speedily intimated to him by Savary, that the 
Bourbon dynasty should no longer reign in 
Spain, but that it would be succeeded by the 
family of Bonaparte. This determination was 
accompanied by a requisition that Ferdinand 
should, in his own name, and in that of his 
family, renounce the crown of Spain and the 
Indies in farour of the Emperor of the French. 
On the foUowine day, Cevallos, who had ac- 
companied Fermnand, in the capacity of first 
secretary of state, attempted, in a discussion with 
Champagny, the French minister of foreign 
affidrs, to alter the determination of the empe- 
ror. He complained of the perfidy with which 
the business had been conducted ; the king, his 
master, had come to Bayonne relying on the 
solemn and repeated assurances of General Sa- 
vary, giTcn officially in the name of the empe- 
ror, that his imperial majesty would recognize 
liim at the very first interview ; expecting, 
according to these assuraiices, to be treated as 
the King of Spain, he' was surprised that the 
proposition for renouncing the throne was made 
to him. He entered his solemn protest against 
the violence ofiered to his person in preventing 
kis return to Spain ; and declared it to be his 
final and determined resolution, not to renoii^nce 
his throne in favour of any other dynasty. In reply 
to this representation, Champagny contented him- 
self with insisting on the necessity of the renun- 
ciation, and with affirming that the abdication of 
Charles had been voluntary. After some further 
discussion, the emperor, who had overheard 
every thing that passed, commanded the two 
ministers to enter his cabinet, where he insulted 
Cevattos in gross and violent language, upbraid- 
ing him with being a traitor, because, having been 
minister to Charles, he now acted in the same 
capacity to Ferdinand. Finding that he could 
iieither convince nor silence the Spanish minister, 
he abruptly concluded by exclaiming, ** I have 



1808 



a system of my own ; you ought to adopt more BOOK. IV. 
liberal ideas ; to be less susceptible on the point — — — 
of honour, and not to sacrifice the prosperity Chap. V. 
of Spain to the interests of the Bourbon family."* ^^— -^— ^ 

Finding that he was not likely soon to 
succeed in bending Ferdinand to his purpose, 
Bonaparte determined to have Charles brought 
to Bayonne. By this means he hoped to acce- 
lerate the completion of his schemes, and to put 
it completely out of the power of the Spanish 
nation to rally round any of the old dynasty in 
the first moments of their indignation at his 
violence and perfidy. The Grand Duke of 
Berg had orders sent him to employ every 
artifice in his power to persuade the royal 
parents to set out on their journey to Bayonne ; 
and after liberating the favourite, the royal 
party quitted Madrid, and repaired to the 
French frontier. The situation of Ferdinand 
was now rendered more than ever embarrassing; 
beset on one side by Bonaparte, who insisted 
on the renunciation of his title, and attacked on 
the other by his father, who upbraided him 
with having obtained the throne by violence, he 
perceived no method of liberating himself fi-om 
the confinement in which he was held, but by 
yielding up an authority to which he was denied 
a valid title. Under these circumstances, Ferdi- 
nand, on the first of May, made a conditional 
renunciation of his crown in favour of his father. 
On the 5th, Bonaparte had a long conversation 
with the royal parents. What passed on this 
occasion can only be conjectured from the infa- 
mous and disgraceful scene that followed, and 
which is thus described by one who was present at 
the audience : " At five o^clock King Ferdinand 
was called in by his august father, to hear, in the 
presence of the queen and the emperor, expres- 
sions so disgusting and humiliating, that I do not 
dare to record them. All the party were seated 
except King Ferdinand, whom the father order- 
ed to make an absolute renunciation of thecrown^ 
under pain of being treated, with all his house- 
hold, as an usurper of the throne, and a conspi- 
rator against the life of his parents.''* Bona- 
parte, however, appears not to have regarded the 
renunciation of Ferdinand to his father as neces- 
sary to render the resignation of the latter in hi9 
favour vaHd; for on the very day that the scene 
already described took place, and before Fer- 



* See the Exposition of Don Pedro Ceyallos. 

f See the Exposition of Don Pedro Cevallos. The soene to which Cevalios alludes is thus described m the 
chronicles of the day :•— The queen, in a transport of passion, addressing Ferdinand, said— *< Traitor! you have for years 
meditated the death of the king ; but, thanks to the vigilance, the k»yalty, and the zeal of the Prince of the Peace, 
neither yon, nor any of the infamous traitors who have co-operated with you, have been able to effect your purpose. I 
tell you to your face, that you are not the son of the king ! And yet, without having any other right to the crown than 
that of your mother, you have sought to tear it from us by force ; but I agree and demand that the Emperor Napoleon 
•ball be umpire between us ; and 1 call upon him to punish you and your traitorous assooiaites/' 
Vol. II.— no, 42. R 



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RIBTORY ajr THE WARS 



Chap. V. 
160S 



HOOK IV. dinand had yielded obedience to the oonunanda 
of his parent^ Charles had executed h^s deed of 
resig)iatioD, nvhich transfenred his title to the 
Emperor of France. By this document, bearing 
4ate the 5th of May, it is declared, Ist, That 
ihe integrity of the kingdom of Spain shall be 
preserved ; ajoid 2d, that the prince placed on the 
throne of Spain by the emperor shall be inde-' 
pendent. The other articles of this act of resig** 
nation declare that the king and queen, as wdl 
as the Prince of the Peace, and such other ser- 
vants as choo^ to follow tiiem, shall retire inta 
France, where thev shall preserve their respec- 
tive* ranks; that the imperial palace of Com- 
pei^e shall be at the disposal of King Charles 
aunng his life ; that a civil list of eight million 
nals shall be alloted to the king, and that the 
dowry of the queen, at his death, shall be two 
millions.* To the Infantes of Spain the annual 
sum of four hundred thousand livres is secured ; 
and the king^ in exchange for his personal landed 
property in Spain, receives from Napoleon the 
castle of Chamboard. 

In order to prepare the minds of the Spa» 
niards for this extraordinary transfer, Charles 
directed a mandate to the supreme Junta of the 
government of Madrid, in which he appointed 
the Grand Duke of Berg Lieutenant-general of 
tlie kingdom,, and commanded the council of 
Castile, and the captains-general, and governors 
of the provinces, to obey his orders. The father 
having thus done all in his power, not only to 
transfer his right to the throne of Spain to the 
^mperor of the French, but also to secure the 
tranquil and ready reception of that transfer by 
the Spanish nation, the resistance and refusal ai 
Ferdinand were no longer to be expected. Ce- 
vflJJlos affords no insight into the particular mode 
of attack upon the prince, after Bonaparte had 
succeeded both in Arcing him to renounce in 
favour of Ins father, and in persuading the 
faUier to abdicate in favour of the French 
dynasty, except that he states, but not of his bwn 
personal knowledge, that in the last conference 
held with Ferdinand, the emperor said, ^^ Princey 
UJaut opter entre la cession et la mortyf The 
resignation of Ferdinand took place on the 10th 
of May ; and by the articles of this act it is 
stipulated, tiiat the Prince of Asturias shall 
renounce his right to the crown of Spain and 
the Indies; that the Emperor Napoleon shall 
secure to him the title of royal highness, and 
cede to him the domain of Navarre, with an 
annual grant of foiur hundred thousand livres oi 
appanage rent, and a furttier rent of six hun- 
dred thousand livres. The title of royal high- 



ness, the ei^oyment at. their respective com- 
mandftries in Spain^ and an appanage rent of 
four hundred thousand livres,. are by the same 
instrument granted to Don Antonio, the uncle 
of Ferdinand, and DonCarlos, and Don Fran- 
Cisco, his brothers, provided they accede to the 
treaty* No sooner had> Ferdinand ratified this 
treaty, than he* was hurried from Bayonne i^tiSt 
the intericur o£ France ; and to tvender his humi« 
liation more abjecty and his subservienoy to the 
will of Bonaparte more complete, the prince, 
his uncle, and his brother, weie coimens^nded, 
when they reached Bordeaux to address a 
Si^emn proclamation to the Spaniards, releasing 
than from all the duties they owed to the prince, 
and colouring them to consult the common good, 
by conducting themselves as peaceful^ and obe- 
dient subjects to the Emperor Napoleon. 

On the 20th of May^ Charles, aceon^anied 
by his royal consort, arrived at Fontainebleau, 
where his ms^est^jr was immediately provided 
with a complete equipage for the cliase ; and 
fr^n thenee they removed two days afterwards 
to Compeigne. The Prince of the Peace took 
up his residence at a chateau in the ^kvirons of 
Paris. The unfortunate Ferdinand, with his 
uncle and broths, arrived on the 10th of May 
at VaUency, a small town in the province of 
Berry, where they were lodged in a castle belong- 
ing to M. Talleyrand, and where the prince 
sought consolation in a strict observance of the 
ordinances of the cathoMc religion. 

Abounding, as the annals of mankind do, 
especially in these latter and portentous times, 
in examples of treachery, perfidy, and violence, 
it would be difficult to poini out one deed, which, 
in every part of its performance, in its own 
nature, or in the character of the means by 
which it was carried into execution, bore such 
strong and infamous marks of atrocity as this. 
The first act of sovereign power exercised by 
Napoleon over the Spanish nation, was contain- 
ed in an imperial decree, addressed to the counqil 
of Castile, in which, after stating that the king 
and princes of the Bourbon line had ceded their 
rights to. him, he commanded that the assembly 
of the notables should be held on the 15th of 
June, at Bayonne ; that the deputies should be 
charged with the expression of the sentiments, 
wishes, and complaints of their constituents, and 
with full power to fix the basis of a new govern- 
ment. The Grand Duke of Berg was to con- 
tinue in the ofiice of lieutenant-general of the 
kingdom ; and the ministers, council of state, 
council of Castile, and all civil, ecclesiastical, 
and military authorities, were to ranain un- 



* RuL — ^A Spanish coin of the vslne of /ive-pence farthing English.^ 
t Prince, you have only to ehoose hetireen cession and death. 



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OF THE FRENCH R3BVOLUTION. 



67 



J. 1 1 i =i= 

changed. On the same day Bonaparte ad^ 
dressed a proclamation to the Spanish nation , in 
which he assured the people that his sole object 
would be to relieve the sufierings he had so 
long witnessed, by renovating their monarchy. 
For this purpose he had convened a general 
assembly of their deputies^ and would place 
their illustrious crown on the head of one resem* 
bling liimself ; that thus, by uniting the salutary 
power of the sovereign with a just regard to the 
liberties of the people, their latest posterity 
might celebrate him as the restorer of their 
country. 

In the mean time, the most dreadful dis- 
orders prevailed in Madrid; the inhabitants 
bad been in a state of agitation and alarm ever 
since the entrance of the French troiMM and 
the departhre of the royal family. The French 
were daily insulted ; numerous assemblies were 
held by the people; and every thing indicated 
the approach of a dreadful explosioA. On the 
mommg of the 2d of May, immense multitudes 
eoUected in the principal streets of the capital. 
Rendered confident by their nunodiers, they 
attacked the French troops with great vigour 
and resolution, and after forcing ibem. to retreat, 
obtained possession of their cannon. With 
these they succeeded in forcing their enemies 
out of the city, with ^reat slaughter. Besides 
this regular and' concentrated attack on the 
great body of the military, wherever a French* 
soldier was discovered, he was instantly cut 
down or shot. The great street of Aloala,.the 
Sun-Gate, and the Great-Square, were the prin- 
cipal scenes of the early success and of the 
subsequent massacre of tiie inhabitants. The' 
alarm was no sooner given, than the French 
repaired to their posts, and the large reinforce- 
ments which poured into the city overwhelmed 
the insurgents. The principal object with the 
French army was the street Alcala, in which 
were collected upwards of ten thousand people. 
Against this and the neighbouring streets and 
squares, thirty discharges of artillery were di'-, 
rected with murderous effect; these were fol*- 
lowed up by the cavalry; the people, routed 
and dismayed) took refuge in the honsies; and 
the French soldiers, irritated to the highest 
degree by their previous defeat, followed them 
into their retreata and took signal vengeance 
on the insurgents. The place where the Spa- 
niards made the most vigorous defence was the 
Store-house of Artillery , which, besides ammuni* 
tion, contained upwards of ten thousand stand 
of arms. Thither Murat sent a detachment to 
take possession of the Arsenal, but he found it 
cx^upied by a number of the inhabitants and 
Spanish artillery-men, under the command of 



Chap. V. 



]«0B 



two braTe offieere of the naabes of Doaisand BOOK IV. 
Velttyde. A twenty-four pounder, charged Mrith 
grape-shot, placed at the gate of the Store^-house, 
in front of a long and narrow street, made dread- 
ful havoc unongst the French colmaui as it 
advanced, and obliged the commander to send 
to Musat for rduDforcements. Two other French 
columns then advanced, and after attackkig the 
small gairison oa both flanks, repeatedly sum- 
moned it to surrender, but the brave and resolute 
commanders refused to listen to the proposition, 
and their constancy remained unriiaken to the 
last moment of their exisleiide. After the en- 
gagement had raged for some time, Velayde 
was killed by a mudset shot, and Doaiz had his 
thigh broken by a cannon ball; this hero still 
continued to give his orders vrith the greatest 
composure, till ho had received three other 
wounds, the last of which put an end to his 
glorious career. The command of the Arsenal 
now devolved on a corporal of artillery, who, 
sensible that all further resistance would be 
unavailing, agreed to capitulate. About two 
o^elock the firing ceased in all parts of the city, 
in consequence of the personal interference off 
the council of Castile,r who paraded the streets 
with many of the Spanish nobility, escorted bjr a 
body of Spanish soldiers and French imperial 
guards intermixed. The inhabitants of Madrid 
now flattered themselves that the carnage was 
at an end, but in the afternoon, Murat issued 
general orders to his army for the immediate 
formation of a military tribunal, of whidi Gene- 
ral Gvouchy was appointed' president. Before 
this tribunal all persons were brought who had. 
been made prisoners in the early part of the day^. 
and, after a nummary trial, three groups of forty 
each were successivdy shot, in the Prado, by the 
hands of the military executioners. In this 
manner was the evening of the 9d of May spent 
by the French at Madrid. The inhabitants- 
were commanded to illuminate their houses for 
the safety of their oppressors; and through the 
whole ni^t, the deed and dying were to be seen 
lying in heaps upon the blood-stained pavement. 
When the morning arrived, the military tiibn- 
nals resumed their functions^ and> for several ^ 
successive days the feelings of tiie jnhabitants 
of the capital were outraged by judicial murders* 
The numbers slain on the 9d of May on the side 
of the people must have been immense; and it is 
stated, on the authority of an- eye-witness, that 
the insurrection was not quelled till after most 
of the French soldiers actually in the city at the 
time of its commencement, were put to death.^ 

This effort of the citizens of Madrid, which 
ought to have roused the Junta to a sense of 
their duty, produced directly the opposite effect. 



* Authentic particulars of the events which took place at Madrid on the 2d of May, 1808, by an Engliflbman. 



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HISTORY OF THE WARS, icC. 



Chap. V. 



1806 



BOOiClV. and bent them completely to the will of Mnrat. 
At their sitting on the 4th of May that com^ 
mander was present, and after detailing the 
circumstances of the insurrection 'of the 2d, 
pointed out the necessity of Tigorous measures 
to restrain the. turbulent spirit of the populace* 
The Junta, professing an anxiety to present 
the recurrence of similar calamities, decreed, 
that the presidentship of ttieir body should be 
offered to his imperial and royal highness the 
Grand Duke of berg, and that all their mem« 
hers should conform to his ordonnances. But 
it was not the Junta only who deserted the 
cause of their country and enlisted themselTes 
on the side of their invaders and oppressors; 
the council of the supreme and general Inqui- 
sition also exhorted the Spaniards to quiet and 
unresisting submission. This council, though 
the spirit of the times, and the growing policy 
or humanity of its members, had depriyed it of 
a great part of the dread and horror formerly 
attached to the exercise of its power, still, un- 
fortunately for the Spanish nation, possessed 
an extensiye, penetrating, and powerful influence 
oyer the kingdom. The Inquisition was there- 
fore an engine too fit for their purpose to be 
overlooked or unemployed by the French autho- 
rities, and its obsequiousness was as propitious 
to the wishes of Murat, as its nature cmd power 
were conducive to his designs. Through his 
influence these holy Inquisitors addressed a 
circular to all the courts of the kingdom, in 
which they accused the Spanish people of 
having occasioned, by their, factious disposition 
and outrageous violence, the disturbances and 
bloodshed of the 2d of May. This violence 
they represent as having been oflfered to friendly 
officers and soldiers, who injured no one; but 
who, on the contrary, preserved the most rigorous 
discipline, and towards whom they were oound 
by the laws of hospitality to behave with at- 
tention and friendship. The indulgence in these 
lawless excesses, it is added, tends only to de- 
stroy the principles of subordination, and to 
weaken the just and salutary c<mfidence of the 
people in the supreme power. ^^ These truths, 
so important at all times, and so eminently and 
peculiarly necessary at a period of violence and 
tumult,^^ says, the supreme court of Inquisition, 
** can by none be impressed with more propriety 
and beneficial effect than by the ministers of the 
religion of Jesus Christ, which breathes nothing 
but peace among men, and subjection, humility, 
and obedience to all that are in authority." 



Even the feeble king was obliged to fitct 
his part in repressing the zeal and spirit of 
his people, and in pointing tfut to them the 
heinous crime of rising against their enemies 
or oppressors ; and the last paper to which he 
set his hand and seal before he abdicated the 
throne, was filled vrith remonstrances and up<- 
braidings against his subjects, for having risen 
hi the Jiope of defending that independence 
whidi 'he had so pusillanimously sacrificed. 
This proclamation is signed by Charles, but 
the language in which k is written, the spirit 
which it breathes throughout, and the counsel 
which it gives, could have proceeded from none 
but an agent of Bonaparte. He cautions them 
against that spirit of faction which would arm 
them against the French, and to which spirit 
he attributes both the calamities of his own 
family and the recent disturbances in Madrid. 
He assures them that his sole object at Ba> 
yonne is to concert, along with the Emperor of 
the French, efficient measures for their welfare ; 
and concludes with calling on the Spaniards 
to trust to his experience : to obey that authority 
which he holds irom GrOd and his fttthers ; and 
to follow his example, in thinking that there is 
no prosperity or safety for their country, but 
in the friendship of their ally. 

Thus, to all appearance, had Bonaparte 
completely succeeded in accomplishing his views 
upon Spain. He had proceeded with caution and 
deUberatioa ; but the great object of his crooked 
policy seemed now to be consummated. The 
crown of Spain was conveyed to his family by all 
the forms of regal transfer ; and the members of 
the old dynasty were safe in the interior of 
France, removed from all chance of disturbing 
his future plans, or of serving as the rallying 
point of resistance and independence. The 
Spaniards, thus deserted by the royal family, 
stripped of part of their army, and guarded and 
oppressed by a numerous, well-disciplined, and 
watchful enemy, saw the most distinguished 
public bodies, to whom they had been accus- 
tomed to look up with veneration and confidence 
for example and advice, not only forsake the 
cause of their country, but actually invite the 
nation to receive the invaders as friends. Bona^ 
parte, elated by his success, regarded his work 
' as complete, and those to whom the virtues of 
the Spanish nation were known, lamented to see 
them destined to pass under the yoke of this un* 
principled and semsh conqueror. 



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CHAPTER VI. 



CASfrAiGM IN THE Peniksola Of Spain AND PoBTuoAL t — Formation of tht JuntaSf and general 
Burst of PairiotUm throughout the Promnees of Spain — Declaration of War against France, 
and Restoration of Peace mth England — Succours a forded to the Spanish Patriots by Great 
Britaiti-rSurrefuler of the French Fleet at Cadiz^Defeat and Capitulation of the French 
Army i$nder Genial Dupont — Gallant Defence of Saragossa^^Battle of Bio Seco^^Opera-- 
tions in Biscay — Repube of the French Army at Falencior^Josepk Bonaparte proclaimed 
King of Spain by Napoleon — Sketch of the New Spanish Constitution — Entrance of Joseph 
Bonaparte into Madrid — His precipitate Retreat from that Capital — Installation of the 
Supreme Junta — Failure of the Spanish Armies in their Efforts lo drive the Frendi beyond 
the Pyrenees — Liberation of the Spgnish Troops in the Baltic under the Marquis de la 
Romana'-^Conference at Erfurth — Letter from the Emperors of France and Russia to the 
King of England— Failure of the Negociation consequent thereon— Situation of the French 
and Spanish Armies in the Peninsula at the Beginning of November— Defeat and partial 
Dispersion of the Army under Qeneral Blake in Biscay— of Count Belvederes Force in 
Jistramadura—and of the Army under General Castanos on the Ehro— Advance of Napoleon 
to the Capital of Spain— Fall of Madrid— Disposition of the Spanish Colonies. Campaign 
IN Portugal: Situation of that Kingdom— Oporto vtrestedfrom the French— Arrival of a 
British Expedition under Sir Arthur Wellesley off the Coast of Portugal— Debarkation of 
the British Troops— Battle of Roleia— Battle of Finder a— Convention of Cintra-^Sir 
^ohn Moore appointed Commander-in-Chief of the British Forces in the Peninsula— Advance 
of the Expedition under his Command to Salamanca— Perilous Situation — Disastrous 
Retreat— Battle of Corutma— Death of Sir John Moore— Embarkation ^ the Troops— ^ 
Terifdnation of the Camfaign, 



SCARCEIiY IfM t)ia v^nimoiation qf Uie 
royal family in faTQur pf Bonaparte koQwa in 
Spain, before th0 northern provinces burst into 
open wdA organized insurrection. Asturias and 
Galicia, tll^ refiiffe of Spanish independence, 
Mrhen it fled before the Moorish power, ^e^ the glo<- 
rions example ; and it was soon followed by al- 
most every part of Spain, hot immediately occupi- 
ed or overawed by the armies of France. One of 
tthe first steps taken by the leaders of the revo- 
lution was to form and assemble the Juntas,, pr 
Seneral assemblies of the provinces, who imine- 
iately issued proclamations, calling upoq the 
Spaniards to rise in defence of their sovereign 
and their liberties. In these proclaipations 
every topic was insisted on which could, awaken 
the patnotism and rouse the indignation of the 
people : the long and prejudicial subscpriency of 
Spain to the views apd interests of tl)e French 
govemmept ; the degradation and misery ifhich 
^is servilitv b^4 produced; the treacberoufi 
behaviour of Bonapurte to Ferdinand ; and the 
eodaequences w^cb mi^st necessarily vesult from 
^e execution ^f his designs; wpfe strPPgly 
vop. ii,*-ifo, 4?. 



insist^ upon. The nation was called upon, by ^qqi^ |y 

^very thing they held dear ; by the dignity and J 

glory long sustained by the Spanish name; hy Cuap. VI. 
Uieir attachment to their religion, tb^ country, \,^^^y^^ji 
and their sovereign; by; every tie that bound 1808 
them to the liberty and happiness of th^nselves 
and their postenty ; to arm themselves with 
energy and courage, to prevent, by their power- 
ful and unanimous interference, the in&mous 
and complete ruin with which they were threat- 
tened by the common enemy of the independ- 
ence and happiness of tlie human race. The 
crimes of which Bonaparte had been guilty were ■ 

}>laced before tb^ir eyes in all their horror ; the 
atal consequences which had uniformly resulted 
from tbe apathy and iudifiereqce of the people, 
in the countries he had already conquered, were 
urged as holdiug fprth the most )>owerful and 
ufgent reasons for the union of the Spanish 
nation, in the great and glorious cause pf resist- 
ing his oppression, qnd preventing their country • 
from being sunk into that state of degradation 
and slavery, which had overwhelmed so many of 
the iit^er 9tat^s pf Eurppe, 



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HISTORY OF THE WARS 



1808 



BOOK IV. The Junta to whose proceedings most 

' ■■ attention is due, is that Mrhich was assembled at 

CttAP. VI. Seville. Madrid being in possession of the 
French, it became necessary that some other prin- 
cipal city should take the lead in issuing diree- 
tions respecting the great and arduous contest 
in which the Spanish nation was about to be 
engaged^ and no place seemed more proper than 
Seville. The constituted authorities of this 
place assembled on the 27th of May, 1908, and 
immediately formed themselves into a Supreme 
Junta of Government. After having proclaimed 
Ferdinand King of Spun, and taken possession 
of the military stores for the purpod^ of arming 
the people, they issued an order for all persons, 
from sixteen to forty-five years of age, who had 
not children, to enroll themselves. They also 
established inferior Juntas in every town within 
their jurisdictidli, the population of which 
amounted to two thousand householders; and 
seat couriers to the principal places in Spain, 
inviting them to follow the example of Seville. 
But they principallv distinguished themselves by 
their '^ precautions^* which they issued, as pro- 
per to be observed during the struggle in which 
the nation was about to eugajre. The character 
of these precautions is that of clear and compre- 
hensive tnoughti directed steadily and with suc- 
cess to the contemplation of the crisis in which 
Spain was placed ; the principal difficulties and 
dangers to which it was likely to be exposed ; 
and the most effectual means by which she might 
avoid or surmount them, and ultimately succeed 
in the object she had in yievf. They recom- 
mended in the strongest manner the careful 
avoidance of all general actions ; and a strict 
adh^ence to the system of harassing and con- 
tinual attacks 'on the detached and insulated 
lH>dies of the enemy's forces. 

The Junta of Seville also issued a declara* 
tion of war against France, and proclaimed 
peace with En^and. Indeed the insurrection of 
the Spanish nation necessarily directed their 
thoughts and hopes to Britain, as the only 
country which possessed the powei" and the incli- 
nation to yield them assistance; One of the first 
measures adopted by the Junta of Asturias 
was, to dispatch two noblemen to this country, to 
represent to the British government the state of 
Spain, and the determined, unanimous spirit of 
her people, with a vie^ to obtain countenance 
and support in behalf of their countrymen. In 
England, the cause of Spain fortunately united 
all parties. Whatever difference of opinion 
might exist respecting the probability of ultimate 
success, all were cordially agreed in the persua- 
sion that every kind of assistance should be 
afforded to the Spaniards. They had taken up 
arms to oppose the common enemy, and to main- 
tain their own independence, and therefore were 



friends to Britain. The cause of the Spaniards 
was viewed with zeal, satisfaction, ana sympa^ 
thv, by those members of parliament whose gene- 
ral system of politics was in direct opposition id 
the measures of the existing government ; and 
his majesty's ministers, speaking in the name of 
their sovereign, gave assurances in parliament 
that they would- afford every assistance in theit* 
power to the Spanish patriots. 

' The requests made by the Asturian depu-^ 
ties were not for men ; of these they ilffihpedl 
they had a sufficient supply, but thef wefe iH a 
great measure destitute of arras, ammunition, 
and clothing. Fortunately, the principal ports 
in the Bay of Biscay were in possession of the 
patriots ; and into these were sent, by fast-sailing 
vessels, immense supplies of everv thing the 
Juntas of Galicia and Asturia required. Intel- 
ligent and experienced officers were also dis- 
patched, in order to learn accurately the disposi^ 
tion and strength of the Spaniards, to commu- 
nicate directly with the Juntas, and to transmift 
to our government such information as might 
enable them to concert and direct the assistance 
they were disposed to aflbrd, in a manner most 
agreeable to the Spanish nation, and most con- 
ducive to the success of their cause. As it wa» 
highly probable that British troops might be 
needed, they were held in readiness to embark. 
In short, nothing was wanting, on the part of 
the ministry or of the nation, to inspirit the 
patriots, and to convince them that everv assist- 
ance within the power of Britain would cheer- 
fully be granted. 

The great commercial city of Cadiz was 
one of the first to show its zeal for the patriotic 
cause. A French squadron of five ships of the 
line, and two frigates, lying in the liarbour, was 
obliged, on the 14th of June, to surrender to 
the Spanish arms, under General Morla, after 
having sustained a cannonade aiid bombardment 
from the batteries for three days, while the British 
fleet, under Admiral Purvis, stationed off that 
port, prevented its escape. 

The importance of preserving the French 
fleet at Cadiz, and the probability that it would 
fell into the hands of the Spaniards, had induced 
Murat to dispatch General Dupont from Ma- 
drid, with a considerable force, to the south 
of Spain. Scarcely, however, had this general 
passed the Sierra Morena, before he heard of 
the surrender of the French fleet, and the dis- 
position of the people sooh convinced him 
that it would be unsafe to advance farther 
towards Cadiz. After pushing on to Cordova, 
of which he obtained a temporary possession , 
he measured back his steps to Andujar. The 
Spanish General Castanos, who, at the com- 
mencement of the insurrection, was stationed 
in the camp of St. Roche, marched at the 



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OF THE FRtiNGH ItfiVOLCftON. 



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head of the Andahisian army against General 
t)apont. After several partial action^, in which 
the Spaniards uniformly succeeded, either in 
repelling the attacks of the Ffetich, or in forc- 
ing them to fall back, and by which Castanoii 
had brought his raw troops into habits of acti« 
Vity, finnness, and discipline, it was determined 
fal a council of war, held on the l7th of July, 
that an attack should be made on the town of 
Baylen, where the Tan 6f the French army 
was ported. At three o'clock -in the morning 
of the 10th, while the troops of the Spanish 
General Reding were forming for the mardh> 
General Dupont with hid army attacked the 
Spanish camp in the vicinity of Baylen, open* 
ing a sudden and tremendous fire with his 
artillery ; and so determined was the resolution 
of the French general to make a decisive im- 
pression on the Spanish line, that his attacks 
were renewed till twelve o'clock, with no other 
interruption or intermission but such as neces- 
sarily arose from the occasional recession and 
formation of new columns. At this period he 
seemed disposed to give up the attack; but 
before this resolution was taken, one other 
effort, led by General Dupont himself, and sup- 
ported by his other generals, was made upon 
the Spanisii lines, but with no better success. 
During these repeated, impetuous, and almost 
uninterrupted attacks, the Spanish line had 
been frequently penetrated in different parts; 
and the French had more than once succeeded 
in arriving at their batteries. But the Span- 
ish army, vriih more coolness, intrepidity, and 
discipline, than might have been expected from 
raw and inexperienced levies, formed again 
with astonishing res^ularity, dismounted the 
enemy^s artillery, and cut to pieces the attack- 
ing columns, at the same time that they varied 
their own positions and movements, in such 
a manner as to be constantly in a state of pre- 
paration, and able to repel the rapid advances 
of the enemy. This success of General Reding 
over the main body of the French armj, led 
on by General Dupont in person, decided the 
fate of the day, and rendered unavailing the 
reinforcement of six thousand men dispatchefl 
from Madrid, under the command of the French 
General Wedel. Under these circumstances, 
Dupont proposed to capitulate, and on the 30th, 
tho whole of the French army, comprising the 
division of Wedel, delivered up their arms, on 
condition that they should be embarked dt Ca- 
diz and sent to Rochefort. It appeared from 
the official returns, that the French forces, 
before the battle of Baylen, and exclusive- of 
the division under General Wedel, consisted 



1808 



bf fourteen thousand men, of which number BOOK fV. 
nearly three thousand- were killed and wounded. ■ 
The Spanish army consisted of twenty-five Chap ^1, 
thousand men, one half of whom were pea- 
santry, and their loss was stated at twelve 
hundred in killed knd wounded* By this capi« 
tulation, the army of General Castanos not 
only freed the province of Andalusia, and the 
whole of the south-west of Spain, from the 
presence and devastation of the French, but 
0])ened themselves a ready path to the capital 
of the kingdom, an^l to a junction with their 
companions in arms. 

The cause of the patriots in other parts of 
Spain proceeded in a manner equally favourable 
and successful. The principal armies which 
they had formed were placed under the com- 
mand of generals distinguished for their bra- 
very, and their zealous and unquestionable 
attachment to the cause of their country. The 
defence of Arragon was committed to Gteneral 
Palafox, whose bold and animating addresses 
had contributed to rouse his countrymen to 
arms.* Saragossa, the principal dty of Ar- 
ragon, was considered by the French as a place 
of so much importance, that they made repeated 
attacks upon that fortress, with all the forces 
they could spare. But the army of Palafox^ 
animated to the highest degree by the wrongs 
of their country and the zeal of their leader, 
was fully adequate to defend the city, and to 
repel all the attacks with which it was assailed. 
Perhaps there are few instances in the annals 
of modem warfare, in which such persevering 
and successful courage has been displayed as 
by the defenders of Saragossa* The city was 
frequently bombarded in ' the midst or the 
night, at the same time that the gates were 
attempted to be forced under cover of the 
shells. The French, more than once, obtained 
possession of some parts of th^ town ; but they 
were received with so much coolness and bra* 
very, that they were never able to preserve 
what they had, with so much difficmty and 
loss, acquired. The VTomen vied with dieir 
husbands, sons, and brothers, in the display 
of patriotism and contempt of danger ; regard- 
less of the fire of the enemy, they rushed into 
the midst of the battle, administering support 
and refreshment to the exhausted and wounded, 
and animating, by their exhortations and exam- 
ple, all ranks to such a display of firmness and 
bravery, as ultimately to secure this important 
city. 

Another object of great importance to both 
the contending parties was to obtain possession 
of the principal road between Bayonne and 



* <* Guerre au roitfeau"— War, blade to blade — was the fayourite motto of Palafox, and ia these words he replied 
to the summons of the French general to surrender the city. 



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HISTORY OP THE WAHU 



BOOK IV. Madrid. Cuesta was t}ie Spanish eeaeral ap-^ 

Jointed by the Junta to command the anny 
estined to secure that important object. This 
^*^yjj*^ army consisted partly of peasants and partly of 
I8O0 regular troops, which had been collected from 
different parts in the north of Spain. LasoJes 
was the French general dispatched by Marshal 
Bessieres for the saipe purDose, The hostile 
armies met on the ]4th of July, at Rio Seco, 
near ValladoUd. The French foroe consisted of 
ten thousand infantry, two thousand cavalry, 
and a large portion of cannon : that of the 

Satriots amounted to fourteen thousand infantry, 
ut they were nearly destitute of cavalry : a 
body of peasantry was also attached to the re- 
gular troops, the army was supplied with 
twenty-six pieces of cannon. The new levies, 
led on by their ardour and impetuosity, were not 
to be restrained by the command of their gene- 
ral ; they rushed forward as soon as they came 
near the French, and at the first onset drove 
them back, and took and spiked four pieces of 
cannon. Unfortunately, however, the nature of 
the country, which' was level and open, and the 
consequent advantage which the French gained 
in their superiority in cavalry, prevented the 
Spanish anny .from securing and maintaining 
their advantage, and obliged them to retreat to 
^epevento under the cover and protection of a 
fegiment of ctMrabineers, leaving^ behind them 
thirteen pieces pf capnpn, On tms occasion the 
French suffered so spvere|y Jbat they were not 
^ble to pursue the Spanish Qfmy^ por even to 
^ke posse^sipn pf Rio Sf^co tiU sev^j^) ))ours 
pfter the battle, 

^t the very commencemei)t of the Spapisli 
jlnsurrejction, the patriots had gained possession 
pf most of the sea-ports in the Bay of Biscay ; 
and the Bishop of St. Andero, pot content with 
the influence Qf hjs exhprtations, had set t|)eni 
the e^omple Qf ^ctiv^ and vigofpus patriotism. 
By his means, numerous and wpU appointed 
bpdies of jnew were raised, who marched, with 
the bishop at their head, in search pf such ^y'u 
sions of the French army, ip that part of Spain, 
as they might have a reasonable chance of sub- 
duing, But, as the French at Bayonne were 
sensible of the iipportance of gainipg possession 
» of these ports, both for the purpose of keeping 
the English sppplies from reaching the patriots, 
and of conveying along the coast reinforcements 
and supplies to (heir owp armv, thev dispatched 
^ considerably bpdy of piep who tooK possession 
Ni^ of St. Andero, Their triumph, however, wa^ 

pf short duration : in consequence pf the advance 
pf General De Popti |¥ith a division of ten thou-> 
f and men frgm the A.Sturian avpiy, the Frencl| 
detachment, afraid of having their retreat cut 
pff, evacuated the town precipitately, having 
previously ppipmitted every kinq pf depredatiop 
y^d outrage, 



Ope of the most formidable and well ap- 
pointed corps which Bonaparte had introduced 
mto the interior of Spain, was that which, unda^ 
the command of Marshal Moncey, directed its 
march towards the province of Valencia. Thia 
province presents strong natural barriers against 
invasion, which were defended by a body of 
troops of the line and a considerable number of the 
inhabitants ; but the French marshal, by a rapid 
movement, apd a sudden and impetuous attack,' 
succeeded in forcing a passage over the moun- 
tains, and immediately advanced to the city of 
Valencia. On the arrival of Moncey in the pre- 
cincts of the city, he dispatched a flaff of trqce, 
promising protection to persons and property, 

{provided the French army were permitted quiets 
y to enter and occupy the city. To this svm^ 
mens the inhabitants replied, that it waa their 
unanimous resolution pot to admit the enemy on 
any tenns, but to defend th^ place to the last 
extremity. On receiving this answer, the French 
prepared imniediately tor the attack ; and fortu-< 
nately for the Spaniards, they directed their first 
apd principal efforts against the gate of Quarte, 
which bau been fortified in the strongeat and 
most careful manner. Anticipating the attack at 
this place, the military and arm^ inhabitants 
of the city were drawn up in a broad street, 
which runs directly in front of this gate : so 
favourable an opportunity for throwing the ene- 
my into confusion, and effecting their destruc- 
tion with little risk or dm^ger, was not to be neg- 
lected ; the gate was accordingly thrown open, 
a twenty-four pounder having beep previously 
placed opposite the entrance ; the fire of this 
piece of artillery fully answered the expecta-' 
tions pf the gallant Valencians ; the French 
were soon dpscoTered to be in complete ponfusion, 
and they were ultimately obliged to relipquisb 
the atts^ck. In the evening another attempt iraa 
made upon a differept gate, but here also the 
ppemy were received yfii\\ sp much coolness an4 
bravery, that they were upder the necessity of 
desisting from their pu]rpose, apd soon after 
commepced a precipitate retreat. 

Amidst the upiversal and instaptaneous 
burst of resistance pia^e to thp Frepch yoke, 
(hrough the various prpTinces of the Spanish 
empire, it was not to pe expected that the capir 
tal would remain in a state pf tranquil subr 
inipsion. Murat, fplly aware pf all that ha4 
^en place in the difierent parts of the king- 
dom, and of the intpfession which these events 
^ad produced on the people of Madrid, thought 
it prudent to withdraif his fprces from the capi-r 
tal, and to station them pp the Retire, an emir 
pence at a little distfqice, fiufliciently elevated tq 
protect him from a sudden attack, and to give 
him, in some measure, the command pf the city. 

While the Spanish troops wef e f verv-wherp 
successful, and preparing tbepwelves for pew 



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or Tins FRBNCH REVOLUTION. 



79 



Tietories ; while the insurrectioii was rapidly 
spreading and organizing itself in every pro- 
vince — Bonaparte remained at Bayonne, direct- 
ing or receiving the deliberations of the Junta 
which he had convened, and drawing up a 
constitution for a people who felt so little gra- 
titude for the intended boon, that it every day 
became more probable that the constitutional 
statute could not be forced upon their accept- 
ance. In the early part of the month of June, 
Joseph, the brother of Napoleon, having taken 
leave of his good subjects of Naples, arrived at 
Bayonne, and was announced as the future 
monarch of Spain. Here he was received with 
'the most abject adulation by deputations from 
the grandees of Spain, and from the Council of 
Castile. In the conference held with the depu- 
ties of the supreme court of inquisition, their 
future monarch assured them, that he considered 
the worship of Ood as the basis of all morality, 
and of the general prosperity ; that other coun- 
tries allowed of different forms of religion, but 
that he considered it as the felicity of Spain, that 
she had but one, and that the true one ! 

As soon as the new constitution had been 
submitted to the Junta assembled at Bayonne, 
and received the approbation of that body,* 
Joseph Bonaparte, accompanied by his princi- 
pal ministers, among whom were some of the 
most distinguished names in Spain, set out for 
the capital of his unconqoered kingdom ; Murat, 
on the plea of bad health, having previously 
quitted that city and arrived at Bayonne. Under 
the protection of ten thousand men, Joseph 



1808 



arrived in safety, on the evening of the 30th of BOOK 1?. 
July, at Madrid, where he was crowned, amidst ^- 

the gloom and hatred of the inhabitants. On ^^^^' ^'* 
the very day the new king entered the capital, 
Dupont surrendered himself and his army pri- 
soners to Castanos. As soon as this news 
reached Madrid, Joseph and his court found 
themselves compelled to seek their safety in 
flight, consoling themselves however by carrying 
off the regalia and plate belonging to Uie crown. 
No time, indeed, was to be lost ; the army of 
Castanos, after having defeated Dupont, was 
marching with rapid and unopposed steps 
towards the capital ; and Bessieres, alarmed n>r 
the safety of his troops, had given up his inten* 
tion of proceeding towards Portugal, and was 
measuring back his steps to the French frontier. 
In this situation, Joseph Bonaparte, on the 27th 
of July, found himself under the necessity of 
quitting the capital, and of pushing forward as 
rapidly as possible towards Burgos. 

Thus, within the space of two months, did 
the people of Spain behold their country almost 
entirely freed from the presence of the French : 
and this glorious and happy issue had been 
accomplished by their own uitrepidity, at a time 
when their situation was most dispiriting and 
forlorn ; when their king had been compelled to 
forsake them, and to make over his right to the 
throne to a foreign potentate ; when they beheld 
themselves surrounded on all sides by the troops 
of the usurper, they rose in arms and opposed 
themselves, unskilled as they were in war, and 
totally unprepared for the contest, to a power 



* The Spanish constitution formed at Bayonne is arranged under thirteen titles, and comprises one hundred and 
seventeen articles : The first title regards the religion of the state, and declares that ** the Catholic- Apostolic and Romish 
reli^on is the predominant and sole religion of Spain and its dominions ; none other shall be tolerated." The second^ 
*' That Prince Joseph Napoleon, King of Naples and Sicily, is King of Spain and the Indies.*' The third, fourth^ 
liflb, and sixth, relate to the minority of the king^die property of the crown --the officers of the royal honsebold 
— and the ministerial appointments. Theterenth regards the senate, which is composed, 1st, of the infantes of Spain^ 
being eighteen years of age ; 2d, of twenty-ftmr indiTiduals specially appointed by the king. By title eight, it is proTided 
that the council of state shall consist of not less than thirty, nor more than sixty members. Title nine regards the 
Cortes or Juntas of the nation, which are composed of a hundred and fifty members, divided into three states or orders, 
namely, those of the clergy, nobility, and people, to. meet once at least in three years. The order of the clergy to 
consist of twenty- five archbishops or bishops ; the order of the nobility of twenty-five nobles, who hare the title of grandees 
of the Cortes ; the order of the people of forty deputies from the provinces, thirty from the principal cities, fifteen 
from the merchants, and fifteen from Uie universities. The tleputies from tlie provinces to be nominated by the same, ia 
the proportion of at least one to three hundred thousand inhabitants. The sittings of the Cortes not to be public ; their 
TOtea to be taken by ballot ; neither the opinions or votes to be printed or published ; any act of publication, in print or 
in writing, by the assembly of the Cortes, or the individual members thereof, to be regarded as an act of insurrection* 
By title ten, a colonial representation is appointetl. The Spanish colonies in America and Asia to have deputies to the 
teat of government, charged to watch over their particular interests, and to serve as their representatives In the Cortes ; 
these deputies, which are twenty in number, are to exercise th«r functions during the period of eight years. The eleventh 
and twelfth tities relate to the administration of justice ; and title thirteen to general regulations. Under this latter 
bead, it is provided, that there shall be a permanent alliance by sea and land, offensive and defensive, between France 
and Spain ; the residence of every inhabitant of the Spanish territory is an inviolable sanctuary ; it can only be entered 
in the day-time, and for a purpose commanded by law, or in execution of an order issued by the public magistracy. A 
senAtorial commission of personal freedom, consisting of five members, to be chf^sen b> the senate from its own body, and 
to this commission all persons in custody, and not brought to trial within a month from the day of their commitment, may 
appeal. The freedom of the press to be regulated, by a law passed by the Cortes, two years after the constitutioDal statats 
sbail have been in operation. 

TOL. II.— Jio. 43. T 



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74 



HISTORY OF THE WARS 



1808 



BOOK IV. before which the mightiest empires in Earope had 

fallen. 

Chap. VI. As soon as Joseph Bonaparte and the 

French army had quitted Madrid, the Couocil of 
Castile resumed the government, with professions 
of ardent attachmeut to the cause of their de- 
posed monarch; but these professions were 
received with distrust by the patriots ; and the 
government of the country still continued to be 
administered by the Junta of Seville. Under their 
(direction a supreme government was formed from 
ihe Juntas of the dilerent provinces, and on the 
24th of September the solemn installation of this 
body took place at the palace of Aranjuez. In 
order to keep the civil concerns of the kingdom 
distinct and separate from those of a military 
nature, it was judged expedient to form a mill- 
lary Junta at Madrid : this assembly was com- 
posed of five generals, including Castanos and 
Morla, and the public mind was directed to its 
proceedings, with no inconsiderable degree of 
expectation and confidence. 

Although the defeat of Dupont had been 
the signal for the general and speedy retreat of 
the difierent French corps, yet, after having 
formed themselves into one body and reached 
the confines of Navarre, they did not appear dis- 
posed to continue their retreat. Joseph Bona- 
parte remained with the army, but the principal 
command rested with Marshal Bessieres. About 
the beginning of September the French head- 
quarters were at Logrono, while at the same 
time the difi*erent corps of the patriots were ad- 
vancing in order to unite, and to force the French 
beyond the' Pyrenees. The occupation of the 
line of the Bbro was of so much consequence to 
each party, that they both approached towards 
the banks of this river. The French force was 
rated at about forty thousand men ; that of the 
Spaniards, which was now placed under the com- 
mand of Palafox, Castanos, and Blake, at about 
one hundred thousand. Palafox and Blake, 
who commanded the eastern and western wings, 
pushed forward so as to throw the whole of the 
Spanish army into the form of a crescent ; the 
two points of which stretched beyond the flanks 
of the enemy. While these generals manoeuvred 
on the flanks, they trusted to the mam and cen- 
tre force, under Castanos, succeeding in routing^ 
the centre of the French. It was soon, however, 
discovered, that in point of generalsliip the 
enemy were much superior to their opponents : 
notwithstanding the great superiority in the 
numbers of the patriots, they could not, by the 
most rapid movements or the strongest pressure 
of their force, either make an impression on the 
centre of the French, or outflank them in such 
a manner as to compel their retreat. The 
Fr^'nch, indeed, found th^jselves under the 
necessity of abandoning Burgos, and of con- 



tracting and concentrating their forces between 
Vittoria and Pampeluna. But within this space, 
and to the north side of the Ebro, in a country 
naturally strong, they bade defiance to the 
superior force, and the various manoeuvres, of the 
Spanish generals, and the months of September 
and October passed without any decisive or im- 
portant operations. 

The inactivity of the Spanish armies, which 
excited alarm and apprehension in the bosom of 
many of their most ardent and sincere well- 
wishers in England, does not appear to have 
been considered in Spain itself as discouraging 
or unpropitious. An expedition, which had been 
fitted out under Sir Arthur Wellesley, for the 
purpose, it was supposed, of proceeding against 
Spanish America, was countermanded on the 
arrival of the news of the insurrection in Spain. 
This army, consisting originally of about nine 
thousand men, set sail from Cork on the 12th of 
July, and arrived at Corunna on the 20th of tbo 
same month. The battle of Medina del Rio 
Seco, had taken place a few days before, and the 
Spaniards were retreating in every direction. In 
consequence of this intelligence. Sir Arthur Wel- 
lesley offes^d the assistance of the force under 
his command to the Junta of Galicia ; but that 
body, unintimidated by their late reverses, replied 
that they wished for nothing from the British 
government except money, arms, and ammunition. 
They expressed their firm conviction, however, 
that the army under Sir Arthur Wellesley might 
be of infinite service both to the Portuguese and 
the Spanish nation, if it were employed in driv- 
ing the French from Lisbon. 

The British government, anxious to assist 
the patriots in every way that would be most 
congenial to their feelings, and beneficial to their 
cause, next turned its thoughts to the Spanish 
troops which l^onaparte had drawn, under the 
pretence oT .ij^curing Hanover, to the northern 
parts of Germany. This force, to the amount 
of eight thousand men, was stationed in the 
Danish island of Funen. A negociation hexnjg 
entered into between their commander, the 
Marquis de la Romana, and the British Admiral 
Keats, in order to effect their liberation, the 
Spaniards seized .the vessel and small craft 
on the coast, by which they were conveyed to 
Langelaud, where they joined twp thousand of 
their countrymen. Thus ten thousand Spanish 
troops were rescued from the. power of Bona- 
parte, and after being supplied with every thine 
of which they stood in need, were landed on the 
northern coast of Spain, to support the cause of 
their country. 

While Britain was thus forward and zealous 
in the cause of Spanish independence, the other 
nations of the continent gave no signs of a 
disposition to take advantage of the embaic* 



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OF THE FRBNCB BBVOLUTION. 



76 



nssmeoU of Bonaparte to rescue themselves 
from his power, or to recover the territories and ' 
honour they had lost in their wars with the 
French. The well known character of Bona- 
parte; the public manner in which he had 
pledged himself to place his brother on the 
throne of Spain; and, perhaps above all, the 
prospect of a war which would employ his 
soldiers ; gave little reason to expect that he 
would forego his designs upon that country. 
On the 5th of September, soon after his return 
from Bayonne to Paris, a senates conmltum was 
adopted unanimously by the French senate, by 
which one hundred and sixty thousand men 
were to be raised for the augmentation of the 
army. This circumstance, combined with the 
report of the French minister for foreign afiairs, 
in which it was stated that an army of two hun- 
dred thousand men was to be placed at the 
service of the war in Spain, sufficiently indi- 
cated that the insurrections in that country had 
not shaken his purposes. But it was to his 
troops, assemblea at the periodical par&de on 
the Carousel, that Bonaparte expressed his 
wishes and opened his plans: — '* Soldiers!'' 
said he, *^ after having triumphed on the bauks 
of the Danube and the Vistula, you have passed 
through Germany by forced marches. I shall 
now order you to march through France, with- 
out a moment's rest. Soldiers ! I have occa- 
sion for you. The hideous presence of the 
leopard contaminates the penmsula of Spain 
and Portugal ! Let your aspect terrify and 
drive him from thence. Let us carry our con- 
quering eagles to the Pillars of Hercules : there 
also we have an injury to avenge. Soldiers ! 
you have exceeded the fame of all modern 
warriors. You have placed yourselves upon a 
level with the Roman legions, who, in one cam- 
paign, were conquerors on the Rhine, on the 
Euphrates, in Illyria, and on the Tagus. A 
durable peace and permanent prosperity shall 
be the fruits of your exertions/' 



Soon aftisr Napoleon had arranged his BOOK IV. 
military operations, he set out from Paris, to — — 
meet his confederates, the dependent German Cbap^VL 
Princes and the Emperor Alexander, at Erfurth. ""^^a^ 
The proceedings of this meeting were never *^*'* 
suffered to transpire, but it cannot be doubted 
that one of its objects was to over-awe Austria, 
and to arrange the co-operation of Russia and 
the confederate states of the Rhine against her, 
if she attempted to avail herself of the war in 
Spain. Another determination and consequence 
of the conference at Erfurth was soon apparent 
On the 2ist of October a Russian officer and 
a French messenger arrived in England, with 
proposals from the two emperors to enter into 
a negoeiation for a general peace.^ The King 
of England, while he professed his readiness 
and his des>re to negociate a peace, declared^ 
that though he was bound to Spain by no formal 
instrument, yet that he had in the face of the 
world contracted engagements with that nation^ 
not less sacred than the most solemn treaties, 
and that the government acting on the part of 
his Catholic Majesty, Ferdinand VI L must be a 
party to any negociations in which he might 
engage. To this the Russian ministerf replied, 
that the Emperor Alexander could by no means 
admit the plenipotentiaries of the Spanish insnr- 

Sents. He had already acknowledged King 
oseph Bonaparte; the union of the two em- 
perors was beyond the reach of all change, and 
was formed for peace as well as for war. The 
reply of the French minister,;]: as far as regarded 
the exclusion of Spain, was equally decisive, but 
his tone and manner were less decorous ; it was 
impossible, he said, to entertain the proposal 
which bad been made to admit to the negoeia- 
tion the Spanish insurgents ; and he inquired 
what the English government would have said, 
had it been proposed to them to admit the 
catholic insurgents of Ireland, with whom 
France, without having any treaties with them, 
had beep in communication, had made them 



♦ LETTER 

From the Empebobs Alxxakdeb aks Napoleok to tbe King of Ekglaxb. 
** Sire, — ^The present circumstances of Europe have brought us together at Erfurth. Our first thought is 
to yield to the wish and wanls of every people, and to seek, in a speedy pacification with your majesty, the most effi- 
cacious remedy for the miseries which oppress all nations. We make known to your majesty our sincere desire in this 
respe(:t by the present letter. 

'* The long and bloody war which has torn the continent is at an end, without tbe possibility of being renewed. 
Many changfes have taken place in Europe ; many stateiz have been overthrown. The cause is to be found in the state o^ 
aptation and misery in which the stagnation of maritime commerce baa placed the greatest nations. Still greater 
changes may yet take place, and all of them contrary to tbe policy of the English nation. Peace, then, is at once 
the interest of the people of the continent, as it is the interest of the people of Great Britain. 

** We unite in intreating your majesty to listen to tbe voice of humanity, silencing that of the passions ; to 
seek, with the intention of arriving at that object, to conciliate all interests, and by that means to preserve all the 
powers which exist, and to insure the happiness of Europe^ and of the generation at the head of which Providence 
has placed us. DiUed Erfurth, October 12, 1808. 

.,..,. «* ALEXANDER. 

tswgned) "NAPOLEON.'* 

f Count N. de Romanzoff. % M. de Cbampagny. 



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76 



HISTORY OF THE WARS 



BOOK IV. 

Chap. VI. 

1808 



promises, and had frequently sent them suc- 
cours. The British minister,* in reply, without 
condescending to notice the topics and expres- 
sions insulting to his majesty and his idlies, 
declared it to be his majesty's determination not 
to abandon the cause of the Spanish nation, and 
of the legitimate monarchy of Spain ; to do 
which would be to acquiesce in an usurpation 
without parallel in the history of the world. 
To this note, dated the 0th of December, no offi- 
cial answer was returned either by the Emperor 
of France or Russia, and upon this point the 
negociation terminated. 

While the intercourse was carried on be- 
tween the court of St. James's and the ministers 
of the two emperors, Bonaparte was by no 
means inattentive to the means of prosecuting 
the war in Spain with his utmost strength and 
energy. Before he left Paris for Erfurth, the 
march of his troops towards that country had 
begun, and it was continued without intermis- 
sion during his absence. On his return, he 
addressed the legislative body, in a speech filled 
with his plans and expectations. He made 
known to them the perfect union of sentiment 
between himself and the Emperor of Russia, 
with respect both to peace and to war ; and he 
assured them that they had determined to make 
sacrifices in order to procure for the hundred 
millions of men whom they represented, an 
early enjoyment of the commerce of the seas. 
That the relinquishment of his designs upon 
Spain was not one of the sacrifices intended to 
be made by Bonaparte, was announced in his 
resolution to depart in a few days, for the pur- 
pose of putting himself at the head of his 
armies ; and by their means to crown the King 
of Spain at Madrid, and to plant his eagles on 
the forts of Lisbon. 

At the beginning of the month of NoTcm- 
ber, the centre army of Spain, commanded by 
Castanos, quitted its position on the line of the 
Ebro, and concentrated itself on the left bank 
of the Aragon, occupying a line from Villa 
Franca to Sanguessa. The army of Blake in 
Biscay, was stationed on the right wing of the 
French. The army of Estramadura, under the 
command of Count Belveder, which was placed 
at Burgos, expected to be joined by British 
reinforcements to the amount of twenty-nine 
thousand men, who were advancing from Por- 
tugal and Corunnn, under Generals Sir John 
Moore and Sir Dayid Baird. The force under 
the Marquis de la Romana had joined General 
Blake, and swelled his army to upwards of 
thirty thousand men. The united army of 
Castanos and Palafox was estimated at sixty 
thousand^ and the army of Estramadura at 



twenty thousand men. At the beginning of the 
same month the head-quarters of the French 
army were removed to Vittoria, and on the 8th, 
. the Emperor Napoleon, accompanied by a rein- 
forcement of twelve thousand men, arrived in 
that city. The corps of the Duke of Comegliano 
was posted at Kafalla, the left wing of his 
army having its position along the banks of the 
Aragon and the Ebro ; the division of the Duke 
of Echlingen was at Guarda; the Duke of 
Istria was at Muanda, while part of the corps 
formed the garrison of Port Pancuba. The 
heights of Durango were occupied by the divi- 
sion of General Merlin, who guarded the heights 
of Mondragon from the threatened attack of the 
Spaniards. 

As the army under the command of General 
Blake was at some distance from the united 
force of Palafox and Castanos, the first offensive 
operation of the French was to interpose their 
force between the Spanish armies, and if pos- 
sible to break in pieces the army of General 
Blake. On the 31st of October the French 
commenced the attack on the Spaniards at 
Lornosa : after a long and well-contested ac- 
tion. General Blake was obliged to fall back, 
with the intention of forming a junction ^th the 
Asturian army ; and bis retreat was conducted 
in the best possible order, without the loss of 
either cannon, colours, or prisoners. In his 
march he was joined by the Asturians, the troops 
of the north, and the fourth division of Galicia. 
The French pursued them with great speed; 
and on the third of November they took pos- 
session of Bilbao. General Blake had scarcely 
taken up his position, and concentrated his 
army at Valmaseda, when he received informa- 
tion that a division of the French army, amount- 
ing to ten thousand men, were proceeding along 
the heights of Ontara, in order to take by 
surprise and cut off & pcurt of his force, which 
occupied that place. For th^ purpose of pro- 
tecting this body, and turning the manoeuvre of 
the French against themselves, he left his posi- 
tion at Valmaseda at break of day on the 5th 
of November, and by one o'clock came up with 
and attacked the enemy. This battle, which 
equalled in obstinacy and perseverance that of 
the31st of October, terminated in the complete 
defeat of the French, who were routed with 
great slaughter, and lost a considerable number 
of prisoners. On the llth the battle was re- 
newed ; when, unfortunately, the left wing of 
General Blake's army, which was composed of 
the Asturians, sustained a complete rout, and a 
general retreat became unavoidable. The con- 
sequence of this disaster was fatal to the 
Spaniards ; they were thrown into extreme con- 



* Hr. Canning. 



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OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 



77 



fusion, and a large portion of the army began to 
disperse. On the following day General Blake 
fell back on Reynosa, one of the strongest posi- 
tions in the chain of mountains which stretch 
fron east to west, along the boundary of the 
province of Biscay. There he intended to liave 
concentrated his forces, and to have made a 
stand against the enemy« But it was the plan of 
the French to allow him no respite or intermis^ 
sion, until they had succeeded in rendering his 
army ineffectual, by dispersion or slaughter ; and 
they did not quit the attack, or give up their 
pursuit, till they had disqualified the Spanish 
general for taking any formidable share in the 
subsequent operations of the campaign. 

At the time that one part of the French army 
was attacking General Blake in Biscay, another 
part of the enemy's force directed its course 
towards the city of Burgos. The Duke of Istria 
led on the cavalry, and the Duke of Dalmatiathe 
infantry, which Bonaparte dispatched to the 
attack of the Estramaduran army at that place. 
Three attacks were made on the city ; in the two 
first the French were repulsed with considerable 
loss ; at the third attack, which took place on 
the 10th of November, the issue was for a long 
time doubtful ; the Spanish forces bravely re- 
sisted, and for thirteen hours repelled the assail- 
ants \ but at last, by the great superiority of 
their numbers in point of cavalry, the French 
succeeded in compelling them to leave Burgos, 
and to retreat to Lerma. The enemy continued 
the pursuit with undiminished vigour, and the 
remains of the Estramaduran army, after under- 
going many hardships, at last formed its head- 
quarters at Segovia. 

Bonaparte, having thus succeeded against 
the patriotic armies ia the north-west of Spain, 
suddenly and unexpectedly directed his efforts 
against the forces under Castanos, on the Ebro. 
For this purpose the divisions of Ney and Vic- 
tor were dispatched, with a celerity unusual 
even in the 6iovements of the French army, from 
Burgos towards Villa Franca. The first ad- 
vances of the enemy against Castanos took 
place on the 21st of November, with twelve 
thousand infantry, and four thousand cavalry, 
on the lines of Coma. In consequence of this 
movement, tlie Spanish general fell immediately 
back, and occupied a position from Tarragona 
to Tudela, the troops of the army of Arragon 
resting upon the latter place. On the 23d, three 
columns of the enemy were perceived marching 
in the direction of Tudela, and by eight o'clock 
in the morning he had occupied all the points of 
attack. Part of the field, of battle was com- 
manded by heights, whiclt Castanos had neg- 
lected to occupy. Of this oversight the French 
took advantage, and at the same time penetrating 
the centre of the Spaniards, completely decided 
VOL. II. — wo. 43. 



Chap. VI. 
1808r 



the fortune of the day. One division of the BOOK IV. 
Spanish army was successful aaid compelled the 
enemy to retreat ; but, following the pursuit too 
far, they were taken in the rear by a part of the 
French army, which had penetrated through 
Tudela to the right. The Spaniards, thus 
broken into separate divisions, could not sup- 
port each other, and a retreat became unavoid- 
able. It is difficult to ascertain the exact loss 
sustained by Castanos in this engagement ; but 
the French assert that the fruits of their victory 
were five thousand prisoners ; and Uiat four 
thousand Spaniards were left dead upon the 
field. 

Thus, in the short space of three weeks, 
were the grand armies of Blake, Castanos, and 
Count Belveder, on which the principal hopes 
of the Spanish nation rested for the defence of 
the capital and the north of Spain, defeated, and 
in a great measure dispersed. In this, as in all 
his other campaigns, Bonaparte acted upon one 
simple principle ; he brought his whole force to 
bear upon one well-chosen point; forced his 
way through the line in that quarter, and after 
having defeated one of his adversaries, directed 
bis attention towards the weakened, alarmed, 
and dispirited remainder. This system, so much 
resembling Liord Nelson's naval tactics, he found 
equally successful, whether directed to the 
attack of a post, or the combination of entire 
campaigns. 'During these disasters of the 
Spanish army, the troops which had been sent 
by Great Britain to the aid of the patriots were 
not far enough advanced either to support their 
allies, or to oppose any efficient check to the 
progress of the enemy. Sir John Moore, with 
about fifteen tha«sand men, arrived at Sala- 
manca on the 14th of November. Sir David 
Baird was at Astorga at the same time, with 
about fourteen thousand men : and a brigade of 
ten thousand men, under General Hope, were on 
their route towards Madrid. In consequence of 
the rapid advances and successes of the French, 
General Hope, after having reached the Escurial, 
found it expedient to retreat, and form a junc- 
tion with Sir John Moore : and upon the latter 
receiving intelligence of the defeat of the army 
of Castanos, all the British forces began their 
retreat, but the two divisions soon after re- 
sumed their respective positions at Astorga and 
Salamanca. 

On the 22d of November, eleven days after 
the battle of Tudela, the emperor removed 
his head- quarters from Burgos, and marched 
against Madrid, by the direct road of the Cas- 
tiles. The van-guard of the enemy's army 
arrived at day- break on the thirtieth at the foot 
ot the Some Sierra. The Puerto, a passage of 
this mountain, was defended by a division of 
from twelve to fifteen thousand Spaniards^ and 

U 



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78 



HISTORY OF THE WARS 



Chap. VI. 
1808 



BOOK IV. by a battery of sinteeo pieces of canooD. After 
' an animated resistance, the Spaniards, finding 
themseWes too weab: to withstand the powerful 
army to which they were opposed, sought safety 
in flight, leaving their cannon in the hands of 
the enemy. On the 2d of December, Bonaparte, 
preceding the main body of his army, arriyed, 
with his cavalry only, on the heights that over- 
look the capital of Spain. Instead of the order 
generally perceived on approaching fortified 
towns, where all the circumstances of the war 
are foreseen ; instead of that silence, which is 
only interrupted by the deep and lengthened call 
of ^^ Sentry f take heed,'* the bells of the six hun- 
dred churches of Madrid were heard ringing in 
continued peals, interrupted only by the piercing 
cries of the populace and the quick roll of the 
drum. The inhabitants of Madrid had only 
thought of their defence eight days before the 
arrival of the French armies, and all their pre- 
parations were marked by precipitation and in- 
experience. One of Marshal Bessieres' aides- 
de-camp was sent in the morning to summon 
Madrid, but when it was known that he was the 
bearer of a proposal for the city to submit to 
the French, he narrowly escaped being torn to 

i>ieces by the enraged inhabitants, and owed his 
ife to the protection of the Spanish troops of 
the line. At nine o'clock in the morning of the 
8d the cannonade commenced. Thirty pieces 
of cannon, under the command of General 
Cenarmont, battered the walls of the Retire, 
while twenty other pieces, and some light troops, 
made a false attacK in another quarter, for the 
purpose of distracting the attention of the 

} patriots, and of obliging them to divide their 
brces. In less than an hour the four thousand 
Spanish regulars who defended the gardens of 
the Retire were overthrown ; and at eleven 
o'clock the French soldiers occupied the im- 

Sortant posts of the Observatory, the China 
lanufactory, the Great Barracks, and the Pa- 
lace of Medina Coeli. The cannonade then 
ceased, and another envoy was sent into-tbe city 
to demand its surrender. At five o'clock in the 
afternoon, General Morla, chief of the Military 
Junta, and Don B. Yriarte, deputed from the 
city, departed for the head- quarters of the em- 
peror with the French envoy, and were con- 
ducted to the tent of the Prince of NeufchateL 
In the mean time the inhabitants refused to 
lay down their arms, and continued to fire upon 
the French from the windows of the houses, 
surrounding the public walk of the Prado. Fifty 
thousand armed inhabitants, without any dis- 
cipline, ran about the streets, Yociferating for 
orders, and accusing their leaders of treason. 
The Captain-general, Marquis of Castellar, and 
other military men of rank, quitted Madrid 
during the night of the third, with the regular 



troops, and sixteen pieces of cannon. On the 
4th of December, at six o'clock in the morning, 
another deputation was dispatched from the city 
to the tent of the Prince of Neufchatel, and at 
ten o^clock the French troops took possession of 
Madrid. 

It is impossible to review the afiairs of 
Spain without lamenting the contrast which they 
exhibited in the months of August and Decem- 
ber. At the former period, every thing con- 
nected with the cause of the patriots was bright 
and cheering : the French armies were flying 
in every direction, defeated by raw and undis- 
ciplined levies, or reduced to the necessity of 
submitting to capitulation. The sovereign who 
bad been placed on the throne of Spain, after 
the nominal occupation of Madrid for a few 
days, fled in the most precipitate manner at the 
approach of the Spanish armies. At that period, 
the whole kingdom of Spain, with the excep- 
tion of the frontier provinces of the north, was 
freed from the presence of French troops; 
and those which remained, reduced in num^ 
hers, and dispirited by their flight and de- 
feats, were under the necessity of acting solely 
on the defensive. In the month of December, 
what a reverse does the picture present ! The 
armies of Blake,' Castanos, and Belveder, had 
been defeated and dispersed; the capital was 
again in the possession of the enemy; his 
immense armies, constantly increasing, spread 
themselves over the whole of the north and the 
centre of Spain ; while the whole remaining hope 
of the patriots rested with the southern pro- 
vinces, and with the troops that might be able 
to collect and rally in the other parts of the 
kingdom. 

While Bonaparte was carrying on his 
schemes against Spain, he was not inattentive 
to her valuable possessions in America. Nq 
sooner had he procured from Charles and Fer- 
dinand the abdication of the throne in his fa- 
vour, than he sent dispatches by different fast* 
sailing vessels to their principal settlements. 
Fortunately most of these vessels were taken 
by the British cruisers, so that before the dis- 
patches of Bonaparte appeared, the inhabitants 
of Spanish America were accurately informed of 
the events which had occurred in the mother 
country ; of the treachery and violence which 
had been employed against the sovereign and 
his family ; and of the insurrection of the '^ uni- 
versal Spanish nation" against the French in- 
vaders. On the arrival of such of the vessels as 
had escaped the British cruisers, the crews were 
seized and imprisoned. Hostilities were declared 
against France in the Spanish West Indies, and 
in many parts of the main. Ferdinand VII. was 
proclaimed ; the English were received and 
treated as friends, and voluntary contributions 



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OF THB FRENCH REVOLUTION. 



79 



in aid of the patriots were raised and trans- 
mitted to Europe. 

Two grand objects occupied the mind of 
Bonaparte, and gave birth to most of his acts 
of atrocity and Tiolence in the peninsula of Spain 
and Portugal ; the aggrandizement of his own 
family, and the exclusion of British commerce 
from the continent ; in order to further the ac- 
complishment of these objects, Spain was de- 
prived of her legitimate monarch, and made the 
seat of a sanguinary war; and the Prince Regent 
of Portugal was driven to seek a safer throne in 
the Brazils, while Portugal was over-run by the 
army of Junot, Duke of Abrantes.* From the 
deep-rooted aversion of the Portuguese to the 
French, Junot soon discovered that his situation 
in Lisbon was by no means desirable, and that 
all his exertions would be required to preserve 
the public tranquillity. By the constant and 
vigorous blockade of the port, the inhabitants 
began to experience much inconvenience, and 
were threatened with all the horrors and cala- 
mities of famine. Trade was entirely destroyed ; 
money was so scarce that there was no sale 
for an^ goods but those of the roost pressing 
necessity; scarcely any merchants paid their 
bills, or accepted those which were drawn upon 
them ; the India House was shut up ; and every 
thing bore the appearance of gloom and des- 
pondency. From all these causes, the minds of 
the people were excited to an extreme state of 
irritation ; disturbances frequently took place in 
the city ; and in the surrounding country assas- 
sinations were daily committed. f The hoisting 
of the French colours aroused the populace 
against their invaders ; and the soldiers were 
obliged to fire repeatedly upon them before they 
could be compelled to disperse. 

It is highly probable, however, that the 
French force would have eventually brought 
the inhabitants of Lisbon under complete sub- 
jection, notwithstanding the pressure of the 
calamities from inadequate and dear provisions, 
and from the total stagnation of trade under 
which they laboured, had not the Spaniards 
armed themselves in such a general and deter- 
mined manner against the tyranny and the de- 
signs of Bonaparte. The news of this insurrec- 
tion soon reached Portugal ; the inhabitants of 
Lisbon, kept in awe and subjection by the army 
of Junot, were prevented at first from manifest- 
ing their joy at the intelligence. At Oporto, 
however, circumstances were more favourable to 
the wishes and the efforts of the Portuguese. A 
considerable body of Spanish troops occupied 
that city ; fis soon as they were made acquainted 



BOOK. IV 
with the occurrences in their own country, and ' 

had learnt that their services were required to ^^^p yy 
avenge the captivity of their monarch, and to v_ ^^^^ 
regain the independence and tranquillity of igQgi 
Spain, they determined to quit Oporto for the 
purpose of swelling the patriotic ranks of their 
countrymen. But, before their departure, they 
took the French general and all his staff pri- 
soners, and delivered up the government of the 
city to Louise D*01iveaa, who had filled that 
office before the arrival of the French. As soon 
as the governor had resumed his functions, he 
ordered the Portuguese flag to be hoisted, and 
opened a friendly communication with the captain 
of an English frigate, which was cruising off 
that port. 

The conduct of Oporto served as an ex- 
ample for the other parts of Portugal, and 
nearly the whole of the north of that kingdom 
rose in arms against the French. The inhabit- 
ants of the south do not appear to have come 
forward so generally, nor in so open and deter- 
mined a manner, being kept back, in some mea* 
sure, from their vicinity to the army of Junot, 
and by a strong and numerous French party 
among themselves. No sooner were the French 
expelled from the northern provinces of Por- 
tugiil, and the authority of tne Prince Regent 
re -established, than provincial Juntas, similar in 
their character and functions to those in Spain, 
were formed. Of these assemblies, that which 
met at Oporto exerted itself with the greatest 
zeal and effect in increasing and directing the 
enthusiasm and patriotism of the people, and 
in the establishment of such regulations and 
orders as the peculiar circumstances of the 
country demanded. After having taken the 
necessary steps for raising and supporting their 
army, the Junta of Oporto turned their attention 
towards England for assistance and support; 
and the army of Sir Arthur Wellesley, which 
had, in the first instance, been offered to the 
Spaniards, ultimately disembarked in Portugal. 
Destined to the profession of arms, and edu- 
cated in the military academy at Angers, the 
commander of this expedition, now in the 40th 
year of his a&^e, had served at Ostend, in Hol- 
land, and in Denmark ; but he had particularly 
distinguished himself in India, in the Mahratta 
war with Scindiah,): while his brother, the 
Marquis of Wellesley, was governor- general, » 
and had exhibited indications of those talents, 
by which, in the subsequent prosecution of his 
military career, the sceptre of Charlemagne was 
to be wrested from the grasp of its possessor, 
and Europe was to be liberated from a military 



« See Vol. II. Book IV. Chap. V. Pagre GO. 

f GeneralJunot's ProdamatioD prohibiting the use of fire-arms. 

; Sec Vol. I. Book III. Chap. III. Page 443. 



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HISTORY OP T«E WARS 



BOOK IV. 

Chap. VI. 

1808 



despotism, extending; in its power or influence 
from the Tagus to the Baltic sea. 

The force sent to Portugal under Sir 
Arthur Wellesley consisted of nearly nine thou- 
sand men, and was subsequently augmented, 
by reinforcements from the south of Spain, 
under General Spencer ; from England, under 
Generals Anstruther and Ackiand ; and from the 
Baltic, under Sir John Moore. On the arrival 
of the expedition at Oporto, on the 24th of July, 
the commander-in-chief was informed by the 
bishop, that (he Portuguese force in that quarter 
was sufiicient to repel the attacks of the enemy ; 
and after a consultation with Sir Charles Cotton, 
the British admiral stationed off the Tagus, Sir 
Arthur Wellesley determined to effect a landing 
in the bay of Mondego, having previously given 
orders to General Spencer to join him at that 
place. It was at the same time determined, in 
concert with the Junta of Oporto, that five thou- 
sand Portuguese troops should co-operate with 
the British army against the enemy, while the 
remainder of the native forces continued in the 
neighbourhood of Oporto. Before the disem- 
barkation of the troops, the British general re- 
ceived advice from government, that five thou- 
sand men, under Generals Anstruther and Ack- 
iand, were proceeding to join him, and that 
about eleven thousand more, under Sir John 
Moore, lately returned from the Baltic, would 
speedily be dispatched for the same purpose. 



About the same time, he received information 
that the army of General Junot, consisting of 
about twenty tbousand men, had been consi- 
derably weakened, owing to that general having 
found it necessary to dispatch General Loison 
with about six thousand troops into the province 
of Montejo, to quell ao insurrection in the south 
of Portugal. This information induced Sir 
Arthur Wellesley to commence the disembarka- 
tion of the troops without delay ; soon after 
they had landed, the force under General Spen- 
cer arrived, and, on the 9th of August, advanced 
with the main body from Mondego bay on the 
road to Lisbon.* 

Unfortunately a coolness arose between the 
Portuguese and the English generals, owing to 
a demand made by the former for a. supply of 
provisions from the British stores, with which it 
was found impossible to comply. without expos- 
ing the British troops to insufficient and preca- 
rious sustenance. In consequence of this differ- 
ence, the Portuguese troops separated from the 
English, but on the urgent representation of Sir 
Arthur Wellesley, and a promise on his part to 
supply them with provisions, one thousand 
regular infantry, four hundred light troops, and 
two hundred and fifty cavalry, joined the British 
army at Alcohaca, on the evening of the 14th, 
with Colonel Trant, and continued with him 
during the remainder of the operations. On the 
15th the advanced guard of the British army 



\ 



* ENGLISH AND FRENCH FORCE EMPLOYED IN PORTUGAL. 

(From an Official Return^ made in July, 1808 J 

ENGLISH. 

S6th foot, 1st bat 090 ; 9tb regt. 833 ; 38th resft. 067 ; 40th regt. 843 ; 60th regt. 
936; 7 1 St refft. 903; Olst regt. 917; 95th regt. four companies, 400; royal 
veteran battalion, 4 hats. 737 ; 36th foot, 1st bat. 647 ; 46th re^. 699. Ako 
a detachment of the 20ih light dragoons, about 300. 

^ , cr ( Artillery, 269 ; royal staff corps, 48 ; 6th regt. 1st bat. 1,020 ; 29ih regt. 863 ; 32d > 

General Spencer J ^^^^ ^^ . ^^y^ ^^^ ^ ^j^ . g^d regt. 991. | 

General Anstruther'$ Brigade— 9th regt. foot, 2d bat. 676 ; 43d regt. 861 ; 52d regt. 858 ; 97th regt. 769. 
General Ackiand' $ Brigade— Clueen% 913; 20th regt. 689 ; 95th^ two companies, 180. 

(English)-4th foot, 1st bat. 1,006 ; 28th regt. 1,087 ; 79th regt. 913 ; 92d regt. 927 ; 
i 95th reg^. two companies, 300. 

SirJohnMoore < (Germans)— 3d light dragoons, 597 ; 1st bat. light infantry, 930 ; 2d bat. 916; l«t bat. 

line, 942; 2d bat. 770 ; 6th regt. 779 ; 7th regt. 697 ; 62d, 1st bat. l^OOO ; 18th 

light dragoons (to join) 640. 

One regt. under the command of Major-general Beresford (to join from Madeira.) 



9,06i 



6,151 

3,163 
1,782 

4,233 
7,271 



Total British Force (of which 1,837 were cavalry, and 29,025 infantry .) 30,602 



FRENCH. 



In forts south of the Tagus 1,600 

Troops marched to the eastern frontier of Portugal 1,700 

Foreign infantry ,* « • 3,200 

(Signed) 



fifty Russians landed from each 
■hip, and on duty at Lisbon. Very little French 
ariillery in Portugal. 



.3,006 



Total French Force 20,600 

G. W. TUCKER^ Lieut.-Colonel. 



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OF THE FRENCH KETOLVTION. 



81 



came up for the first time with a party of the 
French at Oviedas, wheo a slight action took 
place, occasioned principally by the eagerness 
of the British to attack and pursue the enemy. 
On the 16th the army halted, and the next day 
Sir Arthur Wellesley formed the determination 
to attack General Laborde at Roleia. This 
place is situated on an eminence, with a plain at 
the end of a valley on its front. On the hills on 
both sides this valley the enemy had stationed 
bis force, his right resting on the hills, the left 
on an eminence, and the whole covering and pro- 
tecting the passes of the mountains which lay 
in bis rear. The French force, thus strongly 
and advantageously posted, consisted of about 
six thousand men, with five pieces of cannon, 
and the British general having reason to believe 
that the right of the enemy would be strengthen- 
ed by the arrival of a fresh force in the course of 
the night, under Loison, formed his plan of at» 
tack accordingly ; the right, consisting of the 
few Portuguese auxiliaries, was appointed to 
turn the left of the enemy : the left, under the 
command of General Ferguson, was destined to 
ascend the hills, in order to turn the enemy's 
posts on the left of the valley ; and the centre 
columns of the English army were ordered to 
act against the firont of the enemy. By this 
judicious and skilful plan of attack, carried into 
execution on all sides with the utmost exactness 
and bravery, the French were soon driven from 
Uieir position, and compelled to retire by the 
passes, into the mountains : their retreat they 
effected with great celerity, and without the least 
confusion or disorder. The British infantry in 
vain endeavoured to overtake them, and to oom- 

{ilete the discomfiture which they had so success- 
ully begun. As soon as the French reached the 
mountains, they occupied a very formidable posi- 
tion. All the passes were defended by the ene- 
my, particularly that which was attacked by the 
Otb and 29th regiments. These regiments had ad- 
vanced with so much rapidity, that they reached 
the front of the enemy's line before the arrival of 
the corps which had been dispatched to attack the 
flanks : a most desperate battle ensued, attended 
with very considerable loss on the side of the 
British ; but at the close of the day the enemy was 
driven from all the passes of the mountains, 
which he had previously occupied, and part of the 
British troops reached the plains on their sum- 
mit. The enemy, in order to cover the retreat ' 
of his defeated army, made three distinct, des- 
pefhte, and gallant attacks upon the two regi- 
ments which first reached the mountains ; in all 
of which he was completely repulsed ; and bis 
retreat might have been cut off, had the British 
army been supplied with the usual proportion of 
cavalry. The loss of the enemy in this action 
was very considerable, and three pieces of artil- 
voi. u. — Ko. 48. 



lery fell into the hands of the British. Our loss BOOK IV. 
in killed, wounded, and missing, amounled to ■■ 

nearly five hundred. Chap. VI. 

On the 18th the British army moved to ^^^"^^ 
Lourinha, in order to cover the dejj^arkation of ^909 
the troops under Generals Anstruther and Aek- 
land, which took place on the SOth^ and on the 
21st they resumed their march towards Lisbon. 
Jupot having been informed of the reinforce* 
ments which the British army expected under 
the command of Sir John Moore, resolved, not* 
withstanding the defeat of his troops at Roleia^ 
on the 17th, to attack the British before their 
reinforcements arnved ; for this purpose he left 
Lisbon with nearly the whole of his disposable 
force, amounting to about fourteen thousand 
men, and on the morning of the 21at came up 
with the army under Sir Arthur Wellesley, at 
Vimiera. This village stands in a valley, through 
which runs the river Maceira ; on the west and 
north of the village is a mountain, the western 
point of which touches the sea, and the eastern 
is separated by a deep ravine from the heights, 
over which passes the road from Lourinha. The 
greater part of the British infantry, with eight 
pieces of artillery, were posted on this mountain, 
under Generals Hill and Ferguson. The rifle- 
men, under General Fane, and the brigade of 
General Anstruther, were posted on a hill to the 
south-west of the village, and which is entirely 
commanded by the mountain on which the troops 
under Generals Hill and Ferguson were sta« 
tioned. The cavalry and reserve of artillery were 
placed' in the valley betweoi the hills. Soon 
after the enemy appeared, it became obvious 
that his intention waf to attack the advanced 
guard on the left wing; and the positions of the 
British army were immediately changed in order 
to repel the threatened attack. The French 
army, formed into several columns, began their 
attack upon the whole of the troops on the 
heights in the south-east quarter, and they 
advanced oq the left, notwithstanding the fire of 
the riflemen, close to the fiftieth regiment ; but 
they were checked and driven back by the 
bayonets of that corps. The 43d regiment, 
forming the 2d battalion, was likewise closely 
engaged with them in the road which leads 
to Vimiera, a part of that corps having been 
placed in the church yard, in drder to prevent 
them penetrating into the town : here also the 
engagement commenced early in the day, and 
here again the enemy was repulsed by the bay- 
onets of the 97th regiment, supported by the 
52d regiment, which, by an advance in column, 
took the enemy in flank. On these points the 
British army had acted merely on the defensive ; 
but General Anstruther, advancing for the pur- 
pose of occupying his position on the left, attack- 
ed their flank, which suffered severely from his 



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82 



HISTORY OP THE WARS 



BOOKIV. fire» combined with the fire of the artillery, 
— — - which wa9 placed on the same heights as this 
Chap. VI. brigade. The engagement on this eminence 
"^•'^^^>^^'*^ ^as long and obstinately contested ; but at 
1808 length the French were repulsed and thrown 
into complete confusion, leaymg behind them in 
their flight seven pieces of cannon, and a great 
number of killed, wounded, and prisoners. A 
detachment of the 2§th light dragoons pursued 
the retreating enemy, but owing to their supe* 
riority in cayalry, this detachment suffered much, 
and Lieutenant-colonel Taylor was unfortunately 
killed. Nearly at the same time, the enemy 
commenced an attack upon the heights on the 
road to Lourinha : a large body of cayalry sup- 
ported this operation, which was begun with their 
usual impetuosity; Major-general Ferguson's 
brigade, consisting of the d6th, 40th, and 71st 
regiments, receiyed this attack with steadiness. 
As soon as the enemy approached, they charged 
him in their turn, and again he gave way before 
the rampart of British bayonets with which 
he was resisted. As the enemy retreated, the 
British troops advanced, and in their victorious 
career, took six pieces of cannon, and a great 
number of prisoners. The last effort of the 
French was directed to the recovery of part of 
their artillery: for this purpose they attacked 
the 71st and 82d regiments, which had halted 
in the valley, where the captured artillery lay. 
The attack was so impetuous as to oblige the 
British regiments to retire from the low ground 
to the heights, which they had no sooner 
attained than 'they faced about and fired upon 
the enemy, and ultimately compelled him to 
retire from the valley with great loss, and with- 
out having accomplished the object of his 
enterprise. 

In this action, in which the whole of the 
French force in Portugal was employed, under 
the command of the Duke of Abrantes in per- 
son ; in which the enemy was certainly superior 
in cavalry and artillery, and in which not more 
than half of the British army was actually en- 
gaged,* the French sustained a signal defeat, 
and lost thirteen pieces of cannon, twenty-three 
ammunition waggons, and twenty thousand 



rounds of musket ammunition, with about three 
thousand men killed, wounded, and prisoners; 
while the total loss of the British did not ex- 
ceed eight hundred. The great superiority of 
the British troops in that most essential quality 
of a soldier — cool, steady, and persevering cou- 
rage, was decisively and gloriously displayed 
throughout the whole of this memorable battle.. 
The celebrated manoeuvre, to which Bonaparte 
is indebted for all his victories— that of attack- 
ing by column, and endeavouring to break the 
line of his opponents, was attempted to be put 
in practise by Junot on the present occasion ; 
but the attempt, though made with all the cha- 
racteristic impetuosity of French tactics, com- 
pletely failed. The British line remained firm 
and unbroken; and when they, in their turn, 
charged with the bayonet, they proved them- 
selves as much superior to the French in attack 
as they were in defence. The enemy fled from 
the charge in dismay ; and this, as well as every 
other battle in which the British have had 
recourse to the bayonet, proves, that with that 
weapon they are irresistible.f 

Sir Harry Burrard had joined the British 
army on the morning of the buttle of Vimiera, 
after the dispositions had been made, but before 
the action begun : with a feeling of delicacy 
towards Sir Arthur Wellesley, honourable to 
himself, he declined assuming the command till 
that general should have completed the opera- 
tion which he had so well arranged. On the 
22d, the day after the battle. Sir Hew Dairy m- 
pie, who had been ordered from his situation as 
Lieutenant-governor of Gibraltar, for the purpose 
of taking the command of all the different corps 
sent by the British government into Portugal, 
reached Cintra, the place to which the British 
army had moved. A very few hours after his 
arrival, a flag of truce came in from Junot, with 
a proposal for a cessation of hostilities, in order 
that a convention, b^ which the French should' 
evacuate Portugal, might be settled and agreed 
upon. An armistice was accordingly signed by 
General Kellerman on the part of the French, 
and Sir Arthur Wellesley on behalf of the Eng- 
lish, the principal articles of which formed the 



* Sir Arthur Wellesley 's Dispatches, dated Vlmiera, August 22d, 1808i 

\ Of the many anecdotes relatiTe to the battle of Vimiera, that prove and illustrate the honourable disposition 
ik well as the personal courage of the British soldiery, two are especially worthy of being recorded. The French General 
Bemier, who was wounded and made prisoner, was rescued from the hands of the infuriated Portuguese by a Highland 
Corpora], of the name of Mackay, in the 71st reg^iment ; the general, under an impulse of gratitude, presented Afackaj 
with his watch and purse, hut the gallant Caledonian declinecl to accept any remuneration from the hands of a fallen 
enemy, asserting that he had only done his duty. The other hero was an Highland piper in the same regiment ; early in 
the action he received a desperate wound in the thigh, which prevented him from marching, but placing himself on th« 
ground, he began to play his pipes with more than usual energy, exclaiming, " Wecl, my bra' lads, I can gang nae far- 
ther wi' ye a-iighting ; but deel ha*e me if ye sal want music :'* and so saying, he continued, during the engagement to 
animate the men with his martial mufiic. Both of these heroes were rewarded, the corporal with a commission, atid 
liie piper, whose name was Stewart, with a handsome stand of Highland pipes. 



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OP THE FRENCH REVOLUTIOJf. 



83 



basis of the convention of Cintra. By the de- 
finitiye conyentioo, so extraordinary in all its 
articles, it was agreed, that the English govern- 
ment should be at the expense of transporting 
the whole of the French army to any of the ports 
in France, between Rochefort and L^Orient. 
When the army arrived in France, they were to 
be at liberty to serve again immediately. All 
the property of the French army, as well as the 
property of the individuals, was to be sacred and 
untouched, and might either be sold in Portugal 
or carried off into France. The embarkation 
was to take place in three divisions ; the first to 
sail within seven days from the date of the rati- 
fication of the convention. No native of Portu- 
gal was to be molested, or considered accounta- 
ble for his political conduct, during the time the 
French had occupied that country ; and such 
of them as were desirous of withdrawing into 
France, were to have full liberty to dispose of 
their property. When the insurrection in Spain 
first broke out, Junot had ordered a number of 
the Spanish troops, serving in his army, into con* 
finement in the ships in the harbour, and in 
return for the delivering up of these Spaniards, 
the commander-in-chief of the British army 
engaged to obtain, from the Spanitsh Juntas, the 
release or restoration of such French subjects, 
either military or civil, as might have been de- 
tained in Spain, in consequence of the events 
that occurred about the end of May and the 
beginning of June. Respecting the Russian 
fleet, which by the articles of the armistice was 
to be allowed to depart from the Tagus without 
molestation, a convention was agreed to by Sir 
Charles Cotton, and Admiral Siniavin, the Rus- 
sian admiral, by which the ships and stores were 
to be delivered up immediately, and sent to 
England ; there to be held as a deposit, and not 
to be restored till six months after jthe conclusion 
of a peace between Russia and Great Britain. 
The Russian admiral, officers, seamen, and 
marines, were to be allowed to return to Rus- 
sia, at the expense of the British government, 
without any stipulation with regard to their 
future services. 

Had not the battle of Vimiera exhibited 
the most decisive evidence that the British army 
were victorious on that memorable day, the 
fact would scarcely have been deduced from the 
convention of Cintra. In Portugal, as well as 
in England, the terms of the convention pro- 
duced loud murmurs and universal discontent. 
General Bernardin Freire, commander of the 
Portuguese troops, entered a formal protest 



1808 



against the convention ; and the coolness and BOOR IV. 
aOenation which had already so unfortunately ■ 

taken place, were, by this means, aggravated to Ca4P. Yl. 
a decree nearly approaching to open hostility. 
Oil the 15th of September the French troops 
completed their embarkation, after a variety of 
discussions upon the execution of the conven* 
tion ; and on that day the kingdom of Portugal 
was completely freed from the presence of an 
enemy, who, for ten months, had inflicted upon 
the country the most severe calanuties and 
privations.* 

That the state and disposition of Portugal 
did not realise the public expectation, after the 
expulsion of the French, is evident from the 
large portion of the British army which remained 
in that country, at a time when their services 
were imperiously demanded by the situation of 
Spain. As the defeat of Junot and the libera- 
tion of Portugal were only mediate and not the 
final objects of the British expedition, as soon 
as that service was accomplished, the troops 
ou^ht to have proceeded without delay to the 
assistance of the Spanish patriots. By sea they 
could not be sent, the transports being all occu« 
pied in restoring the conquered French army 
to their country. Instead, however, of compen* 
sating in some measure for the great length of 
time which a march by land would necessarily 
occupy, the troops did not begin their march 
towards Spain till two months after the ratifi- 
cation of the convention of Cintra, and even 
then, upwards of ten thousand men were left 
behind. 

The fatal treaty by which the campaign in 
Portugal was terminated, drew after it a long 
train of disaster and disgrace. One of its first 
effects was to suspend all the operations of the 
army, and Sir Hew Dalrymple, Sir Harry Bur- 
rard, and Sir Arthur Wellesley, were all sum- 
moned to England, in consequence of the in- 
quiry which it was seen proper to institute into 
that proceeding. The command of the British 
army was now vested in Sir John Moore— a 
general who had distinguished himself in the 
West Indies, in Holland, and in Egypt, and 
who had recently returned from Sweden, where 
be had been employed as commander-in-chief. 
No sooner had the command devolved upon Sir 
John, than the utmost activity was exerted to 
forward the expedition to Spain. The British 
army destined to act in favour of the Spaniards, 
and to assist in expelling the French invaders 
from that country, consisted of the troops which 
marched from Lisbon, on the 27th of October, 



* The total number of French troops, Sec. embarked from Portugal in virtue of the convention of Cintra, includ- 
iiig the garrisons of Almeida and Elvas, amounted, according tOr the official retnrns made to the British government, to 
04,735 men, 213 women, 116 children, and 759 horses. 



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84 



HISTORY OP THE WARS 



BOO&IF. 

Chap. VL 

1808 



under the command of Sir John Moore,* and 
those which were sent from England, under the 
command of Sir David Baird.f The latter 
arrived at Corunna on the 13th of October, and 
Sir David Baird was astonished and disap- 
pointed to find that the Junta of Galicia at first 
refused him permission to land his troops ; and 
when their tardy acquiescence was at length 
obtained, his reception was so extremely cold 
and dispiriting, that he was disposed to doubt 
whether the reluctance of the Spanish govern- 
ment, expressed in the first stages of their 
resistance to the French oppression, had yet 
been overcome. The same impression was 
made on Sir John Moore, when he arrived at 
Salamanca, on the 13th of November ; and this 
officer wrote from that place to the British 
minister at Madrid, desiring him frankly to in - 
form the Spanish government, that if they ex- 
pected his army to advance, they must prepare 
themselves to pay more attention to its wants. 
The further Sir John Moore advanced into 
Spain, the more strongly was he impressed with 
the conviction, that the information upon the 
fiaith of which he had crossed the frontiers of 
Portugal, was utterly destitute of foundation. 
He had been officially informed that his entry 
into Spain would be covered by between sixty 
and seventy thousand men ;% but so far was this 
fi*om^ being the fact, that he had now advanced 
within three marches of the French army, and 
not even a Spanish piquet had appeared to pro- 
tect his front. All the principal Spanish armies 
were beaten and dispersed ; Burgos was in pos- 
session of the French; and even Valladolid had 
been entered and occupied by their cavalry. 
Under these circumstances, Sir John Moore de- 
termined to retreat ; but before he could put his 
determination into effect, he received a commu* 
nication from Mr. Frere, the British Ambassador 
at Madrid, strongly urging him to advance to 
that capital, and presenting a highly coloured 
picture of the enthusiastic and determined spirit 
of the people, as well as of the ample resources of 
the country. This communication was speedily 
followed by a messenger, sent expressly by the 
Prince of Cbstelfranca, and General Morla, the 
Governors of Madrid, with a paper dated Sep- 
tember 2d, bearing their signatures, as the organ 



of the Supreme Junta. This paper was still 
more flattering in its representations of the zeal 
and resources of the Spaniards than even Mr. 
Frere's letter ; and in an evil hour, the British 
general suffered his judgment to give way to 
the representations of the Spanish government 
and the English minister. Under this influence, 
he was induced to suspend his retreat and to 
order Sir David Baird to advance. After the 
main body of the army had been joined by Ge- 
neral Hope's division, they advanced towards 
Valladolid, with the corps under Sir David Baird 
in their rear. Before they had proceeded a day*a 
march on their route. Sir John Moore learnt, 
by an intercepted dispatch, that Bonaparte, who 
had entered Madrid on the 4th of December, 
was advancing towards Lisbon, and that a body 
of eighteen thousand men, under Soult, was 
posted at Saldana, on the banks of the Carrion. 
Sir John, anxious to meet the wishes of his 
troops, by leading them against the enemy, and 
willing to embrace any opportunity of benefiting 
the Spanish cause, quitted his route towards 
Valladolid, an*, by a movement on the left, hav- 
ing effected his junction with Sir David Baird^ 
advanced by rapid marches to the Carrion* Here 
the advanced posts of the two armies first met, 
and the superiority of the British cavalry, under 
Lord Paget, was eminently displayed in a most 
brilliant and successful skirmish. But just aa 
Sir John Moore had issued his orders for the 
main body of the army to commence a general 
attack, and had requested the Marquis of Ro- 
mana to co-operate with his forces, he received,^ 
from different quarters, information on which he 
could confidently rely, that Bonaparte in person 
was advancing with his army in order to get into 
the rear of the British ; that the army which had 
been stationed at Talavera had moved forward 
to Salamanca, and that Soult himself had re- 
ceived strong reinforcements. There was now 
no alternative ; a retreat had become indispen^ 
sable, and the only difficulty lay in the route that 
ought to be pursued. 

The numbers of the French army that 
were now dispatched against Sir John Moore 
amounted to upwards of seventy thousand. 
The corps of Soult, before it was reinforced, 
consisted of eighteen thousand men ; the right 



* Effectiye strength of the force which marched from 
Portugal aDder the command of Sir John Moore: 

Artillery, 086 

Cavalry, , 912 

Infantry, 17,746 

19,343 

Total, as stated in the Adjutant- generaVs Report- 



t Effective strength of the troops that marched from 
Corunna under Sir David Baird : 



Artillery, 611 

Cavalry, 1,538 

Infantry, 8,573 



10,722 



-30,066. 



Of this force 716 men were left to keep open the communication with Portugal. 
t Lord Castlereagb'ft Dispatch of the 30th of September, 1806. 



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OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 



85 



flank of the British was threatened by Junot^ 
who, liberated by the convention of Cintrafrom. 
his perilous situation in Portugal, had now again 
advanced into Spain with fifteen thousand men ; 
while Bonaparte, who had quitted Madrid on 
the 18th, with forty thousand troops, was at 
this moment advancing, with his usual rapidity, 
npon the British force. So rapid was the 
march of the main body of the French army, 
under Bonaparte, and so closely did they pursue 
Sir John Moore, that the ad vanced> guard of the 
enemy reached Tordesillas on the same da; that 
the British began to retreat from Sahagun. At 
Benevente the cavalry and part of the artillery 
of Bonaparte's army came up with the rear of 
the British, and another slLirmish took place, 
which terminated greatly to the glory and honour 
of the British cavalry, and in which the French 
General Lefevre, at the head of his chasseurs, 
was taken prisoner. This check served to con- 
vince Bonaparte that his main force could not 
come up with Sir John Moore before be had 
quitted Benevente; and the presence of the 
emperor being required in France, he committed 
the further prosecution of the pursuit to Marshal 
Soult, the Duke of Dalmatia, who, with three 
divisions under his command, was ordered to 
follow the British without intermission^ and to 
effect their destruction. 

The situation of the British army was at 
this time dispiriting in the extreme. In the 
midst of winter, in a dreary and desolate couu- 
irjy the soldiers, chilled and drenched by deluges 
of rain, and wearied by long and rapid marches, 
were almost destitute of fuel to cook their 
victuals, and it was with extreme difficulty that 
they procured shelter. Their provisions were 
scanty, irregular, and difficult of attaiament ; 
the waggons, in which were their magazines, 
l^^Sg^^S^? And stores, were often deserted in the 
night by the Spanish drivers, terrified by the ap- 
proach of the French. Thus, baggage^ ammu- 
nition, stores, and even money, were frequently 
obliged to be destroyed, to prevent them falling 
into the hands of the enemy ; and the weak, the 
sick, and the wounded, were necessarily left 
behind.* In the midst of these distresses, the 
Spanish peasantry offered no assistance, and 
shewed no sympathy ; on the contrary, though 
armed, they fled at the approach of the English, 
carrying with them every thing that could alle- 
viate their distress, or contribute to their preser- 
vation or comfort. Neither money nor threats 
eould induce them to afford any relief or assist- 
ance. In short, the whole behaviour of the 
3 laniards, during the retreat of Sir John 
core's army, was calculated to add, in no 
trifling degree, to the dissatisfaction of the Bri^ 



VI. 



1808 



tish, who saw themselves exposed to a superior BOOK IV 
force, and suffering under tl|^ most cruel priva- -^ 
tions, in the cause of men, who would neither ^^ 
stir in their own behalf, nor assist those who, 
on their account, were encountering these ac- 
cumulated evils. 

The difficulties and anxiety of the British 
oommander were increased by the relaxation 
which took place in the discipline of his army. 
The disappointment which they experienced, 
in not being allowed to measure their strength 
with the enemy ; the privations and distresses 
under which they laboured, in a retreat which 
they considered as a disgraceful and unnecessary 
flight ; and above all, the indifference to their 
sufferings which the Spaniards uniformly mani- 
fested; contributed to weaken their habits of 
order and subordination. Sir John Moore, well 
aware of the consequences to which this want 
of discipline might lead, found himselt reluct- 
antly compelled to issue such orders as might 
unequivocally point out his sense of so great 
an evil; and as might, at the same time, ex- 
press his unalterable determination to punish, in 
the most severe and exemplary manner, every 
future offender. 

The French army was now pressing hard 
upon the British, and Sir John Moore, having 
previously dispatched General Crawford's divi- 
sion, consisting of three thousand men, to Vigo, 
came to the determination to halt at Lugo, at 
which place he arrived on the 5th of January, 
1809, and to offer them battle; but Marshal 
Soult did not think it prudent to attack the 
British in the strong and judicious position 
they had taken up near this place. Sir John 
Moore, not judging it safe, either to act offen-^ 
sively, or to delay his retreat any longer, 
quitted his ground in the night of the 9th, 
leaving his fires burning to deceive the enemy. 
On the 11th the whole of the British army 
reached Corunna, with the exception of General 
Crawford's division, which had embarked at 
Vigo; but, unfortunately, the transports had 
not yet arrived, and the next morning, the 
French army, under the Duke of Dalmatia, 
were seen approaching Corunna. On examin-^ 
ing the different positions in the neighbourhood. 
Sir John Moore determined to occupy a ranga 
of hills near the town, and on the 13th he made 
the following arrangement of his army :— One 
division, under General Hope, occupied a hill on 
the left, commanding the road to Betanzos ; the 
divisions under Sir David Baird extended from 
this village, and bending to the right, the whole 
formed a sort of crescent ; the rifle corps on the 
side of Sir David Baird formed a chain across a 
valley, and communicated with General Fraser'a 



* l%r Jobu Moore's last Dispatch, dated Corunna, January I3tb, 1809. 



VOL. II. — NO. 44. 



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HISTORY OF THE WAR« 



9P01CIV. 

1»08 



diTifiioB, which was drawn up ntar the road to 
Vigo, about half a m\\^ from Corunoa ; aod the 
' reserve^ under Major-general Page!, occupied a 
village on the Betanzos road^ about half a mile 
in the rear of General Hppe. On the Hih, in tlie 
evening, the transports appointed to convey the 
British army to their native shoresyhove in sight. 
On the 15th the enemy advanced to the keight 
opposite the Briltsh position. About noon, on the 
16th, be began to place 9ome guns in the front of 
the right and left of his line, and followed up 
this preparatory movement by a rapid attache 
upon the division of General Baird. When the 
enemy's line first began to assume a hostile atti- 
tude. Sir John Moore was employed in visiting 
the outposts, and in explaining to the general 
officers bis plans for conducting the embarl^atiop. 
Surprised, but by no means disconcerted by this 
intelligence, he flew to the field of battle, ex- 
pressing his regret that the advanced hour of the 
day would not allow the British army to reap all 
the advantages of that victory ii^hieb be felt as- 
sured now awaited them. 

The first attack of the enemy was directed 
against the. right wing of the British, and Sir 
John Moore, well aware that this was his vul- 
nerable point, placed himself in front of the 
position, in order to animate and to direct the 
operations of his troops. Early in the engage- 
ment, Sir David Baird, the second in command, 
while leading his division, had his arm dread- 
fully shattered by a grape shot, and was in 
consequence obliged to quit the field. An 
attempt was now made by the French to turn 
the right flank of the British line ; but this 
manceuvre was completely defeated by the 4th 



regiment falling baek, and opening a flanking 
. firi) upon tke assailants. Sir Jobn Moore, after 
exQlahning — *' that is exactly what I wished," 
rode np to the 59th regiment, and directed 
them to charge the enemy; this order they 
obeyed, Botwithstandiog the intervention of an 
inelosure in front, and the enemy was driven 
out of the village of Ekina with great slaughter. 
The general next proceeded to the 42d, who, 
being addressed by him in the flattering and 
proud words, ^' Highlanders, remember Egypt P' 
charged the French with irresistible impetuosity, 
and forced their raaks to retreat. The career 
of this gallant ofiker was now drawing to a 
close; and at the moment when Captain Ilard- 
inge was reporting to him that the guards were 
advancing to the assistance of the 42d, a cannon 
ball from the enemy's battery struck Sir Jobn 
Moore,- and carrying away his left shoulder and 
part of the collar bone, left his arm hanging 
to his body by the flesh. The violence of the 
stroke threw him to the ground ; but so com- 
posed and unaltered was his countenance, and 
so intently was his mind fixed upon the advanc* 
ing Highlanders, that for a few moments it 
was hoped that be was rather stunned than 
materially hurt by the shot. It was soon, how- 
ever, discovered that the wound was mortal^ 
and the expiring hero was prevailed upon to 
suffer himself to be removed to the rear. On 
his way from the field he ordered Captaiu 
Hardinge to report his wound to General Hope, 
who now assumed the command.* The soldiers^ 
although aware of the situation of their chiefs, 
continued to support the contest with undimin- 
ished constancy. The attack of the French upon 



* The particulars of the last Tnomeats of General Sir Joba Moore are thus rielated by bis friead, Goloaol 
Anderson: — *^ 1 met the general in the evening of the 16th of January clonveyed off the field in a blanket and sashes* 
He knew me immediately, though it was almost dark, squeezed me by the band, and said, * Anderson, don't leave me.* 
He spoke to the surgeons on their examining his wounds, but was in such pain that he could say little. After some 
time he seemed very anxious to speak to me, and, at intervals, got out as follows : ' Anderson, you know that I have 
always wished to die this way.' He then asked, * Are the French beaten ?' whiph he repeated to every one he knew, as 
they came in. * I hope the people of £n{2^laiid will be satisfied ! — I hope my country will do me justice! — Anderson, you 
will see my friends as soon as you can — ^Tell them — every thing — Say to my mother'... Here his voice quite failed, and he 
was excessively agitated. — * Hope — Hope — I have much to say to hini, — but cannot get it out — are Colonel Graham — and 
all ra}' aides-de-camp, well? — f have made my will, and have remembered my serrants. — ^Colborne has my will, — and 
all my papers.' 

'* Major Colborne then came into the room. He spoke most kindly to him, and then said to me, ' Anderson, 

remember you go to , and tell him it is my request, and thot f expect he will give Miyor Colborne a lieatenant* 

. colonelcy. — ^He has been long with me, — ^and I know him most worthy of it.' He then asked Major Colborne, * if the 
French were beaten ?' and, on being told they were on every point, he said, * It's a great satisfaction to me to know we 
have beaten the French. — Is Paget in the room f* On my telling him, no ; he said, ' remember me to him. — It's General 
Paget I mean^rhe is a fine fellow. — 1 feel myself so strong — I fear I shall be long dying. — It is great uneasiness — It i« 
great pain.' He thanked the surgeons for their trouble. Captains Percy and Stanhope, two of bis aides-de-camp, then 
came into the room. He spoke kindly to both, and asked Percy ,§ ' if all his aides-de-camp were well ?' Af\er some 
interval, he said« *• Stanhope,|| — remember me to your sister.' He prisssed my band close to his body, and in a few 
minutes died without a struggle." 



§ The Honoiirable Captain Peicjr, aon of Lord Beverkj. 
II The Honourable Captain Stanhope, third son of Earl Stanhope, and nephew of the late Mr. Fittb 

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OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 



87 



the ri^ht of. the British line was completely re- 
pulsed; and they were, in their turn, obliged to 
draw back their left flank, to prevent it from 
being turned. Their next attempt was against 
the centre : but here they were successfully re- 
sisted by Generals Manningham and Leigh. The 
last effort of the enemy was directed against the 
left of the British army, but they were almost 
instantly driven back with loss ; and although the 
discharge of cannon, and the report of musketry, 
continued till night put an end to the operations, 
yet at four o'clock in the afternoon the English 
had taken up a-position in advance, and victory 
was no longer doubtful. 

When all the disadvantages under which 
this complete and brilliant victory was achieved, 
are taken into consideration, the honour which 
^ it reflects on the British arms will be duly ap- 
preciated. Exhausted and worn out by rapid 
marches over a country two hundred and fifty 
miles in extent, in the most inclement season 
of the year^ destitute of food and shelter, and 
deprived by sickness and the casualties of war 
of ten thousand of their companions in arms — 
fifteen thousand British troops resisted and 
successfully repelled the attacks of an enemy 
amounting to at least twenty thousand men :* 
and while the loss of the British in the battle 
of Corunna amounted to from seven to eight 
hundred, the loss of the French is estimated at 
two thousand. 

General Hop^, aware of the approaching 
succours of the French army, and of the circum- 
stances under which the British troops were 
placed, judged it advisable to proceed in the 
embarkation, for which indeed the preparatory 
measures had been taken by Sir John Moore. 
Accordingly, about ten o'clock on the night of 
the 16th, the troops quitted their position, and 
marched into Corunna, where the embarkation 
for England immediately commenced; and so 
well concerted were the arrangements, that dur- 
ing the nio'ht, and in the course of the following 
day, the whole army, including the sick and 
wounded, were placed on board the transports 
without molestation from the enemy. 

As it had always been the wish of Sir John 
Moore to die upon the field of battle, so it had 
been his earnest request that he should be buried 
where he fell. This request, so congenial to the 



1808 



^'^ 



mind of a general whose distinguishing charac- BOOK IT. 
teristic it was to have " spent his life among his ■ " 

troops," was strictly complied with. At thesolemn ,^f"j;Tl' 
bo^ir <rf midnight the corpse was carried to the '^^^ 
citadel of Corunna by Colonel Graham, Major 
Colborne, and the aides-de-camp, and deposited 
in Colondi Graham's quarters. A grave was dug 
on the ramparts by a party of the 9th regimen^ 
the aides-de- camp attending by turns. No coffin 
could be procured, and the body was never un- 
dressed, but wrapped up by the officers of his 
staff in a mUitary cloak and blankets. At eight 
o'clock in the morning of the 17th the interment 
took place ; the officers of bis family bore tbe body 
to the grave ; the funeral service was read by the 
chaplain ; and the earth received the remains of 
the departed hero. 

The benefits derived, to an army from the 
example of a distinguished commander, do not 
terminate at his death; his virtues live in the 
recollection of his associates, and his fame re* 
mains the strongest incentive to great and glori- 
ous actions. Educated in the school of regi-* 
mental duty, Sir John Moore at an eariy perio4 
obtained, with general approbation, that conspir 
cuous station in which he gloriously terminated 
his honourable life. His country, the object o£ 
his latest solicitude, has reared a monument te 
his lamented memory, and at his death the com-» 
mander-in-chief held him forth pis aa exaixi^le to 
the British army.f. 

This first campaign in Spain waa disastroua 
in the extreme ; the object of the enleqirkey 
which was to drive the French from that coun- 
try, entirely failed, and the apathy of the Spanish 
government, and of the native armies, favoured 
the supposition, that the first burst of patriotism^ 
which had astonished all Europe, was merely a 
momentary ebullition. The British troops lost 
much in their retreat, but in battle they lost 
nothing. The battle of Corunna, which closed 
the glorious career of the commander-in-chief, 
and the sufferings of his followers, will for ever 
live in the recollection of his grateful country. 
Like Wolfe, Sir John Moore fell in the meridian 
of life, and in the moment of victory ; and like 
that general, his memory will never cease to hold 
a distinguished place in the oulitary annals of his 
country. 



* Narrative of the Campaign of the British Army in Spain, by James Moore, Esq. 
t SeeCleueral Orders, dated Horse-Guards, February 1, 1809. 



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CHAPTER VII, 



FoBEiGN History : Mediation of Jusiria — Perilous Situation of SfXJcden — Subsidiary Treaty 
between Great Britain and Sweden^^ Invasion of Finland by the Russians, under Count 
Buxhovden — Surrender of Abo and Biorneberg tojhe Russians — Fall of Sweaborg — Jrmistice 
between the Russian and Swedish Forces — Unsuccessful F^orts of Sweden against Norway 
''—English Army dispatched to the Baltic — Operations of the Squadron under Sir Samuel 
Hood-^Predominant Jr^hence of French Politics at the Court of St. Petersburg — Expulsion 
of the Swedes from Finland — Death of Christian VIL King of Denmark — Changes in 
Italy — Establishment of an Order of Hereditary Nobility in France — Nofnenclature of the 
Court of the Emperor Napoleon — (note) — French Annual Erposi — Relations between the 
United StAtes of America and the belligerent Powers of Europe. 



1808 



BOOK IV. THE year 1808 was ushered in by an offer 

- — from the Emperor of Austria to become the 

^up, V^II. mediator of a general peace.* A similar offer 
^ ' bad been made in the spring of the preceding 
year,t when the emperor proposed his amicable 
mediation to the courts of London, Paris, Ber- 
lin, and St. Petersburg, and invited them to 
open a negociation for peace; intimating that 
any place m his dominions, remote from the seat 
of war, might be fixed upon for assembling 
the congress. To this proposal the British 

Syernment acceded, provided that the prof- 
>ed mediation was accepted by the other 
belligerents.! The aflairs of the continent at this 
peri^ were, however, such as to afford little ex- 
pectation of the return of tranquillity, and seven 
months elapsed before any thing more was 
beard on the subject. The Prince de Stahrem- 
berg, the Austrian envoy extraordinary to tlie^ 
court of London, then transmitted another note 
to the secretary of state for foreign aflairs,§ 
announcing, that he had received positive orders 
from bis court, to make the most earnest repre- 
sentations on the importance of putting an end 
to the struggle which still existed between 
England and France, the effects of which might 
produce to the rest of Europe the most fatal 
consequences ; and the. emperor, therefore, offi- 
cially and earnestly requested a formal assurance 
from the British government, of its readiness to 
enter into a negociation for a maritime peace. 
To this proposal Mr. Canning replied, || that 
bis majesty was now, as he had at all times been, 
prepared to enter into a negociation for the 
conclusion of such a peace as should be con- 



sistent with his fidelity to his allies, and should 
provide for the tranquillity and security of 
Europe. On the 1st of January the Austrian 
ambassador transmitted another note, stating^ 
that he was charged by his court to propose to 
the British ministry to send plenipotentiaries 
immediately to Paris, for the purpose of treating 
for peace with all the powers at war with Eng- 
land; and in order to avoid every species of 
delay, he was authorised by France to give pass* 
ports to the ministers who might be appointed to 
that mission. Mr. Canning, in reply, expressed 
the regret of his majesty, that, after the corres- 
pondence in the month of April last, the present 
overture did not notify the acceptance of the 
conditions then stated, as indispensable pre- 
liminaries to a negociation ; and extended only 
to the powers combined with France in the war 
against Great Britain, and not to the allies of 
Great Britain in the war with France. It was 
further urged, that the Austrian ambassador 
had omitted to explain from whom he received 
his commission to propose that plenipotentiaries 
should be sent to Paris, whether from his im- 
perial master, or from the government of France, 
and that no intimation was given of the basis on 
which it was proposed to treat; his majesty, 
therefore, could only repeat, that he was willing 
to enter into negociations with France on a 
footing of perfect equality, embracing the in* 
terests of the allies of both powers ; but under 
such circumstances, his majesty did not thinic it 
expedient to fise the Austrian ambassador any 
authority to speak in his majesty's name to the 
government 6t France : as soon as the basis 



* Note from Count Stabremberg to Mr. Secretary Canning, dated London, Jan. 1, 1808. 

f Note from the same to the same, dated London, April 18, 1807. 

t Note from Mr. Canning to Count Stahremberg, dated April 26, 1807. 

I Bated November 20, 1807. [| November 23, 1807. 



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\vas settled, his majesty would be prepared to 
name plenipotentiaries, but he would nx>t again 
consent to send them to an hostile capital. Four 
days after the date of this answer, the Prince de 
Stahreniberg demanded his passports. At the 
same time Mr. Adair, the British envoy at Vienna, 
quitted that capital, in consequence of an intima- 
tion fr6m the Austrian government ; and in a 
declaration of war issued by the Emperor Francis 
against England, on the 18th of February, 1808, 
it was asserted, ^^ that it was impossible not to 
t>erceive, in the course pursued by the British 
ministry, a disposition to remove the possibility 
of peace to a greater distance, and not to listen 
to whatever had any tendency to restore the 
tranquillity of Europe.'* Thus was the house of 
Austria added to the number of the enemies of 
Great Britain ; but the local circumstances of 
the two countries^ and their mutual apprehension 
of the power and influence of France, served to 
give to the contest the character rather of 
nominal than of real hostility. 

The influence of the treaty of Tilsit upon 
the affairs of the north of Europe soon began to 
ui;ifold itself ; and Russia, now become the wil - 
ling instrument of French policy, not only with- 
drew from her alliance with Sweden, but pre- 
pared to attack that country as soon as the sea- 
son of the year would admit of hostile operations. 
Denmark, which, by the bombardment of her 
capital, and the seizure of her fleet, had been 
thrown completely into the arms of France^ 
Tiewed Sweden, as the ally of England, with 
feelings of hostility and disgust. These feelings 
were increased and exasperated by the suspicion 
that Sweden had approved of the attack on 
Copenhagen) and had been by no means indis- 
posed to occupy the island of Zealand, when it 
was left by the English. In this perilous situa- 
tion, the King of Sweden, threatened with an 
invasion of the southern part of his dominions 
by the joint forces of Denmark and France, aiid 
with an attack on Finland by his powerful 
neighbour, the Emperor of Russia, it became 
the evident duty, as well as the interest, of Great 
Britain, to assist her weak but firm ally by 
every means in her power. Accordingly, on the 
8th of February, 1808, a convention was en- 
tered into between his Britannic Majesty and 
the King of Sweden. By this subsidiary treaty 
St was mutually agreed, that Great Britain 
should pay to the King of Sweden the sum of 
twelve hundred thousand pounds sterling, in 
equal instalments of one hundred thousand 

Sounds a month ; this sum was to bet employed 
y Sweden in putting in motion all her land 
forces, with her flotilla, and such part of her fleet 
as might be deelned necessary. By a separate 
article, the respective sovereigns agreed to ar- 
I'ange and concert, as speedily as circumstances 

VOL. II.— NO. 44. 



1808 



would allow, the measures which ought to be BOOK IV » 

adopted, and the auxiliary forces which Great — - 

Britain should send into the Baltic, whenever Chap. >^ll. 
the war between Sweden and Russia, or Den- 
mark, should actually take places 

A very short time after this treaty was en- 
tered into, and before the rigours of a northern 
winter had subsided, the Russian troops, to the 
amount of forty thousand, crossed the frontier 
of Finland, and proceeded without interruption 
as far as Helsingfor ; and this hostile measure, 
which was undertaken without the previous 
formality of a declaration of war, the Emperor 
of Russia attempted to justify on the ground 
that Sweden had refused to co-operate with 
him in a war against England, provoked by the 
hostile aggression committed by that power 
against the King of Denmark. This charge 
was not denied by Gustavus Adolphus, who 
adn^itted that, by the terms of the treaties ex- 
isting between Sweden and Russia, he was 
bound to avenge the violation of the Baltic in 
the attack on Copenhagen ; but, before he co- 
operated for this purpose, be called upon the 
Emperor of Russia to procure the liberation of 
the coast of that sea from the presence of the 
French army, and to open the German harbours 
to tjnglish vessels. 

The declaration of Denmark against Swe- 
den, which was issued on the 29th of February, 
dwelt at' great length, and in very emphatic 
language, on the attack on Copenhagen. While 
all the rest of Europe resounded with cries of 
indignation at this atrocious crime, committed 
against a neutral and unoffending state. Sweden 
alone preserved a total silence ; and had actually 
renewed her alliance with a power which threat- 
ened the neutrality of the Baltic and the ports 
of Zealand with her armaments. Under these 
circumstances, Denmark found herself compelled 
to adopt entirely the resolutions of Russia in 
respect to Sweden, and to declare that she 
would not separate her cause from that of her 
august and faithful ally. The answer of the 
King of Sweden .to the Danish declaration of 
war was simple and satisfactory. The relations 
of the two countries were merely those of peace; 
they were not united for war. When, therefore^ 
in 1806, Sweden, Russia, and Prussia, were 
leagued against France, Denmark preserved 
her neutrality without being called upon by 
Sweden to assist her in the war. From this 
circumstance^ the King of Sweden was per- 
suaded that the naval force of Denmark would 
not be employed for the intere<%t of his kingdom, 
and after the treaty of Tilsit, he had every reason 
to fear that Denmark, overawed or persuaded 
by Russia and France, would direct her fleet 
against him. With these impressions and ap{)re- 
hensions, the King of Sweden did not think him- 

Z 



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BOOS IT. 

OflAF, Yli. 

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self oalkd upoa to interfere Wben England at- 
tacked Copenbagen. 

Ceunt Buxhovden, to whom the chief com- 
mand of the Russian armv in Finland was con- 
fided, had scarcely crossed the frontiers, brfore 
be issued a proclamation to the iBhabitants, as- 
saringthem thai the Russian arm j did not enter 
their ooiutry as enemies bat ae friends; and that 
the object of the emperor was to render Finland 
more prosperoas and happy by incorporating 
that state with the Russian empire. The army 
which was sent by the Ming of Sweden to the 
definca of Fii^nd was commanded by Count 
Klingspor, a general of uncommon talents and 
skill. On him Buxhorden endeavoured ta^ pre- 
"vnil, by means of bribes and promises, to betray 
the cause of his master ; but the Swedish general 
remained irm and unshaken in his integrity, 
loyalty, and seal. But although the Sweden 
were unassailable by the weapons of corruption, 
they were by no means in sucn force as to enable 
them to oppose, with any prospect of success, 
the first advances of their enemiee; and within a 
month after (he invasion of Swedish Finland, 
Abo^ the capital of that province, fell into the 
liands of the Kussians. Biorneberg soon shared 
the fate of Abo ; and Count Klingspor, finding 
the Swedish army too weak to sustain the con- 
test, fell back upon bis resources. This retreat, 
continued for upwards of four hundred English 
mites, through a country alnMist without roads, 
and deeply covered with snow, has been com- 
pared to the celebrated retreat of Moreau from 
Germany ; and the Russians, disappointed in 
their attempt to surround or cut off Klingspor, 
returned from the pursuit towards the southern 
part of Finland. 

The next place against which the Russians 
directed all their means, both of artifice and 
force, was Sweaborg. This city, from the great 
strength of its natural position, aided by the 
works which have been raised for its defence, 
has justly been called the Gibraltar of the north. 
The bombardment commenced at the beginning 
of April, but without much injury either to the 
bouses or to the forces : few of the garrison were 
eidier killed or wounded, and not more than 
one-third of the ammunition had been expended, 
vrhen the Swedish governor, not without strong 
suspicions of treachery, agreed to surrender the 
place into the hands of the enemy. After the 
capture of Sweaborg, the Russians advanced 
into the north cf Finland, and in many places, 
particularly at Wasa, they committed the most 
atrocious and barbarous cruelties. For a short 
time, however, the Swedes were enabled to act 
on the defensive, and to drive the Russians bach 
into the south of Finland, but these suecessee 
were only of a temporary nature ; the Russifim 
army suflSsped more from want of provisioBfr than 



from the partial victories gained over them ; «and 
when, by their vicinity to the more fertile part of 
the province, which borders on Russia, they 
bad been recruited and supplied, they were 
again enabled to advance against the Swedes ., 
with a very superior force. Klingspor, after 
having performed the part of an able and skilful' 
general, found himself obliged to conclude an 
armistice with the enemy, by which it was stipu- 
lated, that the operations in Finland should be 
suspended, and that they should not be renewed 
without eight days previous notice. 

Oustavus Adolpbus was not more successful 
against Norway. His first efibrts against the 
unprepared Norwegians were attended with 
some success ; but as soon as the peasantry had 
put themselves in a state of preparation, and 
obtained the co-operation of the regular forces, 
they were fuabled not only to defend their own 
territory from the eruptions of the enemy, but 
also to act offensively and successfully against 
the Swedes. 

Amidst the difficulties with which the King 
of Sweden was surrounded. Great Britain was 
not unmindful of the assistance which she had 
engaged to afford him. An English army, con- 
sisting of about twelve thousami men, arrived 
at Gotlenburgh on the 17th of May ; but after 
having remained on board the transports for 
several weeks^ tbe troops retunied to jQngland 
without having been disembarked. The Swedish 
monareb, enraged at the refusal of Sir John 
Moore to expose his troops to loss and dis- 
honour,^ without the smallest probahility of 
benefiting the cause in which they were to be 
engaged, put the English general under arrest, 
and it was not without some difficulty that he 
effected his escape on board the British fleet 
The squadron which was sent to the Baltic by 
the English government, under the command of 
Sir Samuel Hood, having joined the Swedish 
Admiral Nauokhoff, with the Centaur and Im- 
placable, sailed, on the 25th of August, in quest 
of the Russian fleet. On the day following the 
Russians were cUscovered off Hango Udd. The 
British ships out sailed their allies; and about 
five o^clook on the following morning, the Im- 
placable brought the Sewolod, of seventy-four 
guns, to close action. In the course of twenty 
minutes the enemy's ship was completely 
silenced, and her colours struck. The British 
eommander used every manmuwe to bring on 
a general action, but the Russian admiral, aware 
of this intention, took refuge in the port of 
Rogerswiek. The Russian ship which had en- 
gaged with the Implacable, grounded at the 
entrance of the hari>our, and an attempt was 
made by Sir Samuel Hood in the Centaur to 
bring her off, but owing to the shallowness of 
the water, it was found impossible to get ber 



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OF tttiB F*«NClt R«r<JLtrftON. 



6) 



SSfiS 



aiSoAt. Sir Samoel Hood, Andmg; all hh en- 
deavours fruitless, took tbe prisoners out of thef 
Russian ship, and set lire to her. As soon a9 
the Russian squadron bad entered the port of 
Rogerswiek,tbe men were employed in fortifying' 
tbe barboQV agains^ the attacks of tbe combinea' 
fleet, and so suecessfal were their exertions, that 
er&rj attempt to injure the Russian ships prored 
inefiectual. 

The infloenee of die French Emperor had 
DOW beeome predominant in the court of Russia. 
Of tbe nature itnd extent of that influence there 
were many proofs. CauUhcourt, tbe Duke of 
Vicensa, was sent to St. Petersburg as tbe 
French ambassador, and his diplomatic talents 
were nnremittiiigly exerted to guard the mind 
of the Emperor Alexander flrom erery consider- 
ation which could interfere with the Tiews of his 
master. Under this influence, the interests of 
Russia were sacrificed, and in order to inflict 
a feeble blow on English commerce, the Russian 
nobility were depriTed of the means of disposing 
of the produce of their estates. The English 
merchants who remained at St. Petersburg were 
continually harassed with new restrictions, and 
exposed to e'very indignity and insult which the 
French ambassador thought proper to suggest. 
lie atone' possessed theconfldence of Alexander, 
whom, sometimes bythe allurements of pleasure, 
and at others by obscure threats of his master's 
Tcngeance, he managed with that facility which 
a man of experience and superior mind will 
always possess over one with less energy of in- 
tellect and less stability of character. 

Tbe King of Sweden soon became sensible 
of tiie influence which Bonaparte had exerted 
at tbe famous cortference at Erfurth OTcr the 
mind of Alexander. Scareely had the emperor 
returned to St. Petersbtrrg before orders were 
sent to bis generals to renew the war in Finland, 
and the Swedes, incapable of withstanding tbe 
overwhelming foree brought against them, were 
reduced to the necessity of negociating a couTcn- 
tioUy by which they agreed to evacuate Uleaborg, 
and to retire to the west side of the river Kiemi, 
the utmost limit of Finland^ Thus terminated 
a cajoapaign, during the whole of which the 
Swedish army behaved with the greatest bravery, 
bat in which the inferiority of their numbers 
obliged them finally to succumb to the northern 
Autocrat. 

Tbe French, who bad passed over to the 
islands in the Baltic, for the purpose of invading 
tbe southern part of Sweden, soon discovered, 
that whUe the British and Swedish fleets kept 
poBsessioo'of that sea, their project was imprac- 
ticable. The Danes, however, continued to 
attack our merchant ships with great success, 
sometimes from tlie negligence of the British 
convoys, bat more frequently from the frigates 



not beirij; able t6 injure the gun-boats. Chris- BOOK nv 

tian VIL. the King of DfenmailL^ difed this year, — r 

in tf fit c^ atioplej^, aild Was succeeded by his Chap. VU. 
son, the Wnde Royal, who wad fmmediately ^"^'TjCT^ 
proctaimed Kin^ of Hetithatk and' Norway, by ^«*^* 
the name of Frederick VI. The deceased mo- 
narch had long" laboured under a itiental in- 
flrchity, which rendered him totally incapable of 
alt' public business, and bis death neither occa*; 
sioned any sensation in Denmark^ nor produced' 
any chalige, either in the dothestic policy or in 
the foreign relations of that kingdom. 

The same spirit of personal ambttibn and o!^ 
implacable hatred towards England which gave 
rise to the attack on the independence of Spain, 
induced Bodaparte, this year, to make consider-* 
able changes in the affairs of Italy. Under the 

Elea that the temporal sovereign of Rome, as 
e s tiled the pope, had refused to make war 
asumst England, and that the tn^o kingdomsT of 
Naples ana Italy ought not to be divided hj 
the intervention of a hostile power, he decreed, 
that the ecclesiastical duchies of << Urbino, 
Ancona, Macerata, and Comerino, should be for 
ever united with the kingdom of Italy.'^ The 
pope, in reply to some former aggressions of 
France, having appealed to his spiritual power 
and authority. Napoleon, in the decree of annex- 
ation, turned the arguments of his holiness 
against himself, by resting his own rights on 
those of his predecessor Charlemagne. At the 
same time that the territories of Rome were 
incorporated with the kingdom of Italy, Tus- 
eany, Parma, and Placentta, were annexed td 
the empire of France. The reasons assigned 
for this change proceeded on the usual princi- 
ples of French policy ; it was expressly declared 
that the whole coast of the Mediterranean sea 
must form a part of the French territory, that 
the Adriatic ought to be considered as naturally 
belonging to the kingdom of Italy ; while the 
kingdom of Naples, lying on both sides, must 
be regarded as a cKstinct state, subject, how- 
ever, to the same federative system, and to the 
same state policy. At the time of making these 
arrangements, Bonaparte also fixed the settle-^ 
ment of the kingdom of Italy. He adopted 
his son -in-law, Eugene Beauhamois, as his own 
son, and settled that kingdom upon him in tail 
male. It was at the same time expressly stated, 
that the right which Eugene received by adop- 
tion should never in any case authorise him or 
his descendants to bring forward any claim or 
pretension to the crown of France, the sueces* 
sion of which was irrevocably fixed. The klng-^ 
dom of Naples was bestowed upon Joachim 
Murat, brother-in-law of the French Emperor, 
after Bonaparte had thought proper to call 
Joseph Napoleon to the throne of Spaifi. 

While these changes were taking place ia 



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HISTORY , OF TilE WARS 



180S 



BOOK IV. Italy, an order of hereditary nobility was created 

^ iQ France; and it was expressly declared that 

^^^ZL^j hereditary distinctions are, in some measure, 
essential to monarchical goTcrnment. Thus, 
after all the storms of the resolution, was France 
rapidly returning to that state in which she was 
placed before the foundation of the republic* 

The exposition of the state of the French 
empire, which was laid before the legislative 
booy in the beginning of November, was dis- 
tinguished by an annunciation that the trial by 
jury, on the exact principles of the English 
law, should, in future, prevail in the French 
courts. In this exposcj the privations and dis- 
tresses to which the French nation had been 
obliged to submit, in consequence of the opera- 
tion of the British orders in council, were noticed, 
but it- was principally to extol the resignation 
with which they were endured, and the genius 
of invention to which they had given birth. 
By these edicts, the French nation had been 
taught that a country, essentially agricultural, 
*'can, by possessing in abundance all articles 
of utility, easily forego those which only form 
certain luxuries or conveniences of life, parti- 
cularly when its independence and glory are at 
stake." Under the head of marine, the minister 
of the interior announced, that at Antwerp, and 
the other naval arsenals, the building of ships 
was proceeding in with great activity and spirit ; 



twelve sail of the line had been launched within 
the year, and twenty-five more, with as many 
frigates, were on the stocks. The statement of 
the military power and resources of France 
sufficiently proved that the views of Bonapartfei 
extended to conquests not yet begun, and created, 
in the minds of the friends of peace and inde- 
pendence, the most alarming fears for what yet 
remained of liberty in Europe. The perfection 
of the military system was evinced by its simpli- 
city and effect ; and this system wss calculated 
to raise the country to a height, unknown in the 
annals of mankind. 

The United States of America presented 
this year a very singular spectacle. By the 
embargo they had cut themselves off from the 
old world ; and those who imagined they were 
well acquainted with the character of the Ame- 
ricans, confidently predicted that this restraint 
on commerce would soon be withdrawn. These 
politicians held that the effects of the embargo 
would press with a heavy and immediate in- 
fluence on many classes of the nation; and 
that, if the pressure were continued, it would 
extend itself to the majority of the people. 
These consequences would, as they imagined, 
oblige the American government to yield, or if 
they ventured to persevere, the union would be 
dissolved by disaffection and internal commo-* 
tion. Every account that reached this country 



* ^OM£NCLATUR£ 

Of the DiGNmss cONFEaaBD by Napoleon, Empebor of the French, on his Family, IVTarshals, AIinisters, icdi 



Kings 



f Joseph B«napute»l *• King of Spain 
LouS; } ofrtoUaad 

I Jerome, j of Westphali 

-^ Josdum Murat, 



Maximilian, (Elecof navaria) 
j Augustus, (Elec. of Saxony) 
LCharlet, (Dk. of Wirtemberg) 



Westphalia 
of Naples 
of Bavaria 
of SaxoDj 
of Wirtembeig 



PaivcES 



f BemadoCte Pzinoe of Pbnte CorTd 

• Berthier, (Marshal) of Neufdiatel 

I Davoust, (Marshal) of Eckmuhl 

■I Massena, (Marshal) of Elstrngea 

{ Key, (Marshal) of Moskwa 

I Tafieyrsnd, of Belkevente 

LEugene Beanhamoh ViceiOyof Italy 



Marshalsh 



Augereau Duke of Casti^^ione 

Bessieres, of Istria 

Caulinoourt, • «. of Vicenza 

Clark, - of Fcltre 

Duroc, of Friuli 

Grouchy,*" C^nt 

JuDot, Duke of Abnmtes 

KeUorman, of Valmy 

Lannes, of Montebello 

Lefebvre, of Dantzic 

.Macdonald, of Tarento 



fMaiet, 

I MarmoDt,.. 

I Moncey,.... 

I Mortier, ... 

Marshals J Oudinot,..., 

I Soult, 

Suchet 

IVktor, 

Champagny, 

Fouche, 



..Duke of BaaBiBo 
of Ragusa 
of Comegliano 
of Treviso 
of Reggio 

of ROTlgO 

of Dahnatia 
of AlbnliBra 
of Belluno 
..Duke of Cadore 
of Otranto 



Fourteen of the French marshals dtfier emerged from the rank^, by military merit, or rose from employments in humble life: 
Sfttleretf originally a common soldier, became in 1796 a captain of infkntry in the anny of Italy.— J9rtiiie, a printer at the commencement of 
the reToltttiony a member of Ae dub of Cordeliers, and an intimate friend of Danton, comifaenced his military career in n^S'^Augereau, a 
private in the Neapolitan service in 1787, became soon after a fendng-mast^r at Naples ; in 1792, entered as a volunteer into the army of 
Italy ; and in 1794 was a general of brigade in the army of the Pyrenees. BemadoiU, at the commencement of the revolution, a sergeant in the 
Kgimedt de Royal Marine; in 1794, a genoal of division.— Jbardofi enUsted in l67St but left the service in 1784; was a sh<^keeper at 
the eommenoement of the revolution.— Jtdlsrmafi began his career as a simple hussar m the regiment of Co^flans. — Lannes, originally a 
nomipon so]dier» became,, in 1795, a4}utant of divisiota in the national guard of Paris.— AfantfiHi, a subaltern in the Sardinian service at the 
beginning of the revoludon, in 1793 became a general of brigade.— /l/ortifr, a captain of a volunteer company in his native province at 
the same period. — -ATf^y, an hussar, an adjutant -general in 1796, after passing througli all the inferior grades.— X^/fc6vre, son of a millei 
of Alsace, became a sergeani of a regiment of French guards before the revolution.— 5*01(2^ was a subaltern, before the revolution, in a 
regiment of infimtry, and an adjutant-general in 1795.— jifuraf served originally in the constitutional guard of Louis XVI. ; became 
afterwards an olBeer in the 12th raiment o£ chaiteurt a chevaL^^unot began his career in 1792, as a grenadier in one of the volunteet 
battalions commanded by General PiUe ; and, tn 1796, wis one of the aides*de<tmp of Bonapartei 



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OF THB FRENCH REVOLUTION. 



03 



seemed to ^ive some countenance to these pre- 
dictions; many of the American newspapers 
were filled with the most bitter and Tiolent 
invectives against the government, and the 
opposition to the embargo was represented to 
be so formidable and alarming, that no alterna- 
tive seemed left, but its immediate removal. 
Still) however, Mr. Jefferson continued firm ; 
while, at the same time, he employed every 
method to induce the British and French go- 
Temments to rescind their anti-commeroial 
decrees* It soon appeared, from the result of 
the elections, that the American newspapers 
had greatly misrepresented the sense of the 
nation; and that the predictions, so prevalent 
in this country, indicated rather the wishes o^ 
the commercial and manufacturing part of the 
community, than the sagacity of those by whom 
they were hazarded. On the 8th of November, 
the usual message of the president was read to 
the senate and the house of representatives* 
By this document, they were informed (hat the 
president, anxious to remove the evil coase* 
quences of the embargo, bad authorised the 
ministers of the Unitecf States, in London and 
in Pari9, to propose, that the commerce of 
America should be exclusively opened, to which- 
ever of the belligerent powers should rescind 
her orders or decrees in relation to the com- 
merce of the United States ; and, that the ports 
of America should remain shut to the other 
power, in case of his refusal to adopt a similar 
policy. From France no answer had been 
received, and Great Britain bad rejected this 
offer. In this state of things, nothing remained 
for America, but to persevere in a system, 
which, though it subjected her to some evils, 
was by no means unproductive of advantage. 
Not the least interesting part of this message 
related to the new direction which the suspen- 
sion of commerce had given to the industry, 



skill, and capital of the United States. The 
internal manufactures and improvements were 
carried on with more spirit and success, and to a 
greater extent than usual. The disadvantages 
arising from want of experience, from the compa- 
rative inferiority in machinery and capital, were 
abundantly compensated by cheaper materials 
and subsistence ; by the freedom m labour from 
taxation, and bv protecting duties and prohibi- 
tions. The embargo, therefore, when viewed as 
the means of changing the direction of their in- 
dustry and capital, and of thus rendering them 
less dependent upon foreign nations, might justly 
be deemed a benefit, thou^ unavoidably attended 
with partial and temporary mischief. 

In weighing the nature and the amount 
of the aggressions which had been practised 
towards America by the belligerent powers at 
this period of the war, if there were any pre- 
ponderance, it must bo confessed that the 
balance was against Great Britain. The Frenoh 
decrees were indeed as obnoxious in their 
formation and designs as the British orders in 
council ; but the government of France claimed 
and exercised no rigfatof impressment, and the 
maritime spoliations of France were compara- 
tively restricted, not only by her own weakness 
on the ocean, but by the constant and pervading 
vigilance of the fleets of her enemy. But on 
w^hioh. side soever the balance of injustice was 
to be found, the orisis had arrived when the 
United States were compelled, either to adhere 
to a system of commercial interdiction, or to 
engage in open and active war ; and if tbe act 
of emnargo fell with a more severe pressure upon 
Great Britain than upon her enemy, this oiroum* 
stance was rather to be imputed to tbe smierio* 
rity of her commerce, and the extent of her former 
dealings with America, than to Miy undue par* 
tiality shewn towards Franee by the govemmeiit 
of that republic. 



BOOR IT. 

Chap. II. 

1808 



VOL. II.— NO. 44. 



Ail 



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CHAPTER VIII. 

bRiTiSH HiSTORT : Meeting of the Parliament of 1^09— Debates on the Bombardment of 
Copenhagen and the Seizure of the Danish Fleet— Petitions for Peace— Mr. Whitbread's Mo- 
tion of Censure for the Rejection of the proffered Mediation oj Russia and Austria— Bill for tlie 
Prevention of Reversionary Grants— Sir Francis BurdetCs Motion on the Appropriation of 
the Droits of Admiralty— Lord CastlereagKs Proposal for reviving the Practice of Enlist- 
ment for lAfe—for the Formation of a Local Militia— National Finances— Sir Samuel 
Romilly's Bill f<yf ameliorating the Criminal Code— Mr, Sheridan's Appeal in favour of the 
Spanish Patriots — Rejection of a Bill for fixing a minimum Price on Labour— The Session 
of Parliament closed by a solemn Pledge to support the Cause of the Spanish Patriots. 



unnK IV THE parliament of Great Britain assem- 

f^2__Wed in the year 1808 under the most por- 

Chap.VIII. tentous circumstances. On the meeting of this 

\^y^^ assembly in former years, it had been the hap- 

1808 piness of the sovereign to dwell upon the fidelity 

of his allies, and to animate the hopes of the 

national council with assurances of the cordial 

co-operation of the coalesced sovereigns of 

Europe against the common enemy; but on 

the present occasion, it was the painful duty 

of the commissioners, as the organ of their 

sovereign, to declare, that the determination of 

France to excite hostilities between Great 

Britain and her former allies had been but too 

successful, and that the ministers of the Em- 

Jerors of Russia and Austria, and the King of 
Russia, had all demanded and received their 
passports from his majesty^s government. The 
speech from the throne, which represented the 
country as ^' in the crisis of its fate,*' embraced 
the great public questions that afterwards en- 
gaged the attention of parliament; and the 
expedition to Copenhagen, the relations of Eng- 
land with foreign states, and the orders which 
his majesty had issued in council, retaliating 
upon France her decrees against the commerce 
of Great Britain ; formed prominent features in 
that document. In the lords, the usual address 
to the throne was moved by the Earl of Gal- 
loway, seconded by Lord Kenyon ; and in the 
commons by Lord Hamilton, seconded by Mr. 
C. Ellis ; and was in both houses carried without 
a division. 

Ou the 3d of February, the subject of the 
late attack upon the capital of Denmark was 
brought under the consiaeration of parliament4 
The advocates of that measure contended, 

1. That it was clearly the design of the French Em- 
neror todrawthe court of Denmark into his plan of mari'^ 
X\mt confederacy against England. 



2. That he had the means of carrying this deaiga 
into effect. 

3. That the accomplishment of this object would 
have been most disastrous, if t\oi fatal to Great Britain, 
and tbat the necessity of self-defence conferred (he riglit 
to depart from the ordinary rules of procedure in order t« 
avert an evil of such magnitude. 

In support of the first of these propositions 
it was saia, that his majesty's government had 
learned y that there were secret engagements in 
the treaty of Tilsit ; and the views of the parties 
were to confederate all the powers of Europe, 
and particularly to engage or seize on the fleets 
of Denmark and Portugal. This information 
was derived from his majesty's ministers abroad, 
and from their faithful ally the Prince, Regent 
of Portugal. They had received information of 
the hostile intention of Denmark from a quarter 
to which they had often been indebted for .the 
first knowledge of the designs of Bonaparte ; 
from, or rather thro\Tgh, the disafiected in Ire* 
land ! They learned through this medium tbat 
Ireland was to be attacked from two points, 
Lisbon and Copenhagen ; and they had never 
found the information of these persons, however 
it was obtained, incorrect. Finally, ministers 
had received a confidential communication, that 
the question had been recently discussed in the 
council of the highest authorities in Copenhagen, 
whether they should, in case of the alternative, 
join Encrland or France — on which occasion 
it was ultimately determined to unite thetn-> 
selves with the enemies of this country. With 
this information, ministers would have been 
* traitors had they not secured the Danish fleet.* 
AH Bonaparte^s capitulations and decrees 
served to confirm this information as far as 
France was concerned ; he had on these occa- 
sions frequently and publicly avowed his design, 
and his firm and irrevocable determination, to 
combine all the powers of the continent in a 



* Lord Hawkesbury. 



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HISTORY OF THE WARS, &C. 



95 



general confederacy against the maritime rights 
and the political existence of Great Britain ; 
and after the confederacies of 1780 and 1802, 
it was perfectly d^ar that Denmark waited 
only for an opportunity to aid this purpose. 
The crisis had arrived when Denmark must 
take part in the war, and her former conduct 
sufficiently indicated to which party she would 
attach herself. In fact, the heart of the Danes 
was not with us ; it was with our enemy.* 
That the conference at Tilsit had produced 
resolutions inimical to the naval superiority of 
Great Britain was perfectly manifest, for the 
moment the Emperor Alexander arrived at St. 
Petersburg, after signing the treaty with France, 
the first person he visited was the minister of 
marine, and the first order he gave was to 
repair the batteries at Cronstadt. It was the 
policy of France and Russia to make the Danish 
government a party to their designs ; and even 
if the expedition against Copenhagen had 
never taken place, we should at this moment 
have been at war with Denmark, who had 
neither the strength nor the resolution to resist 
these powers.f The Prince Regent of Portugal, 
whom it was intended to make a party to this 
'^ Continental League," had been driven from 
his dominions, because he would not join France, 
Russia, and Denmark, in the confederacy against 
England. 

To shew that Bonaparte had the means of 
accomplishing bis object, it was stated by his 
majesty's ministers, that Denmark was on the 
point of being invaded at the time the expedi- 
tion to Copenhagen was undertaken : French 
troops had assembled at Hamburgh ; the Danish 
army in Holstein had taken no steps to retreat 
into Zealand; they bad no transports for that 
purpose, and upon the first approach : of the 
en^ray they must have laid down their arms, 
and surrendered at discretion. That no dispo- 
sition was felt on the part of the Danes to aban- 
don their continental possessions was evident 
horn the fact, that the Danish fleet was not in a 
state of preparation to oppose the passage of the 
French from the continent. They had indeed at 
one time exhibited indications of such an inten- 
tion, but they had soon after abandoned their 
preparations, and when the moment of danger 
arrived, Denmark was totally unprepared, and 
ready to throw herself into the arms of France. :]: 
Various endeavours had been made by the Bri- 
tish government to bring the court of Denmark 
to an explanation of its views before the expe- 
dition was undertaken, but without effect ; and 
the natural conclusion was that the crown 



prince in the whole of his conduct had secretly BOOK IV. 

favoured the views of . France. || • 

The danger of the country, and a right to ^hap.VIH. 
depart from the ordinary rules of procedure in ^J^nft 
so great an emergency, were insisted upon from 
the circumstance of France having issued her 
decree over the continent, ^^ that the house of 
Brunswick had ceased to reign.^^ The posses- 
sion of the Danish fleet would have been one 
great step towards the accomplishment of this 
denunciation, and the combined navy of France, 
Spain, Russia, Holland, and Denmark, directed 
against the independence, and the very exist- 
ence of Great Britain, would have placed this 
country in a state of imminent peril. To prove 
that the conduct pursued towards Denmark was 
consonant to the law of nations, it was argued, 
that the first law of nature, the foundation of 
this law of nations, is the preservation of man. 
It is on the knowledge of his nature that the 
science of his duty must be founded. When his 
feelings point out to him a mighty danger, and 
his reason suggests the means of avoiding it, he 
must despise the sophistical trifler, who tells 
him it is a moral duty he owes to others, to 
wait till the danger bursts upon his foolish head, 
lest he should hurt the meditated instrument of 
his destruction. And upon the general prin- 
ciple of the law of nations, the morality and the 
necessity of the expedition to Copenhagen were 
manifest.^ As to the morality of the measure, 
ministers had a moral duty to perform to their 
own as well as to other countries, which was to 
vindicate its rights and to watch over its security 
and independence. Much was said on the law of 
nations, but there was no nation on the continent 
of Europe but one ; they had all been swallowed 
up in the vortex of France ; Russia, Germany, 
and Denmark, were but other names for 
France.^* It had been laid down as a principle 
by a high authority, that when one nation was 
menaced by another, and a third power had 
resources that might be seized . by the second 
.to annoy the first, the nation thus threatened 
had a right, in self-defence, to take possession 
of these resources, ft The success of the expe- 
dition against Copenhagen, was the greatest 
disaster that Bonaparte had suffered since the 
beginning of his reign. It had disappointed his 
scheme of subjugating England ; it had aug- 
mented our maritime power, and it had secured 
the means of universal deliverance • from Ms 

Jroke, for it had frustrated the project of annihi- 
ating the intercourse of nations.]:]: So far from 
censuring his majesty's ministers for the con- 
duct they had pursued towards Denmark, their 



• Mr. Canniog. 
% Mr. Lusbingtbn. 



+ LordG. L. Gower. 
*♦ Mr. Robert Thornton. 



X Sir James PulleDey. 
tt Secretary at War. 



ij Lord Castlereagh. 
XX Marquis of Weltesley. 



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ItlStOtlT OF THE WAR8 



fiOOK IV 

* prompt and vigorous measures for preventing 
CfiAP VIII ^^^ Danish navy from falling into the bands of 
\^^\ -^_^ the enemy, intitled them to tbe gratitude of their 
1808 country.* 

It was on the other hand contended, that the 
iconduct pursued by the British government 
towards Denmark, wa& marked with features of 
peculiar atrocity ; that it was repog^ant to the 
obligations of justice, and at variance with the 

!rinciples of a liberal and ^lightened policy, 
'hat Denmark had no intention to abandon the 
system of neutrality^ from which she had derived 
no many advantages, was self-evidait ; and it 
was a matter of doubt, whether France would 
have so far committed herself as to throw Den- 
mark into the bands of Great Britain by an attack 
on Zealand. But supposing this attempt had 
been made, the question then arose, whether the 
crown prince bad the dispontion to resist, and 
the power to give efficacy to bis resistance. That 
Denmark was disposed to defend her insular 
territory was obvious from the dispatches of Mr. 
Garlicke, the British envoy at Copenhagen, who 
bad officially declared, in his communications 
with his own government, that the crown prince 
and hts-ministers bad a silirit that would reject 
with disdain every demana on the part of France 
to surrender their fleet,t and this opinion was 
corroborated by the positive assertion of the 
crown prince himself. The British ministers bad 
indeed held a diflerent language ; but instead of 
proving, from the documents they had thought 
proper to lay before parliament, that secret fraud 
or direct hostility had been intended against this 
country, it was manifest that the force of Den- 
mark, in reliance upon the good faith of Great 
Britain, was actually employed in Holstein, to 
resist any attempt that might be made by Bona- 

Jiarte ; and that Zealand, drained of its military 
orce, was exposed to our attack.]: As to the 
previous hostile mind of Denmark, as evinced in 
the years 1780 and 1802, it was totally out of the 
question ; and if this principle were to be acted 
upon, Sweden ought also to have been visited 
with the thunders of our navy, for she, as well as 
ber neighbour, bad proclaimed, ** that free bot- 
toms make free goods.** § 

In judging of the justice and policy of the 
expedition against Copenhagen*, it was not 
enough to prove that France meditated the 
seixure of the Danish fleet ; it sbouM also be 
•hewn that she bad the means of executing her 
design. Was it to be supposed that DenmaiiL 
would risk her most valuable colonies, ber com- 
merce, ber ships, and every tbisg else dear to 



bet* existence, merely to gratify tbte Wisbeb of the 
French ruler i She was not, as bad been repre- 
sented, unprepared; she had a force of thirty- 
fiv^ thousand men in Zealand, and thirty thou- 
sand men in Holstein, to resist any attack that 
might be made by Fntnce ; and with such a force 
for ber defence, amd protected as Zealand was 
by two branches of the sea, Denmark might 
and would have bid defiance to the armies of 
France; II it was, in fact, easier to invade Great 
Britain frons Boulogne, than Zeakad from 
Funen.^ 

As to the evidence of a bostile disposition 
on the part of Denmark, so much insistea on by 
ministers, it was no where to be discovered : on 
the contrary, all the evidence was on the otbtsr 
side ; and it appeared from the papers on the 
table, that at the time when this unprovoked 
aggression was committed upon the capital, three 
hundred and twenty Danish vessels, valued at 
little fibort of two millions sterling, were, in the 
confidence of friendship, in the ports of Great 
Britain ! but, that the whole transaction should 
exhibit the same character, these vessels were 
all detained, and, with their cargoes, placed in a 
state of sequestration.** But the secret articles 
of Tilsit, and the readiness with which Den- 
mark would have lent herself to the provisions 
of that treaty, were urged as motives for the 
attack upon Copenhagen ; a reference to dates 
would shew that this was impossible ; the battle 
of Friedland was fought 6n the 14th of June, 
the armistice was signed on the 3fid, and ratified 
on the 24th, the conference. of the Niemen took 
place on the 26tli, and the treaty was signed on 
the 7th ef July : the king's pLeasure on the ex** 
pedition to Copenhagen was taken the 10th, and 
on the 26th of July Admiral Grambier sailed for 
the Baltic ; it was tiierrfore quite impossible that 
any such information as that which was pre- 
tended, could at the time have reached ministers 
from Portugal or Ireland.ff In urging this 

{dea ministers had resorted to a mean, petty- 
bgging subterfuge. If diey had even now the 
substance of the secret articles of Tilait, why 
not ffive that substance to parliament ? Precise 
legal evidence was not demanded from them, nor 
was it neoessary to divulge the source frooi 
which they derived their information.]:]: But 
they could not shew that which they never pos- 
sessed ; and the impolicy of the measure under 
consideration was as obvious, as the pleas resort- 
ed to in extenuation of its guilt were groundless. 
So far from the attack on Copenhagen being a 
measure of wisdom and security, it was the very 



« Mr. Stuart Wortley, 
f Earl St. Vincent* 



t Earl Grey. $ Dake of Norfolk. § Dr. Laurence. || Mr. Ponaoaby. 
* * Lord Sidmoutb. ft Air* Whitfaread. %% Air- Sheridan. 



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OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 



97 



reverse of those positions, and had pluo^^ us 
into an unnecessary war with Russia, which, up 
to that period, was firm in her alliance; but from 
that moment she resolved on hostiUties, and 
would have instantly declared war, had she not 
felt it her interest to be silent till she got her 
fleets into ports of safety. This declaration did 
not rest on vague information, but upon the 
authority of the emperor himself, who had 
repeatedly declared, in the presence of Lord 
Hutchinson, in the most peremptory lang^agOi 
tone, and manner, that he would have satisfac- 
tion for the unprovoked attack on Denmark.* 
Any temporary advantage derived from that 
expedition was much more than counterbalanced 
by the consequences of a measure, that had 
augmented the number of our enemies, counten- 
anced the injurious representations circulated 
throughout Europe of our principles and designs, 
and had inflamed against us the warmest pas* 
sions of neutral and friendly nations. f We had, 
indeed, taken from Denmark sixteen hulks ; 
and what had we paid for them i We had 
given the whole maritime population of Denmark 
to France ; we had given too to the enemy the 
hearts of the Danes ; and much better for this 
country would it have been, to see the fleet of 
Denmark in forced hostility against us, manned 
by her sailors acting under compulsion, than to 
see them, after what had happened, moored in 
our own ports.;]: It was impossible to think so 
* meanly of the power and resources of this em- 
pire, of the spirit of the people, or of the valour 
and discipline of our fleets and armies, as to 
admit that the seixure of the Danish fleet was 
necessary for any purpose of self-preservation. 
England had hitherto been considered as the 
conservator of the laws of nations ; but the 
character of the country was lost by this act, 
which had bumbled and degraded us in the eyes 
of Europe ; it was an act that could neither be 
justified by state necessity, or national security, 
and would probably stand for ever unparalleled 
for national bad faith, unprovoked violence, 
and flagrant injustice. II Ministers ought to be 
warned against believing that nations may be 
absolved from the obTigatfons of morality. 
France, by interfering between America and 
the mother country, had overwhelmed her own 
government, and sent her royal race into exile. 
Prussia and Austria had been severely punished 
for the share they took in the infamous partition 
of Poland; and so also was Russia, who was 
the third in that net of spoliation, and who was 
even reduced to the humiliating situation of an 
obsequious suitor of the victor Napoleon.^ 



lifinisters, to shew their energies, were running a BOOK IV* 
race of injustice with the enemy ; and how did — — — 
they acquit themselves? Why, France had ^^*^^^J^ 
slain a giant, and England had fallen upon a ^g^T*"^ 
helpless child. In such a case as this, the voice ^ ^ 
of the dead ought to be heard, if the admonitions 
of the living were disregarded, and the planners 
of the expedition against Denmark might be 
reminded of the words of a decea:$ed statesman 
and patriot,^* who had declared, that ^' whatever 
was morally wrong, could not be politically 
right;'' and of the recorded declaration of one 
of the most eloquent and enlightened senators 
that ever occupied a seat in the British senate, ft 
who had held, ^^ that justice is -the standing 
policy of society, and that any flagrant depar* 
ture from its changeless principles woula be 
ultimately found to be bad policy." 

To whatever attention these arguments, 
which were urged with great animation and per- 
severance, might be entitled, every attempt to 
censure the conduct of ministers was over-ruled, 
and the thanks of both houses of parliament were 
awarded, by large majorities, ^^ to his majesty's 
ministers, for the prompt and vigiopous measures 
adopted for the purpose of removing out of the 
reach of the enemies, the fleet and naval resources 
of Denmark." 

Few subjects have been debated in parlia* 
meat with more animation and pertinacity than 
the orders in council, issued during the recess ; 
but as the views of the members, on both sides of 
the question, have already been stated,!;): the 
necessity for entering into the particulars of the 
debates originating m this new code of commer* 
cial warfare is superseded. During the present 
session of parliament, the opposition to ministers 
was unusually keen, vigilant, and persevering ; 
hut though the superiority of powers in reason^ 
ing and in oratory was on the left side of the 
speaker's chair, the msyorities were generaliy 
found on the right ; and the orders in council 
wer^ pronouncetl, by the repeated votes of the 
senate, to be conformable to the laws of notions^ 
justly retaliatory towards our enemies, and ind^- 
pensably necessary for the maintenance of British ' 
commerce and British rights. 

During the present year, when every port 
in Europe, with the exception of those of Swe« 
den, was shut against British commerce, and 
when our relations with America were in a most 
precarious situation, the pressure of distress was 
felt with extreme severity by the manufacturing 
interest, and on the 28d of February, Colonel 
Stanley, one of the members for the county of 
Lancaster, presented a petition to the house of 



• Lortt Hutchinson. 
^ Mr. Ponsunby. 
vol.. II.— ^NO, 44, 



t Earl Darnley. X Mr. Wbithrcad, H Lord Erskine. 

** Mr. Fox. tt Mr. Burke. JJ See Volume 11. page 50. 



B« 



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HISTORY Ot THE WARS 



tfOOKIV. commons, from certain inhabitants of Great and 

Little Bolton, in that county, the prayer of 

Chap.VIH. ^hich was, that no opportunity should be neg- 
""""^^JT^ leoted for entering upon negociations for the 
^^^ restoration of peace upon honourable terms. 
The petition in substance stated, 

" That thoasandfl of the pedtiooers were reduced to 
great distress by the stagnation of trade, and the cessation 
of the customary demand for labour. That in the opinion 
of the petitioners, this arose from the present situation of 
the continent, occasioned by the continuance of war ; that 
great numbers of the petitioners had been reduced to 
poverty, and that they were threatened with still greater 
distress; that their petition did not springy from any dread 
of the enem]^ ; that all thev asked was, that no opportunity 
for negociation should be let slip ; and that if the ambition 
of the enemy should lead him to insist upon demands 
incompatible with a honourable peace, the petitioners 
would with one heart suffer much greater privations, ra- 
ther than see the security and honour of their country 
compromised." 

The petition was ordered to lay upon 
the table. 

On the 29th Mr. Whitbread rose to pro- 
pose certain resolutions of censure against minis- 
ters for their rejection of the proffered media- 
tion of Russia and Austria, accompanied by a 
declaration, that there was nothing in the pre- 
sent circumstances of the war whicli ought to 
preclude hi« majesty from entering into a nego- 
ciation with the enemy for the termination of 
hostilities. The commissioners who were appoint- 
ed to open the proceedings of the present session 
of parliament, had, he said, after an awful ex- 
posure of our present situation, called this ^^ the 
crisis of the country's fate," and it was highly 
important that no time should be lost in taking 
such measures as might be deemed necessary to 
rescue the country from the dangers with which 
it was Environed. These dangers had increased 
as time rolled on, and now we were told that they 
bad reached their crisis. He had a month ago 
stated some of the symptoms of the public dan-« 
ger; and since that time several petitions had 
been presented to the house, of which the state-* 
ments were most distressing, (be prayer most 
moderate, and the general tone most patriotic* 
He hoped the people would continue to express 
their feelings and their wishes till they made an 
impression upon ministers and upon that house ; 
and till the problem was solved, whether it was 
possible or not to conclude a peace with the 
French goTernment. All that could be ex- 
pected or wished for, was peace on honourable 
terms; and such a peace, he maintained, was 



better calculated to establish our security as a 
nation, than a prolongation of the contest. In 
the speech of his majesty's commissioners, par- 
liament was told that the war was now purdy 
defensive on the part of this country ; all the 
brilliant visions which had so long been presented 
to our imaginations, and which had so unfortun- 
ately biased our judgments, were now given 
up ; indemnity for the past and the expectation 
of dictating a constitution to France, or of curb- 
ing the power and restraining the ambition of 
Bonaparte, were no longer insisted upon, and 
our only aim now was to defend ourselves. This 
being the case, he would put it to ministers and 
to the house, whether a more honourable peace 
was likely to be concluded at a future time than 
on the present occasion. Before the treaty of 
Tilsit was concluded, an offer had been made by 
Russia to mediate a peace between Great Bri- 
tain and France ; an offer which he had always 
considered as an effusion of the heart of the 
Emperor of Russia towards this country. A 
similar offer had also been made by Austria ; and 
from the documents before the house, he con- 
tended that there had been two opportunities 
wantonly thrown away, of trying, at least, whe- 
ther it were possible to enter upon negociation. 
On each of these points he had a resolution to 
propose ; but there was another subject, of far 
greater importance, and which regarded our 
conduct for the future. The ruler of France had 
at three distinct periods made offers of peace to 
this country, in terms unobjectionable. The first 
was rejected. The second was not absolutely re- 
jected, but Lord Mulgrave wrote a contumelious 
letter, informing him " that his majesty roust 
consult his allies." We had then an oj^portunity 
of selling to Napoleon a recognition ot his title ; 
and we might have sold it many times before he 
had established himself, as he now had, in defiance 
of us ; his majesty's allies were indeed consulted^ 
not however to see whether they would agree to 
open a negociation, but to try whether they 
would enter into another coalition to destroy 
the power of France. They did not enter into 
that coalition, and the event had shewn, that 
instead of crushing, they had increased the 

Eower of the enemy. But it was stated in the 
ing's speech, that we were now looking about 
for an impartial mediator ; there was, however, 
no such power to be found, and nothing remain- 
ed but a direct communication. Ministers ought 
to send a direct offer of negociation to France, 
This would be no degradation, as such a thing 



* Tbese petitions werte chiefly from the counties of Yoric and Lancaster. To the petition from Leeds, voted 
\inanimously hy a meeting supposed to consist often thousand persons, held in the yard of the Coloured Cloth HalJ, on 
the 19th of January, 28,028 sig^natures were affixed. The Stockport petition was sigrned by 12,000 persons. A peUtion 
from Manchester by 47,000 ; and simUar documents, very numerously signed, were sent from Bradford, Huddersfield^ 
aad Bingley. ' 



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OP THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 



99 



was not unusual. The French Emperor had 
done it ; and it had been done three times during 
the last war by Lord Grenville, who was in- 
capable of compromising the honour of his 
country. If peace could not be obtained after 
a fair and candid attempt for that purpose, the 
knowledge of that circumstance would unite all 
hands and hearts in the war, which would ^then 
be manifestly just and necessary. It was said 
the French Emperor was ambitious, but great 
as was his ambition he had it under perfect com- 
mand ; and as it was his interest to make peace 
with this country, it was probable that he would 
accede to moderate terms. If the advice of the 
Archduke Charles had been taken, much of the 
power of France would have this day been on 
the side of other nations, who might in that case 
have been in alliance with us. ^' If the advice 
of that immortal statesman, Mr. Fox, had been 
taken,** continued Mr. Whitbread, ** who so 
often urged the policy of peace, and exposed 
the errors of the system wnich the government 
of this country had been so long acting upon ; 
if his advice had been taken, who, from this 
B^ot where I stand, so often spoke the words of 
wisdom, c^nd inforced his salutary councils in 
a manner so much better, God knows, than I 
can do ; what misfortunes might we not have 
escaped ! how much more elevated would have 
been our situation !'* The honourable gentleman 
concluded by moving three resolutions ; the first 
and second of which condemned the conduct of 
his majesty's ministers in not availing them- 
selves of the mediation offered by the Emperors 
of Russia and Austria ; and by the last it was 
stated, ^^ that this house feels it incumbent on 
itself to declare, that there is nothing in the 
present circumstances of the war, which ought 
to preclude his majesty from embracing any fair 
opportunity of acceding to, or commencing a 
negociation with the enemy, on a footing of 
equality, for the termination of hostilities on the 
terms of justice and honour. 

Mr. Ponsonby, Mr. Wilberforce, and Lord 
Milton, objected to the third resolution pro- 
posed by Mr. Whitbread, on the ground, that 
instead of promoting peace, it might, by inducing 
the enemy to propose inadmissible terms^ have 
the effect of protracting the war. 

Mr. Canning asked, what were the views 
of the enemy when he professed his anxiety for 
peace, and even while at peace with us ? Did 
he not secretly employ every^means to exclude 
our commerce, and to discourage and annihilate 
our manufactures ? Would he allow, if he could 
help it, the importation of a single yard of 
cloth, or any other article of our manufactures ? 
If such were his endeavours against the trade 
of this country at that time, what must they be 
BOW, when he had resolved to ruin the nation 



1808 



through the ruin of her commerce ? Would BOOK IV. 
the cries of those for peace, whom he had more ■■ 

particularly resolved to undo by war, be a mo- Chap. VI II 
tive with him to listen to any terms of peace? 
On the contrary, would they not encourage 
him to persevere in war, as the surest means 
of ultimately accomplishing his object ? He 
gave the honourable gentleman full credit for 
sincerity in the opinion he expressed; but, ad- 
mitting negociation to be desirable and good 
when there was a prospect of its leading to 
peace, it was, he contended, mischievous when 
It did not afford that prospect ; by tending to 
excite deceitful hopes, and by paralyzing na- 
tional exertion. The honourable gentleman was 
satisfied, that when Russia said we might have 

Eeace on honourable terms, the fact was so. 
tut why, in that case, did not Russia state 
those terms ? What Russia mi^ht look upon as 
honourable terms, might not be so esteemed in 
this country. The conduct of Russia had given 
reason to suspect that she was not favourably 
inclined towards this country, and her devotion 
to France was shown by her disinclination to 
complete the commercial treaty with Great Bri- 
tain. The first offer of mediation from Austria 
was immediately subsequent to the battle of 
Eylau, and that offer was accepted without any 
other condition than that it should be agreed to 
by all the belligerent powers ; but before this 
point could come to issue, the battle of Friedland 
had totally destroyed the hopes of the allies ; 
and when Lord Pembroke, the British ambassa- 
dor, mentioned the matter at Vienna, he was told, 
that things were so changed that nothing could 
be done. From that time till the 20th of Novem- 
ber, 1807, when the communication was made by 
Prince Stahremberg, the matter was suffered to 
rest without further notice. The terms and tone 
of this second offer were different from the 
former, and bore evident macks of French dicta- 
tion. Under such circumstances, it became the 
more necessary to ascertain the basis and the. 
source from which it proceeded, and when Lord 
Pembroke asked at Vienna for some explanation 
of certain statements made by Prince Stahrem- 
berg, the Austrian government denied having 
given any authority for such statements. Mr. 
Canning concluded by giving his negative to the 
resolutions. 

Mr. J. W. Ward, Lord Mahon, and Mr. 
Sheridan, supported the resolutions. With 
regard to the petitions for peace, they were 
decidedly of opinion that the best way to put a 
stop to them would be to pass the propoked 
resolutions, which would serve to satisfy the 
country that the house was strongly disposed 
to peace, when that object became fairly attain*^ 
able. Thus alone would the suspicion which 
prevailed among the people, as to the hostility 



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100 



HISTORY OF THE WARS 



1808 



BOOK IV. of ministers to peace, and which suspicion pro- 
— — — duced these petitions, be effectually removed. 
Chap.VIIL On a division of the house the first resolution 

was negatived by a majonty of 210 to 70 voices, 
and the two succeeding resolutions by still larger 
majorities. 

Few internal events have created so strong 
a sensation of disappointment and alarm as the 
rejection in the house of lords of the bill in- 
troduced into parliament by Mr. Bankes, as the 
chairman of the committee of finance, for pre- 
venting reversionary grants. The fate of this 
bill was- singular, and of a nature to awaken 
the jealousy, not only of the friends to econo- 
mical reform, but also of those who suspected a 
secret and powerful influence behind the throne. 
On the 2l8t of January, Mr. Bankes reminded 
the house of commons, that a bill for preventing 
the grant of places in reversion had passed 
through that house during the last session, and 
was only prevented from going to the lords by 
the prorogation of parliament. The house then 
thought the bill which he now should move for, 
to be of 8o important a nature, that they judged 
it necessary to present a petition to the crown, 
to which his majesty had been pleased to return 
a most gracious answer; and he now moved, 
that leave be given to bring in a bill to prevent 
the grant of offices and reversions during life, 
or with benefit of survivorship. This notice 
gave rise to some discussion, but the bill passed 
through ail its stages in the commons this year, 
as it had done in the preceding session, almost 
without opposition. When the bill reached the 
bouse of lords, it was supported by several of 
his majesty's ministers, ana the friends to the 
measure in the country augured a favourable 
issue ; but on the second reading, on the 1st of 
March, a strenuous opposition io its further 
progress was commenced by Lord Arden, the 
Lord Chancellor, *Lord Redesdale, and the 
Duke of Montrose ; and in a more advanced 
stage ot the proceedings the bill was thrown out 
by a majority of eighty voices. The objection to 
this measure was almost single, and it was urged 
with a pertinacity and frequency of repetition 
that gave a weight to the argument which it 
would never have derived from its intrinsic 
strength. The limitation of reversionary grants 
was held up as an infringement upon the royal 
prerogative. 

It is certainly most consonant to the true 
and genuine spirit of the British constitution to 
maintain that the king can possess no preroga- 
tive, which, in its own nature and exercise, has 
not for its sole object the interest and happiness 
of his people. To suppose that the king of 
Englund can have any interest repugnant to, or 
separate from the interest, of the people over 
whom he reigns, and that he poi^sesses a pre- 



rogative which seciures such an interest, is to 
disparage that constitution which is so justly the 
boast of Britons. The king no doubt has pre- 
rogatives, but they are possessed by him solely 
because he can thus better guard the sacred de- 
posit of liberty and happiness which is lodged ia 
his hands. The king's prerogatives may also 
be attacked or weakened ; but the proof that 
they are so must be derived from a clear and ex- 
press fact, shewing that the means he possesses 
through them of guarding the liberties, and 
securing the interests of his people, are attacked 
or weakened. 

Conceiving that it was incumbent upon the 
house of commons, as the guardians of the na- 
tional purse, not to abandon a measure so clearly 
connected with their public duty, Mr. Bankes, 
on the 7th of April, introduced another rever- 
sionary bill, similar in its object, but limited as 
to duration. By this modified measure it was 
proposed, that the crown should be restricted 
nrom granting offices in reversion for one year 
after the passing of the act, and from the close of 
that period to the end of six weeks from the com- 
mencement of the subsequent se<%sion of parlia^ 
ment. This limitation was proposed for the sake 
of harmony between the two branches of the 
legislature, and with an understanding, that the 
friends to economical reform gave up no part of 
the principle of the bill, but looked forwara to the 
further object of rendering the measure perma- 
nent. A long conversation ensued, in which the 
most distinguished members in the bouse con- 
curred in opinion with Mr. Bankes ; and the bill 
thus modified was ultimately passed in the upper 
bouse of parliament. 

The appropriation of the drc^its of admi- 
ralty, a fund arising from the sale of vessels 
taken at sea, or seized in the ports of this 
country previous to a declaration of war, was 
this session brought under discussion in the 
house of commons by Sir Francis Burdett. 
On the 0th of February the honourable baronet 
observed, that it was stated in some of the 
newspapers that certain lari^e sums, arising from 
the droits of admiralty, had been granted by 
his majesty to several princes of the blood, and 
particularly that .£20,000 arising in this way had 
lately been granted to the Duke of York. If 
this were really the case, he wished to ask, on 
what colour or pretext it was tliat the king came 
to seize on that property, and to dispose of it in 
such a manner ? 

Mr. Perceval had no difiiculty in admitting 
that the sum of «£20,000 had been granted to the 
Duke of York, being only equal to the sums 
formerly granted to the other younger male 
branches of the royal family from the same fund. 
The condemnation of the property alluded to 
was, he said, a judicial act of the court before 



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OP THE FRENCH ftSVOLUTION. 



101 



wfaieh it efttt&tobetriedy aadHie >rirbt of his 
jnajestj to these dvohs iiesal^^Jtsetf into two 
distiQot ports : the right of. the cuMrii, and his 
light as lord high admiral. As to* the appn^ri-* 
ation of the fand, a oonsideeable proportion of 
it had been granted to captors under yarioas 
eirciiiiistances ; many grants had been made for 
the public aeryiee ; relim had in some cases been 
idbrded to. the sufferers by the sudden breaking 
out of mvr ; and the fund being completely under 
his mi^^sty's controul, grants had been ooca* 
eionallymade to the younger branches of tiie 
royal family. 

Sir Francis Burdett, after obserring that 
the proceeds alluded to amounted to such a con- 
siderable sum, that he was convinced parliament 
could never endure that it should be left as the 
private property of the king, moved, with a view 
to an ulterior inquiry, ^^ That th^re be laid 
before the house an account of the net proceeds 
paid out of the court of admiralty to the receiver- 
eeneral of droits, of all prop^ty condemned to 
his majesty in right of the crown, or in right of 
the office of lord high admiral, since the 1st of 
January, 1793, with the balances now remain- 
ing," — >which motion, after a conversation be- 
tween a number of members, was carried by a 
majority of tw«itj-five voices. 

The vacillation in the military system of 
the country still continued to prevail, and every 
new administration produced some important 
change in the organization of the army. On 
the 8th of Blarch, when the mutiny bill came 
under consideration in the house of commons. 
Lord Castlereagh, referring to Mr. Windham's 
sjfstem, said, he had no objection to limited ser- 
vice under certain modifications ; but helhought 
that it ought not to be enforced to the exclusion 
of unlimited service, where men were perfectly 



satisfied, and desirous to enter without limita 
tion. With tiiese Tiews, the honourable gentle 



fiooiciv; 



man mov^, that a clause should be introduced ^^^^^^' 
into the mutiny biU, afllowing such men as were j^^g 
inclined to enter ilie aervice, a fair option of 
enlisting for life ; and after an animated debate, 
tile m^posftion of the noble secretary was car-' 
ried by a mcjority of one hundred and sixty- 
mine, to one hundred voices. Another and a 
more important measure relating to the army 
and the internal defence of the country, was 
submitted to the house by Lord Castler^igh on 
the 12th of April. His object was to create a 
force subsidiary to the regular militia, amount- 
ing to sixty thousand men. This body he pro- 
posed should form a local militia, and should be 
balloted for in their different counties, in pro- 
portion to the deficiency of volunteers of each, 
from among persons between the ages of eigh- 
teen and twenty-five. Volunteer corps might, if 
they chose, trander themselves, with the appro- 
bation of his majesty, into this local militia^ 
The period of service during the year to be eight 
and twenty days, for which pay was to be sil- 
lowed. This measure encountered strenuous 
opposition in its progress through parliament, 
but the bill, without any essential alterations, wa^ 
ultimately passed into a law. 

Since the advance of the property tax to 
ten per cent, the finances of the country had 
assumed a more flourishiog aspect than usual,, 
and the different taxes had become so produc- 
tive, that the chancellor of the exchequer did not 
this year find himself under the necessity of in* 
creasing the public burden, except in a very 
trifling degree.* By an arrangement with the 
Bank of England, half a million of the unclaimed 
dividends were obtained for Immediate use ; a 
reduction in the charges of the bank fpr super- 



♦ FINANCES. 



PUBLIC INCOME of Gmtt Britain for die Year 
ending the 5tii of January, 1808. 



Bnmeha qf hevemte, Grns Receipts, 



CoMnoM.. 9,573,060 6 5 

Excue 19,681,076 15 9 

Stanpa 4,545,971 17 

U&d&AaKMdTuef 6,909,190 IS 

Pot Office ^... 1,498,490 11 

MtKeLPcnuiientTu. 175,247 9 

Hend. JUfOHie 57,760 2 

EKtnMwd. RcoooTCOu 

■iSCCnrtoms 3,065,904 14 S} 

C 9 {-Ettiae 6,5«),555 17 ll| 

^h/Pnpertr Tax 10,15S,OOS 19 11 

Maod. Income 2,887,150 5 0} 

^ftwiiw, Inclndins^ 

^1,600,000 for the V 15,257,211 19 5 
latinoflfdBtid...l 



9 



Paid into the ExcJieq . 






7^462,580 

17,896,145 14 

4,458,738 14 0! 

7,075,530 10 8 

1,277,538 11 4 

170,818 17 11 

91,422 14 7 

2,730,791 14 64 

6,273,580 18 lol 

9,890,150 15 Oi 

. 2,864,315 16 (j 

-.15,257,211 19 8 



Tettf— £80,062,607 12 8k \ £75,446,626 II 64 
^kUefmU^ Treamry Chamiert, { ___ Jf "^ 



25l4^Jlf4V<A, 1806. 

rou ii.-«*yo« 45. 



W. HVSklSSON. 



PUBLIC EXPENDITURE of Great Britain for the 
Year ending the dth of January, 1806. 



tieadt of ExpendUure. 



Smne* 



Cham of ] , 
Reduction of National ] 
Intcnat on Exdiequer BiDa ... 

Ciril Liat 

Civil Goveniment of Scotland . 
Pairments in antidpalion, &c 
jSvty •««•......••... •••.•••••••• ..••••t 

Ordnance • m***...... 

Anny 

'Extmonmaiy Sccvicat m......... 

^xetano •••.•.■••••..••>•. ■.«...».*..m 

Miaodlaneooa Services ........... 



.... 20,701,252 

..... 297,757 16 

..... 9,479,164 12 

.... 1,574,361 18 

..,.. 1,594,161 19 

85,359 3 

674,889 3 

.... 16,775,761 9 

.... 4,190,748 6 

.... 9,956,683 13 

.... 5,431,867 

.... 3,681,251 3 

.... 1,227,383 



WhUehattf Treatury Chambers f\ 
Ulh qf M^rcht IW8, S 



W, HijI 



5 

9 
H 
9 
5 

5 

n 

4 

4 



Deductions for Sonu fimning BO pait of the \ 75,670,641 8 2 
Eipenditute of Gieat Britaku......... J 3,681,251 3 4 

Grand TotaL— £71,989,390 4 10 



i8Spl!(. 



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102 



UI8TOBT OF THE WARS 



Chap. VI 11. 
1^08 



BOOK IV intending the pecuniary concerns of the public 
was effected to the amount of ^64,000 ; and a 
loan of three millions sterling was granted by 
the directors to government, without interest, 
till six months after the termination of the war. 

The great blemish in the criminal code of 
England consists in the numerous crimes for 
which the punishment of death is ordained ; and 
the most pernicious consequences arise from the 
punishment appointed by law, and the punish- 
ment actually inflicted, being so frequently at 
variance. It is a sound maxim in criminal juris- 
prudence, that'the proper end of punishment is 
much more efiectiially secured by its certainty, 
than by its severity.* The English law, in 
many instances, seems to proceed on the con- 
verse of this proposition : it enacts severe punish- 
ment, but the execution seldom following the 
enactment, this object and end is not answered.f 
Sir Samuel Romilly, in common with many 
other enlightened men, had long lamented, that 
in the criminal law of the country, capital 
punishments were appointed to be inflicted for 
so many crimes ; and on the 18th of May he 
obtained permission to introduce a bill into par- 
liament, which subsequently passed into a law, 
to repeal so much of the act of the 8th Eliza- 
beth, cap. 4, as made private stealing a capital 
crime, without benefit of clergy. In pursuing 
the course which he had commenced for the 
purpose of rendering our criminal jurisprudence 
more consonant to the present state of society, 
and more conducive to the true ends of justice^ 
Sir Samuel further proposed to grant a com- 
pensation to persons unjustly accused, and who 
were acquitted of crimes ; but this object was 
not effected. It certainly is extremely desira- 
ble, in many instances, that persons in such a 
situation should be compensated for their suffer- 
ings and loss of liberty ; but the difliculty of 
drawing the line, and the extreme liability to the 
abuse of such a principle, form objections and 
.obstacles to the proposed measure hardly to be 
overcome. 

The' cause of the Spanish patriots had 
awakened the zeal and animated the enthusiasm 
of the people of this country to a degree almost 
unexampled ; and Mr. Sheridan seemed only to 
be the organ of the public voice, when he rose in 
the house of commons, on the 15th of June, to 
direct the attention of the legislature to the 
afiairs of Spain, and to demand their utmost 
exertions in favour of the Spaniards. '^ I am 
far, Sir," said Mr. Sheridan, " from wishing 
ministers to embark in any rash or romantic 
enterprise; but if the enthiisiasm and animation 



which now exist in part of Spain should spread 
over the whole of that country, I ator convinced, 
that since the first burst of the French revo- 
lution, there never existed so happy an oppor- 
tunity for Great Britain to strike a bold stroke 
for the rescue of the world. Hitherto, the ad- 
ministration of this country, instead of striking 
at the sore of Uie evil, have contented them**- 
selves with nibbling at the rind ; I wish, there- 
fore. Sir, to let Spain know, that the conduct we 
have so long pursued we will not persevere in, 
but that \ye are resolved fairly and fully to stand 
up for the salvation of Europe. Bonaparte has 
hitherto run a most victorious race. Hitherto 
he has had to contend against princes without 
dignity, and ministers without wisdom. He has 
fought against countries in which the people 
have been indifferent as to his success : he has 




portant crisis. Never was any thin^ so brave^ 
so generous, so noble, as the conduct of the 
Asturians. They have mag^nimously avowed 
their hostility to France ; they have declared 
war against Bonaparte ; they have no retreat ; 
they are resolved to conquer, or to perish in the 
grave of the honour and the independence of 
their country. It is that the British govern- 
ment may advance to their assistance with a 
firmer step, and with a bolder mien, that I Iiave 
been anxious to afford this opportunity to the 
British parliament, of expressing the feelings 
which they entertain on- the ocoasion." Mr. 
Sheridan concluded with moving for copies of 
documents illustrative of the present situation 
of Spain. 

Mr. Canning declared that his maje^y's 
ministers saw with a deep and lively interest 
the noble struggle which a part of the Spanish 
nation was now making to resist the unexampled 
atrocity of France, and to preserve the inde- 
pendence of their country ; and assured the house, 
that there existed the stroi^est disposition on 
the part of the British government to afford 
every practicable aid in a contest so magnanim- 
ous. His majesty's ministers, regardless of the 
war existing between Spain and Great Britain, 
would have three objects in view ; first, to direct 
the united efforts of the country against the 
/common foe ; second, to direct those efforts in a 
way that should be most beneficial to the new 
ally ; and third, to give them a direction pecu- 
liarly conducive to British interests ; though 
the last of these objects would be left entirely 
out of the question when compared with the 



* Marqaifl Beccaria. 

t In 1805, tliree hundred pmon« were capitally convirted in Knarland and Wdes, of whom only sixty-firo 
were executed ; and in 1808, three hundred and twenty-fire were capitally convicied, of whom fifty-seren only 8uffer|d. 

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OF THE FEENCH REVOLUTION. 



103 



other two. In this contest in wliich Spain was 
embarked, no interest could be so purely British 
as Spanish success ; no conquest so advan- 
tageous to Britain as conquering from France. 
In the prosecution of all wars, the employ- 
ment and prosperity of the manufacturers are 
subject to fluctuations and failure ; but in the 
war by which the world was now agitated, when 
the belligerent powers of Europe were engaged 
in a contest of commercial proscription, and 
when America, to escape the evils of actual 
hostility, had proclaimed an embargo in all her 

}>orts, the interests of the merchants and manu- 
acturers of England were sacrificed to a degree 
hitherto unexampled. In Yorkshire, this state 
of depression and suffering began to give way to 
better hopes and brighter prospects. The 
Brazils afforded an advantageous market for 
British woollens, and the manufacturers found 
their accumulated stocks diminish, and their 
capitals obtain a more beneficial channel of cir- 
culation ; but unfortunately, the other manufac- 
tures of Britain did not equally partake of the 
renovation of commerce. The cotton trade of 
Lancashire still continued to labour under severe 
depression, and the wages of the weaver were 
insufficient to procure for his family the common 
necessaries of life ; while the habits contracted 
in more prosperous times, unfitted them for that 

Eatient endurance to which they were exposed 
y the pressure of the present crisis. To alle- 
viate the sufferings of the operative workmen 
engaged in the cotton business, an attempt was 
made in the house of commons to fix the minimum 
wages of the weaver ; but the bill introduced for 
that purpose was rejected, and soon afterwards, 
disturbances, rather distressing from their cause, 
than alarming for their nature and extent, broke 
out at Stockport, Manchester, and other manu- 
facturing towns in that district. Several ex- 
pedients and arrangements between the delegates 
of the weavers and the merchants and master 
manufacturers took place, but it was soon dis- 
covered, that an increased demand for Man- 
chester goods afforded the only means of bring- 
ing the differences to an amicable and permanent 
arrangement ; and this event, happily, soon after- 
wards took place. Many of the persons who 
had most distinguislied themselves in the riots 
were apprehended, and brought to trial at the 
summer assizes for the county of lianeaster. 
but as the extreme distress by which they haa 



1808 



been driven to their improper and illegal con- BOOK IV 
duct, made its just impression on government, ■ ■ ■ - ■ 
the prosecutions were conducted with lenity, Chap.VIIL 
and the punishments inflicted were neither vin- ^"^ 
dictive nor severe. 

One of the last objects to which the atten- 
tion of the session of parliament of 1808 ^ras 
directed was the affairs of Spain and Portugal. 
The Duke of Norfolk, availing himself of his 
privilege as a peer of parliament, took an <^por- 
tunity, on the 30th of June, to offer some advice 
to his majesty's ministers regarding the posture 
of affairs in the peninsula. The conduct lately 
displayed towards Spain on the part of ihm 
French Emperor was characterised by the duke 
as an act of the most wanton ambition, of the 
most foul and flagitious perjury, and of the most 
cruel and unprovoked oppression, ever recorded 
in the annals of the world. There was no man 
but what must wish success to a generous and 
gallant people, thus struggling in . the cause ef 
national independence. He hoped imnisters 
would collect from the delegates, of tlie brave 
people of Spain, now in England, the heat 
information as to the real state of the country ; 
but before they made common cause with the 
patriots, it was their duty to ascertain the prinr 
ciples on which they were acting, and the end 
to which their co-operation was to be directed. 

Lord Hawkesburv, on the part of his ma- 
jesty's ministers, declared, tliat the people of 
Spain had manifested a spirit and determinatioii 
which would have done honour to tiie ,mo4t 
glorious periods of their history ; and tliat his 
majesty's ministers would feel it their duty to. do 
every thing, in support of so glorious a cause, 
that the most generous heart could wish. On 
the 4th of July parliament was prorogued, and 
the commissioners, speaking in his majesty's 
name, declared that hor would continue 1j mak^ 
every exertion in his power for the support of 
the Spanish cause ; guided in the choice and ia 
the direction of his eicertions by the wishes of 
those in whose behalf they were employed. In 
contributing to the success of this just and 
magnanimous struggle, the object of his .ma- 
jesty would be to preserve unimpaired the inr 
dependence and the integrity ot the Spanish 
monarchy ; and he trusted that the efiorts which 
were directed to that great object, might, under 
the blessing o£ divine providence, lead to thp 
restoration of the liberties and peace of Europe. 



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CHAPTER IX. 



BOOIC iV 



1800 



"FoRfifoK History : MiUkiry Preparations af the Hoau (f Austria — Rnpture between France 
and Austria — Passage of the Inn by the Archduke Charles^^Departure of Bonaparte from 
Paris to place himself at the Head of his Army in Germany — Battle of Ebensberg — Fall 
oj Landshut into the Hands of the French — Napoleon and the Archduke meet for the first 
Time at Eekmuhl^ where the Austrians sustain a signal Defeat — Fall of Raiisbon-^Advance 
of the French Army to Vitima — Battle of Esling — Operations in Poland and the North of 
Germany — Campaigri in Italy — Battle of Wagram — Retreat of the Austrian Army — Ter- 
tnination of the Fourth Punic War by an Armistice — Treaty (f Peace — Gallant Resistance 
of the Tyrolese — Annexation of the Papal Territories to France — ExcommuniaUion of the 
Emperor Napoleofh^Iagperial Divorce — Revision in Sweden* 



AT the critical and gloomy moment in 
%iiieh the last hopes of 8pain seemed to beextin- 
irhen her capital was occupied by the 
inyaders^ her armies defeated and dispersed, 
^nd the troe^ of her British ally obliged to seek 
Safety on board vessels sent to convey them 
tb' their own shores; the important events which 
-toiik place in Crermany, brightened for a* time the 
'pohtieal horison. Austria, whose strength had 
heen broken by the disasters of Ulm and Aus- 
;lerlitK, and whose dominion and resources had 
heen euttailed by the peace of Presburg, resolv- 
^ io convert to her advantage the war in which 
Vrmee was* engaged with Spain, and to make a 
^and efibrt to regain her ancient independence 
tmdpower. From the period of the conferences 
4d Effhrt, till Bonaparte crossed the Pyrenees 
for the purpose of putting himself at the head 
t^ his anmes in Spain, Austria went on com- 
pleting; her military preparations. These ad- 
vances ^'towards a state of hostility were not 
^ewed by France with indiflference, and the 
vraftehful jealom^ of Bonaparte was expressed 
hyjim mintsters m reproaches and threats. Aus- 
tria was charged with having opened the har- 
bour of Trieste to the English ; her vessels, 
loaded with British manufactures or the produce 
^f flte English colonies, were protected in the 
"passage from Malta to the Levant by ships of 
"war; an official messenger from the Spanish 
patriots was permitted to land at Trieste ; ieic- 
cident, it was asserted, had put the French 
-government in possession of a formal promise 
made by the cabinet of Vienna to assist the 
Spanish Junta with one hundred thousand men ; 
and providence itself had interfered to unveil 
the hostile intenticMBs of the Emperor Francis, 
i>y permitting the King of Elngland to allude 
to them in no ambiguous language, in the official 
declaration published by that sovereign on the 



rupture of the negociations for peace. From 
'Yalladolid, Bonaparte sent his mandate to the 
winces of the confederation of the Rhine, to 
furnish their contingents, and to hold themselves 
in readiness for war ; and soon afterwards he 
left Spain and returned to Paris. 

In the month of March, 1800, the prepara- 
tions for war were prosecuted by both parties 
with tmcommon vigour and activity. The court 
of Vienna, as if sensible of the causes to which 
in a great measure its former misfortunes had 
been owing, adopted in almost every respect a 
^difibr^nt hue of conduct from that which had 
been pursued in former wars with France : 
having placed the army, in point of numbers, on 
what was deemed an adequate establishment^ 
continued and zealous efforts were next made 
towards the organization and discipline requisite 
to give efficacy to numerical s^ngth. The 
blind and ruinous policy which had hitherto 
madfe advancement or rank to depend upon anti« 
quity of birth and illustrious descent, was in a 
great measure relaxed. Diffisrent officers, who 
had distinguished themselves in former cam- 
paigns by superior skill or courage, were ad- 
vanced to a higher rank, and pla^d in a more 
extensive sphere of action. The Austrian army 
was divided into nine corps, each consisting of 
from thirty to forty thousand men. The Arch^ 
duke Charles, freed from the interference of the 
aulic council, was appointed generalissimo; 
and six out of the nine corps were placed under 
his immediate command; the seventh corps waa 
sent under the Archduke Ferdinand into Poland^ 
and the eighth and ninth to Italy, under the 
Archduke «fohii. There were also two corps of 
reserve, one of them consistingof twenty thou- 
sand men, commanded by Prince John of 
Idchtenstein, and the other of ten thousand 
men, under General Kinmayer; exclusive of 



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HiarOfST OF TRK WARS, &C. 



105 



the partisan coi^ ami the landwehr, or .militia^ 
and by which tlie force at the disposal of the 
conimaDder-in* chief, was swelled to fourhan- 
dred thousand men. 

The force on wfaic^i Bonaparte principally 
relied at the oonmiencenient of the war^ consist- 
«d of the troops of BaTaria, Wirt^mburg, 
Baxony, and the otfa^ contingents from the 
confederation of the Rhine. The BaTarians 
were formed into three divisions, under the Duke 
of Dantzic, to whom the temporary <iommandof 
tiie allied troops was confided till the arrival of 
Bonaparte, in the mean time, the whole of the 
north and west of Germany, and the interior of 
France, were stripped of troops, which proceed- 
ed by rapid marches towards the banks of the 
DaBube. Ob the side of Italy, Prince Eugene, 
the Viceroy of that country, had concentrated a 
formidable army ; and the Saxon troops, under 
the Prince of Ponte Corvo, were stationed in 
the ntigfabouriiood of Dresden, to protect thai 
oapital from the Austrian army in Bohemia. 

Before the actual commencement of hostili- 
ties, the Arehdnke Gharies issued a prochlma* 
tioli of war, in the form of an address to his 
.soldiers, by which they were informed, that the 
protection of their country demanded their ser^* 
vices, and summoned them to new scenes of 
^honour and glory. On the 0th of April, the 
archduke, having established bis head-quartera 
at Dintz, in the archduchy of Austria, sent 
formal notice to 4ho French general cominsBd- 
ing in Bavaria, Aat he bad received orders from 
his august brother, the Emperor Francis, to 
advance with the troops under bis command^ 
and io treat as enemies all who should oppose 
him. This notice served as an intimation to 
the King of Bavaria, who, quitting his capital, 
repaired to Augsburg. On the following day the 
Austrians threw a bridge of boats over the Inn^ 
between Brannau and Scharding, and after 
Crossing that river, advanced slowly into Bavaria. 

On the 13th Bonaparte learned bv the tele* 
graph, that the Audtrians had crossed the Inn ; 
and in the evening of that day he quitttid Paris, 
and arrived at Donawarth oil the 17th; from which 
place he rc(pioved his head-quarters to Ingolstadt. 
On the lOih the Duke of Aucnrstadt Mvanced 
to the village of Plressiag, where he met a divl- 
rion of the Austrian army ; and an engafrement 
immediately took place, which endM in the 
defeat of the latter. On the same day another 
French corps attacked an Austrian division in 
front, while the Bavarian troops, under the com- 
mand of the Duke of Dantsic, fell upon thrir 
rear, and completed their rouC. These nartial and 
inrignifieaat attacks W^re made by tiie French 
reaerals, apparently for the fiurpose of prepar- 
Sig the way for a general isngagemeat, and to 
trj the steadiness and courage ol thdr Gemaa 

VOIm tl* — KO. 4>« 



allies. Bonaparte, during the few days he had BOOR IT. 
passed with the army, had made himself com- ■■ 

plelely acquainted with its positions ; and had so Chap. IX. 
tar ascertamed the situation of the country, as ^*^*v-^-^ 
to be able to take advantage of the errors of his ^^^ 
enemy. The Archduke Louis and General Kel- 
ler had very imprudently drawn their divisions to 
so great a distance from the other corps of the 
Austrian army, as at once to present a weak 
point of attack to the French, and to expose the 
troops under the Archduke Charles to disorder 
or destruction. Bonaparte, perceiving this 
mistake, resolved to {M^^fit by it, and immedi- 
ately attacked the archduke in front at Bbens- 
berg. A brigade of light infantry, two bat- 
talions of horse artillery, and nearly the whole 
of the cavalry, commenced the attack : the Aus^ 
trians having \aken up their position on broken 
and iaterseoted grdund, wore quickly dislodged ; 
the infantry, cUeflv composed of the troops of 
Wirtemburg aiid Bavaria, formed ill column ;. 
and the Austrians, compelled to fitU back, retreat- 
^ in all directions, and in extreme disorder, 
before the rictorious confederates, who, in this 
battle, took^ eight standards,, twdve pieoes of 
cannon, and eight thousand prisoners. 

The ihank of the Austrian army having been 
completely laid open by the battle of Ebensberg, 
Bonaparte lost not a moment in advimcing ta 
Laadshut. The Austrian cavalry, wUeh had 
formed before the dty, was attadced and driveti 
back bv the Duko of Istria; the saiim fata 
awaited the infantry -, and the town, with thirtv 
pieoes of cannon, nine thousand prisoners, ana 
ail the magaaines established at tliat plaloe, fell 
hrto thehands of ilh enemy. 

At twd o'clock in the afternoon of the S9d, 
Bonaparte arrived opposite Eckmuhl, where 
foor corps of tho-' Austrians, amounting to one 
hundred and ten thousand men, under the im« 
mediate command of the Archduke Charles, 
were already posted. Never before had these 
chiefs been opposed to each other, and aa 
neither of than had ever yet exp^rienoed a 
defeat, the uUaost oonfidenee reigned in their 
respective armies. Bonaparte's military eye 
iamnediately perceived that the left wing of 
the Austrian army was disadvantageously post« 
ed. This wing he ordered the Duke of Monta* 
bello to attack, wUle the front of the Aus^ 
trians was opposed by the main bodv of the 
French. The contest was long and obstinate, 
but at the dose of the day, the left wing of 
the archduke's army was turned, and beinff 
driven from all his positions, he was compdied 
to retreat. A large nody of the Austrians, en* 
deavonring to nitte a stand, under the covert 
of the woodil m the ndghbottrfaood of Ratio* 
boa, were driven iuto the plain, and suftrod 
dreadfully fioai tim Vrmck oavabrj. Aa 
D» 



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nierroRY ov^ths wars 



Chap. IX. 
1809 



BiOOK IV. attempt .to cover the retreat of the main body 
of the army by the cayalry, was equally un* 
sQocessful; the coTering corps were atacked 
OB both wings, but alter maintaiiiing their 
ground for* a considerable length of time, 
they were at length obliged to give way, and 
to seek their safety in flight. The Ardidoke 
Charies narrowly escaped being taken prisoner, 
and it was entirely owing to the fleetness of his 
horse that the Austrian commander in person did 
not serve to swell the trophies of the enemy. 

Under cover of the darkness of the night, 
the broken and discomfited divisions of the 
Austrian army collected at Ratisbon. At this 
place they endeavoured to make a stand ; but 
after three successive charges, they gave way, 
leaving the field covered with eight thousand 
of their slain. The French trojps, following 
up their successes, entered the citj^through a 
breach in the fortifications ; here a sanguinary 
engagement took place, in which six Austrian 
regiments were either cut to pieces or taken 
prisoners; and the remainder, not having had 
time to break down the bridge, were closely 

Crsned to the left, bank of the Rhine. In these 
tUes, Bonaparte pursued his usual plan, of 
breaking the enemy^s forces into detached parts, 
and then attadking them separately; and the 
Austrians, uninstructed by experience, had so 
disp€«ed dieir troops as to favour his opera* 
tions. At Ebensberg, the two divisions of the 
Ardiduke Louis and General Keller were 
beat separately ; atLandshut, Bonaparte broke 
through the centre <tf their communications, and 
took their magaaines and artillery ; and in the 
battle of Gckmuhl,.he defc-ated die reinuniog 
divi^ons of Ae Austrian army of the Danube, 
except that of General Bellegarde, which did 
not join the archduke till the day after his dis- 
aster. In the battles of Eckmuhl and Ratisbon 
the French army took upwards of twenty thou* 
sand prisoners, and the greater part of the 
Austrian artillery ; and in the short space of 
five days, . the Austrians had lost forty thousand 
nien, and one hundred pieces of cannon. 

The defeat of the Austrian armies had laid 
open their cafutal to the invaders, and on the 
10th of May, Bonaparte, without encountering 
any formidable resistance in his way from Ratis-* 
bon, appeared before the gates of Vienna. The 
^Nshdute Maximilian, to whcnn the command of 
the city ^as intrusted, animated and encouraged 
the citizens to resistance, as long as the imper-» 
feet nature of the fortifioations, and their un^ 



skQfulness in the art of war, would permit. For 
four and twmity hours the French howttsers 
played upon the town ;. their fire, though des* 
tractive, did not shake the constancy of the 
inhabitants. When, however, the enemy had 
succeeded in crossing the smaller branches of 
the Danube, by means of the numerous craft 
which are constandy on that river, and when the 
communication vdth the left bank was on the 
point of being cut off, surrender became indis- 
pensable, and the regular troops, amounting to 
about four thousand, effected their retreat by 
means of the great bridge of Taba, to which they 
soon afterwards set fire. The emperor, in antici^ 
nation of the advance of the Frendi to Vienna^ 
had quitted that city soon after the defeat of the 
archduke, and had taken up his abode at Znaim 
in Moravia. After the battle of Edonuhl, the 
Archduke Charles crossed to the north side of 
the Danube, and retreating in the direction of 
Bohemia, attempted to gain the capital by 
forced marches b^ore the arrival of the French. 
But the capture of Vienna was an object of too 
much importance not to be aimed at by Bona- 

Sarte with all his powers, and when the arcli-> 
uke had advanced to Meissau, and before ha 
could form a junction with General Keller, ha 
learned, to his extreme mortification, that tho 
Archduke Maximilian had been obliged to capi^ 
tttlate with the French for the surrender of tAa 
city^ Deprived by this capture of a point of 
support for the operations of his army, the arch-^ 
duKc fixed his head-quarters on the 16th of May 
at Enzersdorf, the chain of his out-posts extend- 
ing on tile right as far as Krems, while Pres^ 
biurg, lower down the river, was occupied by his 
\eii. The advanced guards were at the same 
time pushed forward on^ the banks of the 
Danube, and the cavalry was posted on the mar** 
gin of a small rivulet, on ground covered and 
partly concealed by bushes. 

Bonaparte lost not a moment in forming the, 
determination to attack the Archduke Charles in 
his new position, and for this purpose the 
French army was marched down the south bank 
of the river to Ebersdorf, where two islands of 
unequal dimensions divide the river into three 
branches, of the average breadth of about two 
hundred yards.* On the IQthof May the French 
engineers threw two bridges from the right 
bankf of the Danube to the smaller island ; and 
.on the 20th two other bridges were ejected from 
that island to the Isle of In-der-LoBau,t which 
forms a convenient irendezvous for troops, an4 



* See Shslch it pair^ 1 II. 
t It win always be ahdersfeood that the H0hi of a riTer is the bank to the ri^bt of any bod^ ioating down its streami 
sad as the Danube rnea iu Baabia, and passing Tienna eastward, emp>tiea. itself into^hji 9huJc Seft, the bank occupied ajl 
this tim« by t)^ Freneh was the ngbt, and that/ooDupied by tlie Austrians the left of,t|ie riTer. 

f . 4 Is-decil^batt is about eight Eii^Usb piUet in length, and foHT in br^ 



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OF THE FRENCH REVOLDtlON. 107 

vrfaere Bonaparte fixed Mm tiead-auarters. In the upper part of the YiUage, and maintained fiOOKIY^. 

three houra, a bridge, oonaiatang of fifteen pen- its position daring the whole of the first day's '--"** 

toons, was thrown OTer that am of the rirer eomhat. In the mean time, the enemy, having ^^ap. JX. 

which separates Lobau from the Marsh Field, formed his left towards Asjpem, and his right ^oa^ 

and the archduke, having formed the resolation towards Essling, advanced in columns upon the ^^^ 

not to interrupt' the passage of the' enemy, they main body of the Austrian army, suppmted by 

were permitted to extend themselves along the a heavy cannonade. The cavalry, unable to 

left bank of the river without molestation. Bo- withstand the . impetuosity of this shock, feU 

oaperte was accordingly left at liberty to fix on back in disorder ; but the infantry, having 

the field of battle, and he immediately deter* reserved their fire till the French had advanc- 

rained to post the right wtn§^ of his army on the ed within ten p%ces, - opened upon them with 

Tillage of Essling, and the l^ on the neighbour* so much eflfect as to put them completely to 

ipg village of Aspern. rout. The Austrian line, thus disengaged l'r<»n 

On the filst, at* day-break, the Ardiduke Ae enemy, obtained possession of the remainder 

Charles formed his army in two lines on the of the village of Aspern, and maintained their 

rising ground behind G^erasdorf, near the Bisam- ground in the face of all opposition. 

Hill. Between the Austrian army and the The third cirfumn endeavoured to take 

Danube was an extensive plain, which, from the advantage of the rout of the enemy, by ad** 

even and unobstructed nature of its surface, ap- vaacing against than in close battalion, sup- 

peared destined to become the theatre of a •ported by their artillery; but the French 

general engagement. The Ardbduke Charles, cavalry, commanded by Lassalle, suddenly, 

having duly considered the advantageoas posi- rushed forward, in such numbers, and with 

ticm of the French army, and the difficulties he so much rapidity, that the Austrian artillery 

had to surmount, ordered the attack to be made narrowly escap^ falling into their hands, and 

in five ooluBins. the battalions were left to defend themselves 

.. / > by their own unsupported exertions. The ene* 

Thc^lstcQl coDiuctiNl of 10 liatt. and 22 i^uadromu ^y^g cavalry had succeeded in turning both 

3d* !!!!!!!!!"!.!!!.!!!!!!. 22 !'.'...//.'..J*!!'. 8 *'** wings of this column, and in the confi- 

4th/'.!!!.!.!.'.!..!!!!.!].!! 13 !!!!.!!!.["!!!. S ' dence of victory had summoned them to lay 

GAj • .«... 13 6' down their arms. This degrading proposal 

The <HMri>0 of cavaky,. — 78 was answered by a steady and weli-directed 

of grenadiers, „> 16 « .^^ ^ g^^^ ^^^ y^^ enemy was ultimately compelled 

103 battalions. 138 sqnadrong. *® abandon bis object, leaving the field covered 

Sr^^S^^^^^^^^^ ''!' Thl Sh and fifth columns of ike Aus. 

tion, ami eleven of horse artillery; in the aggregate two ^^ <urmy ^^1*^ directed to dnve the French 

hsndmdandeigfatypieoesof ordnance of different calihret. OUt of the village of Essling, a position of as 

much importance to the right of the enemy as 

The possession of Aspern was essratially Aspern was to his left. H^e the French 

necessary, in order to enable the Austrian fought with still greater obstinacy and courage 

artiUery to play with efiect upon the centre of than they had msplayed in the defence of 

the enemy's lines, and the army being put into Aspern ; the safety of their retreat depended 

motion exactly at twelve o'clock, the first and upon the possession of this village, and although 

second columns were ordered to attack that the Austrians succc^ed in driving back £e 

village. The contest here was most obstinate corps which were posted in front of the ene- 

and murderous: in every street, every house, my^s position, all their efibrts to dislodge them 

Uttd every outbuilding, the . battle raged with proved ineflfectual, and at the close of this 

nnexw^ed fury; every wall was an impedi? day's engagement, the village of Essling re-- 

ment to the assailants, and a rampart for the mained in possession of the French. The bat* 

aUacked; the steeple, attics, and cellars, were tie of the Sist was terminated onlv by the 

to be conquered before either party could style, night : the French had been driven from 

himself noaster of the place ; and for seven hours Aspern, but they still retained possession of 

the conflict continuea, each army rivalling the Essling. New eflforts were to be expeqted the 

other in cpurage and ^severance. Scarcely following day ; Napoleon's glory, as well as the 

had the Austrians succeeded in gaining poa* existence of his army, was at stake, and the 

sessipn pf 9m part of the village, when the fate of tlie Austrian Monarchy was suspended 

French poured . in strong reinforcements, and upon the success of the army under the arch-> 

dislodged them at wotlier ; at length, the second 4uke. All the disposable troops in Vieniia, unde^ 

xolumn, combining its movements and attacks General Oudtnot, were, during the night, tran^^ 

with those of the first^ made itself master of ported across the Danube, in order to reinforce 

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BOOR IV, the French army; whUe the grenadier oorps, 
*—-—*—- whioh had not had any shore* in the first day's 
CoAP. IX. engagementy was ordered lo advance from its 
^>'^^^>^^^^ position near Gbrasdorf^ to reinforce ttie Aua- 
1809 tiions, and tbm nigbt was too short to complete 
their respective preparations for the second day's 
tragedy* The ohuracter of Bonaparte left no 
doubt, that on the morrow all his military talents 
would be stretched to retrieve the glory he had 
lost, and to compensate for the disapDointment 
he had sustained. During the battle oi the ftlst, 
the archduke had ordered fire-ships to be sent 
down the river^ and these vessels had been so 
well managed and directed, that the two bridges 
which connected the island of Lobau with the 
small island, and that island with the southern 
kmk itf the Danube, were destroyed. By the 
destmoUm of the bridges BonHparte was ren* . 
dered less able to repair the disasters and losses 
he had sustained ; and in case the battJe of the 
nueeeeding day should prove decidedly adverse, 
his retreat, it was apprehended, wookl be eom-> 
wietely cut ofll In this point of view, the bum- 
mg down of the bridgw might^ justly be oonsU 
dared as highly advantageous to the Austrians ; 
but on the other hand, it led the archduke to* ex* 
pact a most obstinate defence from an army 
placed in such a situatiea of peril. 

At four o*cbck in the morning of the 
ttd the battle ve-commenced^ and the Duke of 
Rivoli again possessed himself of the village* 
of Aspem* The regiments of Kldl>eck were now 
directed to make another effort to r^^n the vil- 
lage ; but after a desperate contest, carried on 
far upwards of an hour in Ae midst of confia- 
grations, the Austrians were at length obliged 
to give way. The regiment of Benjowsky now 
rushed in, and at the first onset gamed posses- 
sion of the church-yard, the walls of which were 
immediately destroyed, by order of Gen»>al 
HiUer, and the church, and the parsonage-house^ 
soon after shared Um same fate. This regiment, 
supported by some battalions undM* General 
Bianchi, succeeded in establishing itself at the 
entrance of the village; and maintained this 
position agafaist the repeated attadu of the 
low^ of tlie French army. The Arcbduke 
Charles was now enabled to act on the offen-^ 
Mve ; the oorps i^ the Austrian Qenenl Bdle- 
gafde> havuig its right wing resting on Aspem, 
and its centre and left towards Essling, by 
degrees gained the right flank of tiie enemy ; 
wlule the artillery, stationed near the former 
village in such a manner as to command the 
intervening space, was brought to bear on his 
kft flank: thus attacked and exposed, the 
Frendi army vras compelled to give way, and 
Mire lowank the Danube. While the division 
•f Count Bdlegardo was ougaged at Aspem, 



the Freach cavalry, by a desperate eSNrt. en- 
deavoured to break in between the Ausiriao 
cavalry, commanded by Prince Leiohiensiein, 
and the left vmg of the Prince of UoiietiKoHerOb 
Here the Arebduko Charles .partieularly distin- 

Iuiahed himOelf: the battalion of Zach seeming 
isposed to give way» lie seized its xrolours^ 
plaeed himself at its head, and inspired the 
whole army with the same ^ithusiasm with 
which be himself was animated. In the midst 
of this attack by the French cavalry, the Prince 
Hohenxollem, perceived on his left wing, near 
Essling, an opening in the French line, formed 
during the heat of the engagement : of this cir- 
cumstance he immediately took advantage, by 
ordering thidier a regiment in three divisions^ 
whith succeeded in gaining and maintaining; 
their position uU the- arrival of the groiadiem 
of reserve^ by whose co-operation they wer» 
enabled to turn and attack the centre of the 
enemy; The only post which the French were 
now aUe to maintain was the village of Es^n(f ^ 
which was attacked by Prince Rosenberg, and 
defended by the Duke of MontebeUo. The 
attack was made with redoubled bravervt oud 
the Austrians pushed into the village with irre- 
rfstible impetuosity ; still, however, they found 
it impossible to maintain this post. Five times 
did these gallant troojis rush up to the houses 
burning within, and placed in a state of do*, 
fence; but all their eiibrts were fruitless, for' 
their antagonists fought the fight of despair. 

In the night between the 22d and the 23d 
the French accomplished their retreat to Lobau^ 
and at three o^cIock in the morning their rear- 
guard evacuated Essling, and all we positiona 
they had held on the left bank of the Danube. 
Thus terminated a conflict of two days, which 
will ever be meoMrable in the militaiy annals 
of the world. In thas dreadful battle the kri)s <tf 
the enemy was prodigious ; it can only be ac- 
counted for by the eflect of the concentric fire 
on an exceedingly confined field of battle, where^ 
two hundred pieces of cannon crossed one 
another; and calculated by the fd'lowing 
authentic data : the Duke of MontebellO) Qe- 
neralsd^Bspagne, St. Hilaire, and Alboqnerque^ 
were killed ; Massena, Bessiires, Molitor, Bon* 
det, L^and, LassaUe, and the two hrotters 
Legrange, were wounded; and Generals Du- 
rosnel and Fouler made prisoners. Upwards 
of 7,000 men, and an immense number irf Wves, 
were buried on the field of battle ; upwarda rf 
S,000 were conveyed to the Auitrian bbq>itals ; 
and in Vienna and the suburiM there wd^ 89,77S 
wounded, exclusive of 8,M0 who vrere taken 
prisoners. The burying of the s u ll fe rer s was 
continued for several days, and in the figutative 
luffuage of the Austriaa gunettci <^ a pestilent 



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OF TVIE FRENCH llEVOLOIION 



109 



tial air was wafled down the theatre of death.''* 
The loss of the Anstrians was ahH> very ^reat: 
their official aeoomits acknowledged the deatli 
of eighty-seven daperior officers^ and of up- 
wards of fomr thousand subalterns and privates ; 
and twelve of their generals, six hundred and 
sixty 'three officer^, iind - fifteen thousand six 
hundred mibaltem^and privates, were wounded. 

In detailing th^ events of the battle of 
Aspern^ and fn estimating the loss of ttie re- 
spective armies, our information has been prin- 
cipally drawn from the official documents pub- 
hshed hj the Austrian government ; but candour 
demands the acknowledgment, that these accounts 
are at variance with the French bulletins in 
many important particulars. According to the 
tenth bulletin, " the Austrian army, having 
sustained a defeat on the 31st, was on the point 
of being destroyed, when, at seven o'clock rrr 
the morning of the 23d, nn aide-de-camp of the 
Emperor Napoleon came to inform him, that a 
sudden rise in the Danube had set afloat a 
great number -of trees, which were cut down 
during the late events at Vienna, and that the 
bridges, which formed the communication be- 
tween the right bank and the little island and 
that of In-der-Lobau, had thereby been carried 
away. All the reserve park of artillery, which 
were advancing, were, by the loss of the bridges, 
detained on the right bank of the river, as was 
also a part of the heavy cavalry, and the whole* 
of the Duke of Auerstadt's corps. Thit dread- 
ful accident induced the emperor to put a stop 

to the movements in advance." " The Aus- 

triansy having learned that the bridges were 
thrown down, recovered from tlie frightful state 
of disorder into which they had been thrown ; 
and from nine o'clock in the morning till seven 
in the evening they made the most astonishing 
exertions, supported by the fire of two hundred 
pieces of cannon, to throw the French army into 
disorder; but all their efforts tended to their 
own disgrace ; and after discharging forty thou- 
sand cannon shot, they were obliged to return 
to their old position, leaving the French masters 
of the field. The loss of the Austrians was very 
great ; it was estimated that they left more than 
twelve thousand dead upon the field. The 
French loss was also considerable, they had 
eleven hundred killed, and three thousand 
wounded." t 

It is difficult to decide between the con- 
flicting statements^, at what period, or ^by what 
means, the bridges were thrown down ; but it 



is perfectly clear, from their own accounts, (hat l^OOK l\ . 
the loss of the French was infinitely greater than " ^ 
they acknowledged. For ten hours the French l^'J^ 
army was retrealing, and consequently in a dis- ^^^aa 
advantageous situsitidd, *arid'durinij this time 
they were exposed to the fire of two hundred 
cannon, Irom which forty thousand shot were 
discharged, and by which an immense slaughter 
must have been infiicted. In ihe short demi- 
official accounts published by the Austrians Im- 
mediately after the battle of Aspern, it was un- 
equivocally and triumphantly declared, that the 
ruin of Bonaparte was complete ; but the event 
proved the fallacy of these expeclatious ; and the 
state of inaction into which the army of the 
archduke was isofi^^ed to fall after the 22d, too 
plainly indicated, that he had failed in his "prin- 
cipal object," which Was to " drive back the 
enemy entirely over the first arms of tlie Dan^be^ 
destroy the bridges he had thrown over them, 
and occupy the bank of the Lobau with a numer- 
ous artillery."! 

While the hostile armies are reposing after 
their sanguinary labours, busied in repairing 
their mutual losses, and in preparing for future 
combats, the attention of the reader may with 
propriety be directed to the operations of the 
subordinate armies in other parts of Germany, 
and in Poland and Italy : On the I5th of April 
the Archduke Ferdinand, who commanded the 
Austrian army in Poland, crossed the Perica, 
and entered the duchy of Warsaw. The Polisli 
General, Prince Poniatowski, being much inferior 
in strength, retreated before the archduke, and 
Warsaw was occupied by the Austrians. This 
city they continued to occupy, as well as the 
surrounding duchy, till the disasters experienced 
by the main army, under the Archduke. Charles, 
rendered it expedient, tliat, foregoing all subor- 
dinate objects,, they, should march to join their 
.countrymen on the Danube, and contribute, if 
possible, to sustain the declining interests of 
the monarchy. At the beginning of the month 
of June the grand duchy was accordingly aban- 
doned by the Austrians, while the Russian and 
Polish armies, in the service of France, occu- 
pied nearly tlie whole of Galicia. 

The King of Saxony, having been com- 
pelled, like the other tributary princes of Bo- 
naparte, to take up arms against Austria, soon 
found himself stripped of a great part of his 
dominions, and forced to abandon his capital. 
The Austrians, possessing a powerful army in that 
quarter — more powerfid indeed than appeared 



* Supplement to tUe London Gazette of the llth of July, 1809. 
t Tentli Bulletin of the French army, dated EbersdorfT, May 23, 180». 

X 8ee the plan of the attack published by Uie Archduke Charles on the morning of the 21st <>f May.. 
VOL. II. — NO. 45. K E 



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110 



HISTORY OF THE WARS 



BOOK IV. either necessary or advisable^ when it is con- 

sidered that the main prize was to be contended 

Chap. 1X« for on the banlts of the Danube, not only ob- 
^^^'v'^^^ tained possession of Dresden and Leipsic, but 
1809 even threatened the newly formed kingdom of 
Westphalia. The war in thb part of Uermany 
was attended with various success, but the 
operations do not, from their general character, 
claim any particular or detailed narration. A 
most formidable insurrection sprang up in Sax- 
ony, Westphalia, and Hanover, which, if it had 
been cherished and directed by the support and 
skill either of the British or the Austrians, would 
have rendered the situation of Bonaparte dan- 
gerous and critical in the entreme. Unfortun- 
ately, howQve|^ no such aid lyas afforded to the 
insurgents^ so that, after having harassed the 
French, and prevented tha march of troops to 
the Danube, they were at last crushed by supe- 
rior numbers and discipline. At the head of 
these psuiisans appeared two men, well calculated 
by their characters, their talents, and their influ- 
ence, to collect and to animate their followers. 
Scliill, a Major in the Prussian service^ filled 
witli a strong and influential detestation of Bo- 
naparte, found no difficulty in rousing the inha- 
bitants of a conquered country ; and although it 
does not appear that the corps which this oflicer 
commanded was at any time very numerous; 
yet it was formidable to the enemy by the rapidity 
of its movements, by its sudden and unexpected 
appearance, and by the countenance it afforded 
to the discontented inhabitants. After travers- 
ing the whole of the north of Germany in dif- 
ferent directions, and perplexing apd defeating 
the troops that were opposed to him, Schill was 
at length compelled, from the want of co-opera- 
tion, and the pressure of superior numbers, to 
take shelter in Stralsund. Before be had re- 
course to this measure, he had made himself 
master of the whole of Mecklenburg, where he 
liad levied very heavy contributions, and raised 
a great number of recruits. A strong bodv of 
Dutch troops, with a eolumn of fifteen hundred 
Danes, pursued him to Stralsund ; in this place, 
ulthou^n deprived of its fortifications, Schill 
had, with incredible industry, perseverance, and 
skill, made very formidable preparations to de- 
fend himself, and resist the attacks of his 
enemies; but after an obstinate resistance the 
town was forced ; the insurgents were driven 
fWun their guns, and the enemy gained possession 
of streets, filled with the bodies of dead men, who 
merited a better fate« Schill, and twenty of his 
ofiicers were killed ; and such of his oificers as 
were taken prisoners were tried and executed as 
deserters from the service of the king of Prussia. 
Tl)e Duke of Brunswick Dels, though in his 
own person less unfortunate than Schill, did not 
effiw^^t by his army any thing more decisively or 



permanently beneficial to the cause of Cvermaay^ 
The duke did, indeed, for some time distract 
the attention of the French, and occnpy some of 
the troops destined to reinforce the army under 
Bonaparte ; but he was at length compeiled to 
seek for safety in flight, and sncoeeded in em* 
barking with his little corps for England. 

The operations and movements of the hos* 
tile armies in Italy were more important than 
those of the armies in Poland or in the north oi 
Germany. At the Jieginning of the campaign in 
Italy, the Austrians were eminently successful ; 
they soon made themselves masters of Padua 
and Vicenza, crossed the Adige, and threatened 
Venice itself. But the victories of Bonaparte in 
Bavaria rendered it advisable for the Archduke 
John, who commanded the Austrian army in 
Italy, to measure back his steps* To this deter- 
mination he was also probably in some degree 
led, by the reinforcement of ten thousand men^ 
which the Viceroy of Italy, Prince £ugiene, re- 
ceived from Tuscany. Thus reinforced, the 
French army of Italy retook Padua and Vicenza, 
and attacked and overthrew the Austrians be- 
yond the Piave, with the loss of sixteen pieces of 
cannon, and four thousand prisoners. A few 
days after this engagement the French crossed 
the Tagliamento, and after a few partial skir- 
mishes, inflicted another defeat upon the Aus- 
trian army at Tarvis. Advancing tovirards 
Vienna in their victorious career,, the French 
were eaabled, on the anniversary of the battle 
of Marengo, to bring the Archduke John to 
another engagement at Raab. Victory was for 
a long time doubtful, but that part of the arch- 
duke's army which - consisted of the raw. and 
undisciplined troops of the Hungarian insurrec- 
tion, at length gave way, and six pieces of can- 
non, four stancbrds, and three thousand pri- 
soners, fell into the hands of the French^ Aftei; 
this engagement, the Archduke John retreated 
with considerable rapidity, and in some disorder^ 
towards Pest, for the purpose of forming a junc- 
tion with the main Austrian army.. After the 
battle of Raab, the Viceroy of Italy advanced 
without impediment to the Austrian capital, and 
by the addition of the force under his command^ 
served to swell the number of combatants in the 
approacliing great and decisive battle of Wagram« 
From the day of the battle of ^ifci^ till the 
end of the first week in July, Bo^^sucfe con- 
tinued stationary on the south -J^iUc of the 
Danube ; but though stationary, be' was by no 
iiE|eans inactive. That he ^^^SSRP^ ^^ ^^^ 
his own situation, and from t^^B»cts which his 
repulse might have on the contil^t, was abun- 
dantly evident. Scarcely a day passed without 
producing a bulletin, the Ostensible object of 
which was to register the rise and the fall of the 
Danuhe, and to congratulate his army on th^ 



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OF THB FRENCH REVOLUTION. 



Ill 



approach of the Rassians, and the junction of 
the troops under the Viceroy of Italy. But 
amidst all this seeming trifling and gasconadci 
Bonaparte was making the most formidable pre- 
parations, not merely to protect himself against 
an attack from the Archduke Charles, but also 
to enable him to resume offensive operations in 
such a manner as mi§^t secure success. The 
construction of the bridges over the Danube ytbs 
intrusted to General Count Bertrand. In the 
short space of a fortnight, this engineer raised a 
bridge of sixty arches to In-der-Lobau, so broad 
that three carriages could pass abreast, over 
four hundred fa&oms of a rapid river.* A 
second bridge, eight feet broad, was constructed 
for infantry.f These bridges were secured 
against the effects of fire-smps by stuccadoes, 
raised on piles between the islands in different 
directions, and an armed flotilla cruised upon 
the river to defend these various and eopious 
sources of communication. Each of the bridges 
was covered and protected by a tete-du-pontj a 
hundred and sixty fathoms lo n?, surrounded by 
palisades, frizes, and ditcher filled with water ; 
and magazines of provisions, a hundred pieces of 



were stationed on BOOK IV. 



cannon, and twenty mortars, 

Ae island. Opposite Essling, on the Irft arm of 

the Danube, another bridge was formed br the Chap. 
Duke of Rivoli, guarded in like manner by a ^ 
tSte-du-pont.X At this time the Austrian army 
was strongly intrenched on die north bank of the 
Danube ; the left wing stretching towards En- 
zersdorf, and the right resting on the village of 
Aspem, which was surrounded with field fortifi-« 
cations, for the purpose of opposing the passage 
of the river. 

While Bonaparte was thus engaged in for- 
tifying his positions. And in preparing such 
stupendous means for crossing the Danube, the 
Archduke Charles had not only raised works and 
planted cannon to secure himself against an 
attack, but he had also drawn from Germany, 
Poland, and Hungary, immense reinforcements^ 
It is not easy to calculate exactly the number of 
troops in either anny, but at a fair estimation 
they may be taken at 150,000 men each. As the 
principial means of passing the Danube had been 
formed directly opposite to the Austrian re- 
doubts, between Aspem and Essling, the atten- 
tion of the Archduke Charles was in a great 



IX. 



1800 



SKETCH 

illusthative of the battles of aspehn and waoham. 



iJmiiiiWfJ' * 



• Wagntm 



Batimrrtdnrf • 






■ Rtiihhrf 



Ubir Skbfnhrwmt 




« ftl^rked li the Sketch (a a.} 



t Harked r^&J 



{ Marked (c) 



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K 



iia 



HISTORY OP THE WARS 



1800 



BOOK IV. measure oonfined to this pouit. But the object 

of Bonaparte in making so much parade about 

Chap. IX. this bridge, was to divert the attention of the 
archduke, and by no means to cross the river in 
the face of the enemy's most formidable position. 
On the 4th of July, at ten o*clodc at night, 
General Oudinot, with 1,500 voltigenrs, em- 
bari^d in ten gun-boats on the great arm of the 
Danube, and crossed the river opposite M uhl- 
leiten. During the night four new bridges were 
completed ;* one of them, in a single piece 
eighty toises long, was fixed in less than five 
minutes, and the three others consisted of boats 
and rafts tlirown over the river. The night 
was unusually, dark, the rain fell in torrents, and 
the violence of the storm favoured the operations 
of the enemy. At two o'clock in the morning 
of the 5di the whole French army had crossra 
the Danube, the corps of the Duke of Rivoli 
forming the left ; that of Count Oudinot the 
centre ; and tliat of the Duke of Auorstadt the 
riffht. At day-break they were arranged in order 
of battle at the extremity of the left flank of the 
Austrians. The Archduke Charles was thus 
completely out-generaled ; his works were ren- 
dered useless, and he was compelled to abandon 
his positions, and to fight the enemy on the spot 
chosen by themselves. At five o'clock, three 
bodies of the French cavalry, and as many of 
infantry, with an immense quantity of ordnance, 
were seen defiling near Wittau. At six o'clock 
the enemy had surrounded and taken aU the 
Austrian fortifications between Essling* and 
Enzersdorf, and the garrisons of which were 
almost all either killed or wounded. The whole 
of the 5th was spent in manoeuvring, and dur- 
ing the night Bonaparte attempted to gain pos- 
session of the village of Wagram, but owing 
to the ffallant resistance of the Austrians, and 
to a column of Saxons and a column of French 
mistaking each other in the dark, the operation 
failed. 

A general engagement had now become 
inevitable, and at the dawn of the morning of 
the 6th, the two armies, each provided with up- 
wards of five hundred pieces of cannon, were 
drawn out for battle. The right of the Austrian 
army, under Marshal Klcnau, consisting of the 
third and sixth grenadier corps, extended from 
Sussenbrunn to the Danube; the left, com- 
manded by Prince Rosenberg, supported by 
Prince Hohenzollern, was stationed in the neigh- 
bourhood of Wagram ; and the centre, com- 
manded by Count Bellegarde, and supported 
by the reserve cavalry, under Prince Lichten- 
stein, was posted in front of Aderklaa. The 
left of the French army was commanded by the 
Prince of Ponte Corvo ; the right, by the Duke 



of Auerstadt ; and the centre, by Bonaparte in 
person. 

The arrangements of the two hostile com- 
manders were directly at variance with each 
other. Napoleon had passed the night in ac- 
cumulating a force to strengthen his centre, 
where heplaced himself in person within cannon^ 
shot of Wagram. The Archduke Charles, who 
was with t^e corps of Bellegarde, had on the 
contrary extended his flanks and weakened his 
centre. The corps of Prince Rosenberg, and 
that of the Duke of Auerstadt, moving in oppo- 
site directions, encountered each other in the 
morning, and gave the signal of battle. At this 
time the Austrians were preparing to make a 
storming attack upon Ober Siebenbrunn, when 
the Archduke Charles, perceiving that the right 
wing had not arrived, ordered the prince to halt^ 
and he was ultimately obliged to retire under a 
galling fire to his former position. This inau- 
spicious commencement of the battle was suc- 
ceeded by a vigorous attempt on the centre of 
the French lines at Raschdorf, where Napoleon, 
surrounded by sixty thousand men in close ofder« 
stood directing the op^ations of his army. The 
attempt to penetrate the French lines proving 
unsuccessful, two columns of infantry, protect- 
ed by a body of cavalry, advanced towards 
Adertlaa;. here the quantity of grape-shot 
poured in upon the Austrians became over- 
whelming, and a momentary panic seized the 
battalions under Marshal Bellegarde ; but, at 
length, the heroism and energy of the field 
officers succeeded in restoring order, and the 
enemy was driven at the point of the bayonet 
towards Aderklaa. The cannonade now became 
general along the whole line, and the effect of 
the injudicious dispositionsof the Austrian gene- 
ral, in weakening his centre, every moment mani- 
fested itself. Bonaparte, surprised at this 
manoeuvre, at first suspected some stratagem, 
but he was soon convinced that the Archduke 
Charles had committed a fatal error, of which he 
hastened to take advantage. With this view 
the Duke of Rivoli was ordered to attack the 
Austrians at the extremity of the centre, while 
the Duke of Auerstadt was directed first to turn 
the position of Mark Grafen Neusiedel, and 
then to push upon Wagram. The attack upon 
Mark Grafen was vigorous in the extreme, and 
Prince Rosenberg was, after a deperate resist- 
ance, obliged to evacuate that village. The 
success of the enemy in out-flanking the Aus** 
trians continued to increase ; and five battalions 
and one regiment of cavalry, sent by Prince 
Hohenzollern, were found incapable of arresting 
his operations. The tower of Neusiedel, built 
in ancient times to check the incursions of the 



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OF THE FRENCH BEVOLUTION. 



113 



Hungarians^ formed the key of this positioo, 
and was defended by Prince Rosenberg, with 
great gallantry and persererance ; but a concen^ 
trie discharge of grape-shot mowed down bis 
ranks with so much rapidity that he was at 
length obliged to give way, and to leave the 
French general in possession of the efninence. 
At the same moment that the attack upon Mark 
Chrafen was taking placc^ a furious eflfort was 
directed against the Austrian centre. Napoleon, 
acting upon the principle of all his former cam- 
paigns, ordered the centre of his army to form 
in two columns, supported by two batteries con- 
sisting of one hun<b^ and sixty pieces of artil- 
lery. As soon as these columns were formed 
General Macdonald advanced at their head at 
the pas de charge; General Reille, witiithebri- 

Side of fusileers and sharp-shooters, supported 
acdonald ; and to render the attack irresistible, 
the guards at tlie same time made an advance in, 
fnmt. The Austrian centre, incapable of with- 
standing this tremendous onset, fell back a 
league. The right, perceiving the dangerous 
position in which it was now placed, retreated 
aiong with the centre ; and the left, being out- 
flanked by the Duke of Auerstadt, fell back upon 
Wagram. At ten o'clock in the morning, it was 
clear, to a military eye, that the fate of the day 
was decided, and from that moment the Aus-. 
trians fought only to secure their retreat At 
noon the important positioa of Wagram was 
carried ; and the Archduke Charles, finding 
himself cut off from Hungary and Moravia, fell 
back upon Bohemia. At four o'clock in the 
afternoon, the Archduke John, at the head of 
his corps, arrived on the field of battle from 
^resburg, but the battle was then decided, and 
in the evening he retreated in the same direction 
in which he had advanced. 

This battle, fought in the vicinity of the 
Austrian capital, by three hundred thousand 
warriors, in the view of an equal number of 
spectators, decided the 'fate of Germany. The 
number of the slain was immense ; and ten pairs 
of colours, forty pieces of cannon, and twenty 
thousand prisoners, formed the trophies of the 
victory** The French, in estimating the loss of 
the Austrians, stated that the battle of Wagram 
had deprived them of sixty thousand soldiers ; 
and the Austrians, in their official returns, admit 
a loss, in killed, wounded, and prisoners, of up- 
wards of thirty thousand men.f The loss of 
the French^ was considerable ; in their own 
bulletins it was stated at fifteen hundred killed, 
and four thousand wounded ; but the Austrian 
accounts swell that number to twenty thousand. 



ISOflL 



One of the disastrous consequences of this BOOK. iV 

sanguinary day, was the destruction of twelve 

of ue most coiisiderable villages in the beautiful Csap. 1X« 
plain of Vienna, and Bonaparte, with his usual 
address, imputed these conflagrations to the 
guilty men who had drawn down upon their 
country all these calamities. 

The French, who lost no time in pursuing 
the Austrians, came up with the retreating anny 
on the 10th of July at Znaim ; here another 
battle was fought, which was terminated by a 
proposal from the Emperor Francis to conclude 
an armistice. On the I2th the armistice was 
signed, and the terms of this document too 
plainly indicated the extent of the Austrian 
losses, and the exhausted state of their resources. 
From causes which at the time were not under- 
stood, but which a subsequent matrimonial alli- 
ance tended in some degree to explain, the 
negociations for a definitive treaty ol peace be- 
tween France and Austria proceeaed very 
slowly, and were not finally closed till the 
month of October. When the terms of peace 
Were made known they were generally regarded 
as by no means unfavourable to Austria. The 
cessions made by the Emperor Francis were, 
however, very considerable, and may be com- 
prised under three heads: first, those to the 
sovereigns forming the Rhenish league gene- 
rally ; secondly, those to the French Emperor ; 
and thirdly, those to the King of Saxony. To 
the King of Bavaria was ceded Salzburg, and 
a portion of territory extending along the banks 
of the Danube, from'Passau to the vicinity of 
Lintz. To France, Austria gave up Fiume and 
Trieste, with the whole of the country to the 
south of the Saave, till that river enters Bosnia. 
The King of Saxony obtained several villages 
in Bohemia ; and in Poland, the whole of West* 
ern Galicia, from the frontiers of Silesia to the 
Bog, together with the city of Cracow, and a 
district round it in eastern Galicia. Russia ob- 
tained so much of this latter province as should 
contain four hundred thousand souls. With 
respect to external politics, the Emperor Francis 
agreed to acknowledge Joseph Bonaparte King 
of Spain ; to accede to the continental system ; 
and to break off all intercourse with Great Bri- 
tain. But the most morjtifying and humiliating 
condition of this treaty was that by wliich the 
Austrian Monarch ^ave up the inhabitants of 
the Tvrol to Bavana, with a provision indeed 
that Bonaparte should procure for them a c(«i- 
plete and full pardon. 

In every part of Germany peace was now 
established exeept in the Tyrol : the inhabitants 



* Titrenty-fiflh French BoUetin. 
t Miiller's Relation of the Operations of the Austrian and French armies in 1869. 



VdL, II. — NO. 45. 



Ff 



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HISTORY OF THE WARS 



BOOK 



Chap. 




IV of this coontry, though deserted and given up 
— hf that goYernmeDt in whose favour they had 



risen In arms, and to whom they had manifested 
an attachment unbroken by the most dreadfiil 
sacrifices and sufferings, still refused submission 
to the conquerors. Their resistance wa^ most 
formidable ; some of the most experienced gene- 
rals of Bons^arte, at the head of his best troops, 
were repeatedly defeated, and driven back with 
great loss, even aifter they had penetrated into 
the centre of the Tyrol. At the head of the 
mountaineers appeared a man worthy of being a 
leader among a nation of heroes. The brave 
Hoffer animated and directed the actions of his 
countrymen ; and before him, untutored as he 
was in the art of war, the experienced troops of 
Europe fled in dismay. In vain did Bonaparte 
pour m fresh forces, block up the passes of the 
mountains, and forbid all communication between 
the inhabitants and the neighbouring countries. 
All his schemes were foiled ; and if for a short 
time the Tyrolese fled before his armies, or ap- 
peared not to oppose their progress, it was only 
to attack them to more advantage in the passes 
of the mountains, or to fall upon them when they 
were unprepared. On the conquest of the coun- 
try, however, Bonaparte was determined, and 
at length he efiected his purpose, by pouring in 
•ontinued reinforcements, and by the capture 
and infamous execution of the gallant Hofier. 

While Bonaparte was at Vienna, and within 
a few days of the great battle of Aspem, when a 
less ambitious mind would have been solely fixed 
on military preparations, he caused proclama- 
tions to be made in the public squares and 
market-place of that city, that from the 1st of 
June the Papal territory should be united with 
the French empire ; and that Rome should at the 
same time be declared a free and imperial city. 
This decree, which fixed the annual revenue of 
the pope at two millions of francs, was grouiided 
on three propositions ; first, that the territories 
of Rome were fiefs bestowed by the Emperor 
Charlemagne, die predecessor of the Emperor 
Napoleon, on the Bishops of Rome, to maintain 
the peace of his subjects j second, that eve^ 
since that time the union of temporal and spi- 
ritual power has been, and still is, the source of 



dissension ; and third, that the teiDporat pre« 
tensions of the pope are irreconcileaUe with the 
security .of the French army, the repose and 
prosperity of the nations subject to the sway of 
Napoleon, and the dignity and inviolabilky of 
his empire. The pope solemnly .prolesied 
against the violence and injustice by whiclr he 
had been stripped of his temporal sovereignty ;. 
and at the same time issued an act of excommu- 
nication against the French Emperor, and all 
his co>operators in this act of unprovoked sp<dia- 
tion. But the thunders of the Vatican had tost 
their terrors ; and an act, which three centuries 
affo would have roused to arms all the states. of 
^rope, was now witnessed without one single 
effort on the part of the surrounding sovereigns 
to pluck the prey from the hands of the spoiler. '^ 
A rumour had for a long time prevailed, 
which, though it occasionally died away, was 
always revived after a short interval, that Na- 
poleon meant to divorce Josephine, for the pur^ 
pose of uniting himself with a younger and more 
noble bride. On the 16th of December, ibis 
design to dissolve his marriage was formally 
announced to the conservative senate ; and on 
the same day, the project of a decree was sub- 
mitted to that assembly, and before the sitting 
terminated, the law authorising the divorce was 
enacted. To witness these proceedings most of 
the relations of the emperor and empress were 
summoned to Paris. The arch-chancellor W4i$ 
ordered to attend in the grand cabinet of Napo- 
leon, where the Empress, the Kings of Holland, 
Wostplialia, and Naples ; the Viceroy of Italy ; * 
the Queens of Holland, Westphalia, and Spain ; 
Madame, the mother of Bonaparte; and the 
Princess Pauline, were assembled. The emperor 
explained to the assembly his views, and the 
motives by which he was actuated : and the em- 
press declared that she willingly consented to 
the divorce, in order to further the policy of the 
emperor and the interests of France. A proces 
verbal was then drawn up, which was signed by 
the kings, queens, princes, and princesses, pre* 
sent, as well as by the emperor and empress, 
and to which was annexed a decree, pronouncing 
the marriage contract between the Emperor Na- 
poleon and the Empress Josephine to be dis^ 



♦ ACT OF EXCOM»nJNICATION. 

** By the authority of God Almightj, and of St. Paul and St. Peter, we declare you, (Napoleon Bonaparte, Em- 
peror of France',) and all your co-operators in the act of Tiolence which you are executing, to have incurred the same ex- 
communication, which we, in our apostolic letters, contemporaneously affixing in the usual places of this city, declare to 
have been incurred by all tiiote who, on the riolent invasion of this city on the 2d of February, last year, were guilty of 
the acts of violence against which we have protested, as well really in so many declarations, that by our order have been 
issued by our successive secretaries of state, as also in two consistorial collocutlons, of the lOth of March, and the 1 1th of 
July, I8e8, in common with all their agents, abettors, advisers, and whoever else may have been aceesinry to, or himself 
been engaged in, the execution of those attempts. 

*' Given at Rome, Santa Maria Maggiore, June 10^ in the 10th year of our pontificate. 



(Locui SigniJ 



" PIUS PAPA vn/> 



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OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 



115 



solved.* This extraordinary ^ct, which was con- 
ducted with all the dignity and solemnity of 
which such a ceremony was capable^ served to 
elicit a secret article in the late treaty at Yiennay 
and paved the way to th^t imperial alliance, which, 
by raising Napoleon to a giddy eminence, laid 
the foundation of his final ruin. 

The afiairs of Sweden had now become des- 
perate ; Gustavus Adolphus IV. whose roman- 
tic character set at defiance all the ordinary 
calculations of prudence, had embarked his coun- 
try in a war to which its resources were totally 
inadequate. At th^ commencement of the con- 
test with Russia the Swedes had displayed traits 
of heroism that would have reflected honour 
on the army of Charles XII* But notwith- 
standing the liberal subsidy granted by Great 
Britain, and the gallant exploits of the English 
fleet in the Baltic, under Sir James Saumarez, 
neither the population nor the finances of Sweden 
were equal to the exigency of their present situa- 
tion. The progress of the Russians in Finland, 
and the increasing calamities of the war, aggra* 
Yated by the ravages of a contagious distemper, 
and the knowledge of the army that it was the 
fixed purpose of the king again to measure his 
strength against the empires of Russia and 
France, excited universal discontent ; and a 
confederacy was formed against Gustavus, which 
terminated in bis expulsion from the throne of 
his ancestors. This bloodless revolution, whidh 
took place on the lath of March, 1809, was 
eflTected without commotion, and the diet being 
assembled at Stoekholro, the Duke of Suder- 
mania, uncle to> the king, was declared regent, 
and was afterwards chosen king to the exclusion 
of his nephew. 



Charles XIII. on ascending the throne of BOOK IV^ 
Sweden, professed his determination not to con- *; ~- 
sent to any peace with Russia that should be ^^^^^* 
disgraceful to his country, or that should oblige ^[^jag • 
her to take up arms against her faithful ally ^^^ 
Great Britain. The war between Russia and 
Sweden was accordingly renewed, but misfortune 
still attended the SwecUsh armies, and peace waa 
at length purchased by the sacrHice of Finland* 
Soon after the conclusion of the treaty of peace 
with Russia, negociations were opened between 
Sweden and France, and on the 6th of January 
a treaty was concluded, by which Swedish 
Pomerania, with the principality of RUgen, was^ 
restored to Sweden ; the former commercial re-p 
lations between the two countries were revived ; 
and the Emperor Napoleon, acting upon his '* 

usual policy, prevailed upon his new ally ta 
adopt the continental system, and to exclude 
British commerce from the ports of the Baltic. 

The time had uow arrived when the efficacy 
of this system was to be fairly submitted to the 
test of experience : the ports of France, Italy^ 
Holland, Kussia, Germany, Denmark, and Swe- 
den, were all closed by law against the intro^ 
duction of English manufactures and merchaa* 
disc; the continental system had become the 
law of the continent ; but the spirit of British 
enterprise, co-operating with the wants, of the 
various^ states of Europe, and assisted by the 
CQlhnivance of several of the involuntary auxili- 
aries of France, relaxed the rigours of commer- 
cial interdiction, and served to prove the futility 
of all attempts to destroy an intercourse grounded 
on the necessities and benefits of surrounding, 
nations^ 



« EVIPERUL DIVORCE^.. 
Extract from iU Begitter of the CoruervatiM Senate of SMvrday^ the mi of Deeemker^ 1809: 
HisfnoMtJesty the Emperor and Ring addressed tbe personages assembled to witness the ceremony in lliese terms : — 
*' The politics ef mj monsrelLy, tbe interesU and witsof m|r people,, wbich have eoiutaatlj gmded all my aotioiis, reqnin, tibai 
after me I should leave to childxen, xnheriton of my love to my people, that thwne on which providence hasplacedme v but for several years 
past I have lost the hope of havia^ children by my marriage with my well-beloved oonsoit the Empress Josephine. This it is which induces 
me tor sacrifice the sweetest affections of my heart to attend to nothing but the good of the state, and to wish the dissolution of my marriage. 
Arrived at the age of forty yearS) I may indulge tbe hope of living long enough to educate, in my viesns and sentiments, the diildbEcn which'it 
woa^ please providence t^giveme^ God knows bow mush such aresolution has cost my heart ;- but there is aoaacrifioe tbaitmy eouiage wfll 
not surmount, when it is proved to me to be aecesnry for the welfioe of Franoe. I shall add, thatiear from evst having had veason to earn* 
plain, on the contrary, I have been fiiUy satisfied with the attachment and affection of my well.beloved consort She has adorned fifteen years 
of my Kfe, the remembranoe of which wiU ever remain engraven on my heart She was crowned by my hand. I wish her to preserve the rank 
and title «f empm j bat aboveaU, that she should never doubt my sentxmeats, and that* she shoukl^ ever regard me as her best sad dearest 
liieiKL" 

!%€ Emperor having ended, her majesty the Empress spoke as follows : — 
*< By the pemussbn of our dear and august consort^ I ought to dedare, that not preserving any hope of having childien, wfaidi miy 
fulfil die wants of his policy, and the interests of France, I am pleased to- give tlie greatest proof of attachment and devotion which has ever 
been given on earth. I possess all firom his bounty, it was hiB hand whidi crowned me, and from the height of his throne I have received nothing 
btttpHTOofiiof affection and bve from the French people. I think I prove mysdf grateful in consenting ta the diasoltttwn of a marriage which 
iMsetofore has been sn obstada to the welfare of France, whidi deprived il of the happiness of being one day govcnied by As dSsoendsnt of a 
great man evidently raised up by providence to efface the evils of a terriUe revdhition, tore-establish the altar, the throne, and social oidsr. 
But the dissolution of my marriage will in no degree change the sentiments of my heart ; the emperor will ever have in me his best friend. I 
knov^how much this act, demanded by policy, and by so great an interest, has chilled his heart ; but both of us exult in the sacrifice which wa 
make-te the gpodof the ceuntr]^'^ 



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CHAPTER X. 



»00K IV. 

Chap. X. 

]809 



Brfhsh Histoet: iSeeiing of the Parliament of UOQ^^Monument ifoted td the Memory 
of Sir John Moore — Thanks of Parliament voted to Sir Arthur WeUtdey^ and tlU 
Officers and Troops tatder his Command — Augmentation of the Military Force of the 
Coantry-^Discussiom on the Convention of Cintra — Charges exhibited against His Royal 
Highness the Duke of York — Nature of the Evidence — Decision of the House of Com^ 
mons at variance with the Public Voice — Resignation of the Commatider-in-Chief— Expres- 
sions of Public Gratitude to Colonel Wardle — Abuse of India Patronage — Charge 
against Lord Castltreagh of trafficking in Seats in Parliament — Public Finances — Extor^ 
tionate Conduct if the Dutch Commissioners — Charge of corrupt Practices preferred by 
Mr. Madocks against Lord Castlereagh and Mr. Spencer Perceval — Sir Francis Burdett*s 
Plan of Parliamentary Reform — Mr. Wardle* s Motion relative to the Public Expenditure — 
Prorogation of Parliament — Destruction of the French Fleet in Basque Roads — Naval Ope-- 
rations in the Mediterranean — Colonial Conquests — Relations between Great Britain and the 
United States-^Disastrous Expedition to the Scheldt — Dissensions in the Cabinet — Duel 
between Lord Castlereagh and Mr. Canning — Dissolution if the Ministry — Ministerial 
'The Jubilee. 

oat a diyiftioD, but not mthovt seTeral stromg 
and pointed animadTersiotts on the manner in 
which the war bad been conducted, and on the 
general policy of his majesty's goremment. 

One of the first subjects that engaged the 
attention of parliament, was the expression of 
the feelings of the country towards those distin- 
guished characters whose services had tended 
in so eminent a degree to support its military 
renown ; and on the 25th of January, the Earl 
of Ldverpool, in the house of peers, and Lord 
Castlereagh, in the house of commons; moved 
the tlianl^ of parliament to the officers and 
men under Sir John Moore, by whose g^lantry 
and good conduct the victory of Corunna was 
achieved. The battle of Corunna, it was ob- 
served, was never surpassed in the annals of 
military fame. The engagement took place un- 
der the most adverse circumstances ; and yet so 
complete was the victory, that the army, after 
remaining immolested for the whole night on the 
field of battle, were on the following day able 
to embark in the presence of a superior force, 
and without leaving a wounded soldier, a piece 
of artillery, or any thing which the enemy could 
boast of as a trophy. The triumph was indeed 
damped by the death of the hero who achieved 
the victory. It was unnecessary to expatiate on 
the merits of Sir John Moore ; they were firesh 
in the memory of his country ; during the twp 
last wars there was scarcely an important service 
in which he was not engaged ; he had indeed 



THE parliamentary session of 1809 was 
more distinguished for discussions regarding the 
domestic concerns of the country than for the 
agitation of those topics which concerned its 
foreign relations ; and the charges against the 
commander-in-chief, grounded on an abuse of 
patronage in his official situation, and against 
his majesty's ministers, arising out of the cor- 
rupt disposal of high offices and seats in the 
commons house of parliament, occupied a large 
portion of the session, and imparted to its pro- 
ceedings an mittsual degree of interest and ani- 
mation. On the 10th of January parliament 
assembled, when his migesty's speech was de- 
livered by commission. This document, which 
related principally to the peninsula of Spain and 
Portugal, strongly recommended an augmen- 
tation of the r^;ular army, in order that his 
majesty might be the better enabled, without 
impairing the means of defence at home, to avail 
himself of the military power of his dominions 
to conduct the great contest in which he was 
engaged, to a conclusion compatible with the 
honour of his migesty's crown, and with the 
interests of his allies, of Europe, and of the 
world. 

The usual address to bis majesty, which 
was moved in the house of lords by the Earl of 
Bridgewater, seconded by Lord Sheffield ; and 
in the house of commons by the Honourable 
Frederick Robinson, seconded by Mr. S. B. 
Lushington ; was carried in both houses with- 



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HISTORY OP THE WARS, d'C. 



117 



devoted the whole of his life to the public ser- 
Tice, and his memory would live for ever in the 
gratitude of his country.* That country would 
cheerfully concur in handing down to posterity 
an expression of it's gratitude for his eminent 
and illustrious deeds in arms, and devote to the 
memory of General Moore a lasting mark bf 
nationsd estimation, by erecting to him a monu- 
ment, as a just trophy to his fame, and an excite- 
ment to those he had left behind him to imitate 
his example. 

In every tribute to the memory of Sir John 
Moorci and in every eulogium upon his charac- 
ter, the opposition side of the house fully con- 
curred. It was a mark of duty and of gratitude 
due from the house and from the country to that 
immortal commander to perpetuate his memory.t 
It was owing to the talents of Sir John Moore 
that any part of his army was brought away ; 
and the conduct of the troops, like that of the 
commander, was above all praise. The failure 
and slaughter through which they had passed to 
the glorious exhibition of their valour, they owed 
solely to the disastrous councils which employed 
that valour upon a frantic and impracticable 
object.;]: For what purpose was so much pre- 
cious blood shed ? Did it produce any advan- 
tage to the country i Were the troops sent to 
Spain to escape from it ?§ Their lives had been 
squandered as little to the advantage of the 
country as if they had been shot on the parade 
pf St, James's Park. || The hand of Providence 
was upon us. Within three years we had lost 
two of the greatest statesmen the country ever 
Baw ; within the same time we had lost a naval 
hero of transcendent talents and courage ; and 
DOW we had to regret the loss of a military chief, 
ivho, if it had pleased Providence to spare him 
to us, would have equally upheld the power aud 
increased the glory of the country. 

The motion for the thanks of parliament was 
carried unanimously in both houses, and a monu- 
naent was voted to the memory of Lieutenant- 
general Sir John Moor^. 

These proceedings were succeeded by a 
motion for thanks to Sir Arthur Wellesley, and 
the officers and men under his command, for the 
brilliant victory obtained at the battle of Vimiera. 
In proposing this vote of thanks, Lord Castle- 
rcagh observed, that it was impossible to find in 
the military annals of Great Britain a more 
glorious instance of the superiority of her arms 
than had been displayed on that occasion. We 
had had our victories of Egypt and of Maida ; 
but none of these triumphs ever exceeded the 
victory of Vimiera, which had afforded a further 
striking and unquestionable proof, that whenever 



Chap. X. 



1809 



or wherever British troops were brouc'ht into BOOK IV. 
action with the French, they were greatly their 
superior in courage, hardihood, and discip- 
line. 

Lord Folkstone was very ready to admit all 
the courage and gallantry which attached to 
the character of Sir Arthur Wellesley, and also 
the enthusiasm of the army under his command, 
but he objected to the vote of thanks for the bat- 
tle of Vimiera, because he did not think it of 
that brilliant description to demand such a tri- 
bute from parliament, and because it fell short 
of those good consequences which ought to result 
from victory, aqd eqded \W a manper disgraceful 
to the country. 

A long and animated debate ensued ; after 
which the vote of thanks was carried with the 
sole dissentient voice of Lord Folkstone. 

In the speech by his msyesty's commission- 
ers, at the opening of the present session of par- 
liament, an augmentation of the disposable 
force of the country had been strongly recom- 
mended ; and so early as the 2d of F^ebruary 
a bill was introduced into the house of com- 
mons, by Lord Castlereagh, for that purpose. 
His lordship, in submitting this meajsure to the 
consideration of parliament, observed, that it 
had now been ascertained, tliat in every extras 
ordinary crisis a considerable supplv of troops 
could be had for the regular army by availing 
ourselves of the zeal and spirit which were 
always manifested on such occasions by the 
militia, who were ever willing to volunteer their 
services when there was a great and pressing 
necessity for increasii|g the disposable force; 
and out of twenty-eight thousand men permit- 
ted on a late occasion to volunteer from the 
militia into the line, twenty-seven thousand did 
actually enter within the space of tvfelve months. 
The extent to which he now proposed to limit 
th^ volunteering into the line vfould be, that no 
regiment of militia should be reduced to less 
than three fifths of its present force ; and instead 
of thirty-six thousand men, to be raised in Eng- 
land, to supply the deficiency, he should now 
propose only twenty-fpur thousand. In order to 
relieve the counties from the great pressure of 
the ballot, he should propose, that the expense 
of raising the men to fill up the vacancies in the 
militia, should be defraved, not by the counties, 
but by the public. The bounty to recruits he 
should fix at ten guineas ; and if the voluntary 
inlistment for the militia did not succeed, and it 
was found necessary to resort to a ballot, it was 
his intention, in that case, to propose, that the 
bounty of ten guineas should be given to the 
balloted man to assist lihn in procuring a snbstU 



* L«r4 Liverpool. f L<^d Henry Petty. J Lord GrenviJlc 

)1 Lord Hrskinc. 
VOL. II.— KO. 46. O ^ 



i Lord Moinif 



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HISTORY OP THE WAftS 



Chap. X. 



1809 



; UOOK ly. tute. In the progress of this measure through 
parliament, it was stated by the Earl of Liver- 
pool, that the regular army at the preseiit nlo- 
ment consisted of upwards of two hundred and 
ten thousand infantry, and twenty-seven thou- 
sand cavalry. The infantry was disposed into one 
hundred and twenty-six nrst battalions, averag- 
ing nine hundred men each, and fifty-six second 
battalions, of which the average number was 
about four hundred men, and the object of this 
bill was to render the second battalions complete. 

The inroad made by the army augmentation 
bill upon the constitution of the militia, and the 
uncertainty to what service this additional force 
was to be applied, called forth a very animated 
ojpposition, but the measure ultimately passed 
into a law by large majorities. 

The terms of the convention of Cintra, and 
the circumstances which led to the conclusion of 
that treaty, were, on the 2l8t of February, 
brought under the consideration of parliament 
by Lord Henry Petty, who concluded a long 
and eloquent speech by moving the two follow- 
ing resolutions : 

1. '< That the coureDtion concluded at Cintra, on 
the 90th of August, 1808, and the maritime conFention 
concluded off the Tagus on the 3d of September, in the 
same year, appear to this bouse to hare disappointed the 
hopes and expectations of the country. 

2. *' That the causes and circumstances which im- 
mediatelv led to the conclusion of those conventions, ap- 
pear to this house, in a great measure, to hare arisen from 
the misconduct and neglect of his majesty's ministers." 

This motion was strenuously opposed by 
ministers, who contended that it was a brilliant 
addition to the military glory of the country, to 
have expelled, in the course of a short campaign 
of three weeks, an army of twenty-five thou- 
sand French from Portugal ; and on the motion 
of Lord Castlereagfa, the previous question was 
put, and carried by a majority of 203 to 152 
voices. 

The proposed vote of censure on ministers 
for the unfortunate termination of the campaign 
in Portugal, was succeeded by a motion mtro-> 
dttced. into the house of commons three days 
afterwards, by Mr. Ponsonby, for the institu- 
tion of an inquiry into the causes, consequences, 
and events of the late disasters in Spain. This 
inquiry ministers judged it proper to resist, and 
a msgority of the house confirmed their decision. 

Amidst the momentous events which pre- 
sented themselves on the continent, and the 
weighty deliberations which occupied the coun- 
cils of the British nation, an inquiry was insti- 
.tuted in the house of commons, which for a time 
seemed to cast into the shade every other public 
consideration, and which in its consequences 



involved the character of the commander-in- 
chief, the discipline of the army, and the future 
estimation of parliament. On the 27th df 
January^ Colonel Wardle* fdse in bis place in 
the house of commons, to submit to that assembly 
a motioti respecting certain abuses which had 
prevailed in the British army. In bringing for- 
ward this subject he was impelled by no other 
motive than a sense of public diity, and he 
should make no assertions that were not sup- 
ported by positive facts. The power of dis- 
posing of commissions in the military service of 
the empire, had been placed in the hands of a 
person of high birth, and extensive influence ; 
and he was sorry to say that this power had been 
exercised to the worst of purposes. Tlie dis- 
posal of commissions in the army had been 
{daced in the hands of the commander-in -chief 
or the purpose of defraying the charges of the 
half-pay list, for the support of veteran officers, 
and for increasing the compassionate fund for 
the aid of officers' widows and orphans ; but he 
could bring positive proof that such commis- 
sions had been sold, and the money applied to 
very different purposes ; and this duty, so essen- 
tial to the rights of the army and the interests Of 
his country, he should discharge without dis- 
may. For this purpose it was absolutely neces- 
sary to call the attention of the house to an 
establishment of the commander-in-chief in 
Gloucester-Place; this establishment, which 
consisted of a splendid house, a variety of car- 
riages, and a long retinue of servants, com- 
menced in the year 1803, and at the head of it 
was placed a lady of the name of Clarke. Of 
that lady's name he should have occasion to make 
frequent mention, in connection with a number 
of names and facts, to shew the house that he 
'had not taken up this subject on light grounds^ 

The first case which he should state was that of Cap- 
tain Tonyn: this officer, who held his captaincy in the 
48th regiment of foot, received his commission as a cap- 
tain on the 2d of August, 1802, and was promoted to a 
mnjority in the 31st re^ment, in August, 1804. He was 
indebted for his promotion to tfie influence of Mrs. Clarke. 
Captain Tonyn was introduced to that lady by Captain 
Huxley Saiidon, of the royal waggon train ; the terms of 
agreement were, that Mrs. Clarke ^ould be paid five hun- 
dred pounds UDon his majority beinflf gazetted, and this 
sum was, in tne mean time, lodged in (he hands of Mr. 
' Jeremiah Donovan, a surgreon, of Charles-Street, St. 
James's-S^uare. This Mr. Donovan was appointed a 
lieutenant m the 4th royal garrison battalion, in 1802, and 
was afterwards promoted to the llth battalion, but since 
the day of his appointment he had never joined his reg^* 
ment, and seemed to hare leave of perpetual absence. 
Major Tonyn was gazetted, and the money whidi bad 
been lodged in Mr. Donovan's hands, was then paid to 
Mrs. Clarke by Captain Huxley Saodon. The regulated 
difference between a company and a majority was ^1100 ; 
but in this instance Mrs. Clarke gained .i^^dOO, and the 



Dragoons, 



* Gwyllym Lloyd WardJe, Member fur Oakliampton, and Lieutenant-colond in the Ancient British Light 



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«^nOO was loot to the half-pav fund. This sum of £500 
was paid by Mrs. Clarke to M^ Birkett, a silversmith, in 
part payment for a service of plate for the establishment in 
Gloucester- Place, the balance for which plate was after- 
wards paid by the Duke of York. ** From this case/^ 
aatd Colonel Wardle, ^' it is clearly deducible, that Mrs. 
Clarke possessed the power of military promotion ; that 
she received pecuniary consideration for such promotion ; 
and that the commander-in-chief was a partaker in the 
beneiit arising from such pecuniary consideration. 

' The second case was an ezchang^, concluded *ou 
Che Sdth of July, 1806, thruuffh the influence of Mrs. 
Clarke, between Lieutenant- coTooel Hrooke, of the 56th 
regiment of infantry, and Lieutenant-colonel Knight, of 
the Ath dragoon guards. It was agreed that Mrs. Clarke 
should receive £^iO on this exchange being gazetted, and 
ts the lady wanted some money to defray the expenses of 
•B excursion into the country, she urged the commander- 
in-chief to expedite this exchange ; her request was made 
on Thursday ; the exchange was gazetted upon the Satur- 
day following, and Mrs. Clarke^ received in consequence 
the £20Q from Dr. Thynne, a physician, who negociated 
tiie transaction. Here then was a case which proved that 
«xdianges, as well as promotions, were at the disposal of 
Mrs. Clarke, and that the purse of the commaader-in- 
vfaief was saved by the supply which his mistress derived 
from such sources. 

The next was the case of Mi^of Shaw, appointed de- 

futy barrack -master-general at the Cape of Good Hope. 
t*appeared (hat the commander-in-chief had no favour? 
able opinion of Major Shaw ; but Mrs. Clarke interposes : 
he consents to pay her ^lOCio. Of this money he rnime- 
ttiately paid .^200 ; shortlv after he paid her «£300 more ; 
when she, finding he was backward in the payment, sent to 
demand the remamder ; but seeing no ehanee of receiving 
it, she complains to the commander-in-chief, who imme- 
diately put Major Shaw upon the half-pay list. The 
honourable gentleman said, he had a letter from Major 
tBbaw himseff, slating the fart, and he never knew but one 
other instance of an officer being thus put on the half- pay 
list. Here then was a further proof, to show that Mrs. 
Clarke's influence extended to the army in general, and 
ihat it operated to nut any officer on the half- pay list, 
and that the commander-in-chief was a direct party in her 
authority. 

The next case to which he should advert, of the lady's 
influence, was that of Colonel French, of the horse guards. 
This gentleman was appointed to a commission for raising 
new levies in 1804, and the business was set on foot by 
Mrs. Clarke. He was introduced to her by Captain Huxley 
t^don, and she was to have a certain sum out of the 
bounty for every recruit raised, and a certain portion of 
patronage in tlie nommation of the officers. She was wait- 
ed on by Colonel French, of the first troop of horse guards, 
and as the levy went on, she received various sums of 
money by Colonel French, Captain Huxley Sandon, Mr. 
Corn, and Mr. Cokayne, an eminent solicitor in London. 
To so great a height had ihe practice of selling commissions 
in this disreputaUe manner arisen, that a written scale of 
Mrs. Clarke's prices, as contrasted with the regpilated price 
of commissions, was sent by Mr. Qonovan to Captain l\ick, 
to whom he very strongly recommended this path to 
promotion. 

Afn. C|arJBr*« iVtce». lUgmUued Pricta, 

AMiyority, .^900^! ^2,600 

A Company, 700 1,500 

A Lieutenancy, 400 550 

AnEnsigncy, SOO- 400 . 

From this scale it appeared that all this was lost to the 



half- pay compassionate fimd, to put money into Mrs. BOOK IV. 
Clarke's pocket. « 

TTie next instance was one in which the commander- Chap. X. 
in-chief himself was a direct partaker iirthe advantages of \^f^yi^^^ 
this traffic, by a loan to be furnished through Colonel XS09 
French, the writings for which were drawn by a Mr. Grant, 
an eminent solicitor of Barnard's Inn, for the purpose of 
raising jf'dOOO ; but he did not receive it, because a sum 
of ,£^000 was due from government to Colonel French. 
Hence* then it was obvious that Mn. Clarke exercised an 
influence in raising the military fbrce of the country, in 
disposing of commands in that force, and in converting 
the purchase of commissions to her own private ad- 
vanti^e. 

The honourable gentleman next alluded to the case of 
Cltptain May, of the African corps^ who had attained pro- 
motion in t^e army over the heads of all the subalterns, 
though he had never joined his regiment; and was in fact 
still a clerk in ^e office of Mr. Greenwood, the army 
agent. 

Thei% was another circumstance in this case which he 
could not pass unnoticed ; it was the existence of a public 
office in the city of Loadon, where commissions m the 
army were offered to purchasera at reduced prices, and 
where the clerks openly and unequivocally stated, in his 
own presence, and m his hearing, that they were employ- 
ed by the present favourite mistress of the commander-in- 
chiefj Mrs. Carey ; and that, in addition to commissions in 
the army, they were employed to dispose of places in every 
department of church and state ; and those agente did not 
hesitate to state, in words and writing, that they were 
employed under the auspices of two of his majesty's prin- 
cipal ministen. 

Having gt>ne through the whole of his state'^- 
ment, Colonel Wardle concluded by moving for 
a committee of inquiry into the conduct ot the 
Duke of York, in respect to the disposal of 
military commissions ; which motion was second*- 
ed by 8ir Francis Burdett. 

Few subjects have ever been listened i6 
with such deep attention in the house of com- 
mons, as the speech delivered by Colonel Wardle 
on this occasion ; and few subjects have -ever 
taken such firm hold on the public mind. Confi- 
dently, however, as the charges were made, they 
were met with equal confidence by the friends of 
the royal duke. On the ministerial side of the 
house, it was said, that so far from shrinking from 
inquiry, the commander-in-chief was ajixious for 
a full investigation of the business now submitted 
to the consideration of parliament. The matter 
had now assumed a tangible shape, and it be- 
hoved the honourable gentleman to establish the 
very serious and important charges which he bad 
thought it his duty to exhibit. Every loyal subject 
had, for some time past^ viewed, with the deep- 
est concern, the continued and rapid cun*ent of 
anonymous scurrility which bad been poured forth 
against the various branches of the royal family ; 
and it was perfectly clear, that a vile Jacobinical 
conspiracy existed against the illustrious house 
of Brunswick.^ If, in bringing forward these 



* Mr. Y^rVe. 



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HOOK iV. charges, the honourable gentlemaD was actuated 

solely by patriotic motives, and a regard to the 

Chap.^^ public welfare^ his conduct was entitled to the 
highest admiration ; but it was not to be dis- 
guised, that when such imputations were once 
exhibited, they must be brought to a conclusion, 
and ignominy and infamy must attach some- 
where.* It was a great satisfaction to find such 
an universal concurrence of sentiment with re- 
spect to the necessity of examining, in the most 
solemn manner, the charges which had now 
been brought forward. It was a proud situation 
for the constitution of the country, as well as for 
the illustrious personage who was the subject of 
this accusation, to have a person the most ex- 
alted in rank of any subject of the realm, one 
excepted, desiring the same publicity in prose- 
cuting the investigation against him, as would 
take place in the lowest and meanest subject.t 
It was true the proposed investigation would 
subject the house to extreme inconvenience, by 

Erotracting the business, both public and private; 
ut if ever there was a case that required that 
all convenience should give way, this was un- 
questionably that case.l 

The members in the ranks of opposition 
concurred fully in this inquiry. It was expe- 
dient that the rumours in circulation to the dis- 
advantage of the Duke of York, should be fairly 
brought to the test of investigation, before so 
grave, so honourable, and so competent a tri* 
bunal as the house of commonst and there re- 
ceive the judgment and decision, which, no doubt, 
would be highly honourable to the character of 
the illustrious personage, who had been so vehe* 
menlly assailed by them.§ As to the anonymous 
libels complained of, they had nothing to do with 
this inquiry ; the charges now made were not 
anonymous, and the Duke of York ought to be 
obliged to the honourable gentleman who had 
brought them forwai*d, and given him an oppor- 
tunity of rendering his character impervious to 
future attacks. II Not only the eyes of the coun- 
try, but the attention of all Europe^ would be 
fixed upon the pending investigation, and it 
behoved the house to aot in the mo9t grave 
and decisive manner.^ At 'the conclusion of 
this debate, the chancellor of the exchequer said, 
that publicity had been mentioned as desirable ; 
he was of the same opinion ; and, on the mo- 
tion of that right honourable gentleman, it was 
determined that the investigation should be con- 
ducted before a committee of the whole house. 

The charges against the commander-in- 
chief, oivested of their technicality, resolve them- 
selves into this one point— that, availing himself 



of his high office, he had knowingly permitted 
the woman whom he*kept as his mistrlBSS, to 
trafiic in commissions in the army, and did him- 
self participate in the emoluments which were 
derived from this scandalous; corrupt, and ille* 
gal traffic. And the evidence on which Colo- 
nel Wardle supported this momentous charge 
arose from the testimony of Mrs. Clarke, the 
principal agent in these transactions, filled up 
where it was defective, and corroborated where 
it was weak, by the testimony of those to whom 
she had disposed of commissions, or by docu« 
ments brought forward in the progress of the 
inquiry. 

That Mrs. Clarke had received large sums 
of money from a great number of persons for 
the exertion of her influence, real or supposed, 
with the Duke of York, while she was living 
under his protection (such was the phrase) in 
Gloucester-Place, was proved beyond all possi- 
bility of doubt, by the evidence of Doctor Thynne, 
Mr. Robert Kniffht, Captain Huxley Sandon^ 
Mr. Dowler, and others, who had themselves 
purchased her services, and who, for the most 
part, appeai'ed as unwilling witnesses : but that 
the duke was cognisant to these corrupt prac* 
tises, and that the money so raised was, with 
the knowledge of his royal highness, applied to 
defray the expenses of the establishment of his 
mistress, was not made equally clear. There 
was, however, strong ground of suspicion, and 
the prevailing opinion of the country was, that 
this charge also was satisfactorily established 
by the evidence of Mrs. Clarke, Miss Taylor, 
her relation, Mr. Dowler, of the commissariat 
department, and the documents elicited in th^ 
progress of the investigation. The history of 
the origin of this nefarious traffic was thus given 
by Mrs. Clarke. The establishment in Glou- 
cester-Place, she said, consisted of two carriages, 
. six or eight horses, and eight or ten men ser- 
vants, of all of which she had to pay the ex- 
pense. Her allowance from the Duke of York 
was a thousand a year ; but fot three months 
before his royal highness left her, he never gave 
her a guinea, and so far were the sums which 
she received from him from defraying the ex- 
penses of the establishment, that they would 
scarcely pay the servants their wages, and buy 
them liveries. This she often represented to hb 
royal highness, and after thev had been ac- 
quainted a few months, he told her, that if she 
was clever, she would never ask him for monev ; 
he added, that she had more interest than the 
queen, and that she might use it. Of these hintsi 
she did not fail to profit ; and the dlike was well 



♦ Mr. Canning. f Lord Caatlercagh. t The Chancellor of the Exchequer. 

} Sir Francis Burdett. H Mr. Wbitbrea4. % Mr, Wilbeiforce, 



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OF THE FttSNCH RSTDLCJf ION. 



161 



aware that she used her influence with him in 
order to procure money from military officers 
and others, and that the money so obtained was 
applied to defray the expenses* incident to her 
situation. 

In the course of the cross^xaminatioas, 
much important eridenoe was adduced ; and one 
of the most conclusive proofs of the truth of the 
charges, arose from the fact that they derived 
additional strength from the means taken by the 
advocates of the commander-in-chief to refote 
them ; iadl^d his royal highness was more in- 
debted for the strouff parts of the case made out 
against him to his friends than to his enemies ; 
and the numeroas letters brought to light by 
their meant, of which the prosecutor at first was 
totally ignorant, placed Mr. Wardle on high 
.ground, and induced the ministers of the crown 
to change the lofty tone of menace and defiance 
into the humble note of pity and commiseration. 
At the close of the evidence on the 22d of 
February, the opinion of the general officers, 
who were members of the house of commons, 
was asked with respect to the improvement of the 
army in discipline and condition, and whether 
the S3^tem of promotion had not been improved 
under the administration of the Duke of York. 
Generals Norton and Fitzpatrick, the Secretary 
of War, Sir Arthur Wellesley, and General 
Grosveaor, ail answered these questions affirma- 



CUAP. X. 



1809 



tively, and pronounced High eulogiums on the BOOK IV. 
character aad conduct of his royal highness. 

During this inquiry, which was continued ^ 
for three wedes without the intervention of any 
other business, Mrs. Clarke, the heroine of the 
drama, was examined at the bar again and again ; 
and by the readiness and Smartness of her an* 
swers to the infinite number of questions pro- 

Eosed by the learned and honourable gentlemen 
y whom she was surrounded, gave a degree of 
relief to the protracted examinations. This new 
and splendid theatre for the display of her per-* 
son and talents, seemed to afford her great satis- 
faction, and she sometimes carried her ease, 
gaiety, and wit, to the borders of pertness and 
Indecorum.f 

On the 83d of February a letter was ad- 
dressed by the commander-in-chief to the house 
of commons, through the medium of the speaker, 
in which his royal highnes8> in the most solemn 
manner, upon his honour as a prince, distinctly 
asserted his innocence, and claimed frotti the 
justice of the house, that he should not be con- 
demned without a trial. On the 8th of Mai*ch 
the subject was resumed, when Mr. Wardle 
moved an address to his majesty, stating, that, 
after a diligent and laborious inquiry, it had 
been proved, to the satisfaction of thehouse> that 
corrupt practices had existed to a very sreat 
extent in the difierent departments of the military 



* The stelttfliettt that the dnke had allowed only £\fiO0 a year for the support of the prodigf&l and profligate 
eatablishment in Olouoester-P]|MX, made so strong an impression on the public, that the chancellor of the exchequer was 
driven to the humiliating necessity of contradicting this assertion, by declaring, in the ihce of a butthened people, that the 
sum krished by the Di^ of York upon tiiis seat of voluptuousness from January, 1804, to May, 1806, amounted to 
«f 16,700 ; this assertion, however, though it exposed the extravagance of the duke, did not invalidate the evidence of his 
discarded mistress, for when the purchase of the lease of the premises, the expense of furniture, and the presents of plate 
«nd jewels, were taken into the account, not more iMbn a balance of .6^1 ,000 a year remained to meet the current domesCio 
expenditure. . . 

f Bsiog adced Ygy Mr. Ckoker, if ihs had not writlsn an anonymous letter to the Prinoeof Wales? 4ie anaWeied, Vee. Did ymimgA 
anySnne to this MonymoM letter, said Mr. Cvoker ? Mn. Clarke made no reply, but, looking wchly at the chairman, burst into a fit of 
lan^tef. In aUtfa indeed the waa joined by the whole house. Being adced by Sir Vicary Gibbs if she bad given the same aooount to Mr* 
Warfie of the UigociKtwi foot the excfaaaga betwen Colonels Btook and Kni|^t, that die now gate to the house of commons P she replied, N(h 
Which then is the tins aeeonnt ? Bo^ In what then, enqniied Sir Vicary, did they diiler ? They did not diilbr at all, replied Mn* 
C3arke-*4he had not entered hUo the same detail with Colonel Wardle. The attorney-general, in order to vreaken her eridence, by bringing het 
nwtifCi and genenl character into diaoedit, enquired if ^e had not said, that if the Duke of York did not come into her terms she 
would eipose him f No ; she had ssid duit if the duke did not pay her the annuity of £400, which he had promised, she would pub* 
liih Ids knos, sad psj he i ciad to w with thspradlsof the puUieadau. Had she not sworn that she was toi a married woman, when ihe was 
ewnimid before a <i0UTt4nsrtial f No ||idie thooght it would be improper tooay duit she wasa mairied wotoan, when it was known that she had 
been Uvfa^fwidi the Duke of Yoric, and die ssid she was not, but did not swear it. Had she not sworn that she was a widow ? Thedukehad 
inflated tiuit die should plead her marriage to avoid her debts contracted at Gloucester-Place, or else she might go to prison ; and when she ap* 
piisd to him 9» a ftw hundred pounds, he retuned fbr answer, that if she dared to speak against him, or to write against him, he would pot 
^ her fai AefiillBry or fauhe Baiffla Who bRmgfat this meawga respecting the pillory ? said the attoniey*generaL A very particular friend of 
ttw Dnhsef Yodf t, vepiisd Mrs. Ckttke, one Ta^r, a shoe-maker in Bond-Street. By whom was the raiuest sent for a few hundreds ? By 
my own pan, add Mrs. Chika. HowWasthe letter sent ? By this ambassador of Morocco. Whodo you call by that name? The lady's 
dioo-maker. Here the rhairman admonidied the witness of the impropriety of giving her evidence in tUs flippant and unbecoming manner, 
and apprised her, diatif she p e is e vei ed in toA conduct, shewould ezposehend/to a heavy censure. 

Mr. CNusldan, in the csamination on die iTtfa of Fdmiary, sprang a new mine of discoveries, by asking Mrsk C3aike if die had ever 
aiiyn^gnriathan l a yeain g pnmotiaBs unconnected widi the ;t lilttaiy department— in the ehnrdi for instance ? Yes, said the wimess, several ; 
anMBgothen, Br. O'Mearav an Irish divine, applied to me to be made a bishop; and the Duke of York, at my requesti procured him an oppoTf 
ranhy of preadung before lojralty at Weymouth ; but die duke tdd me that the king did no^ like the great O in the doctor's name, and the 
■ l eg u dst i w i iailed. This stoty was at first thought incredible, but aletter from the Dokeof York, produced on the intestigatkm» proved thathis 
M|^ hl^meas had actdaBy concspondsd widi hismiitisis on diis snbie^ 
▼OL II-^NO. 4d. H H 



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HISTORY OP THE WARS 



Cmap. X. 



1809 



BOOK IV. administration ; and praying thai his. msyesty 
would be eraciously pleased to reoiOTe the Duke 
of York from the command of the army. To 
that address an amendment was proposed, by 
the chancellor of the exchequer, substituting 
two resolutions, the first stating that an inquiry 
had been instituted into the conduct of the com- 
mander-in-chief ; and the second, that it was the 
opinion of the house that there was no just 
ground to charge his royal highness with per- 
sonal corruption or criminal conniyance. To this 
amendment another amendment was afterwards 
moved by Mr. Bankes, acquitting the Duke of 
Yoxk of personal corru{>tion or criminal conni- 
Yance, but expressive of an opinion that abuses 
could scarcely have existed to the extent to 
which they had been proved, without exciting 
some suspicion in the mind of the commander-in- 
chief, and suggesting that, after the exposures 
made by the recent inquiry, the cause of religion, 
and a regard to the public happiness and tran- 
quillity, required the removal of the Duke of 
York from the command of the army. 

The motion of Mr. Wardle, and the subse- ' 
quent amendments, gave rise to many long and 
animated discussions, which continued for seve- 
ral nights; and in the course of these debates, 
it was urged, in favour of the original motion, 
that whatever might be due to the superior rank 
of his royal highness, the members of that house 
should, as representatives of the people, always 
bear in mind that it was their duty to protect 
the public interests, ^nd to watch over the secu- 
rity and welfare of the state.* It was not meant 
to be insinuated that the Dyke of York had put- 
money in his own pocket, he was superior to 
such low and grovelling motives ; what he had, 
done had been as a faivour to his mistress, and 
Mrs. Clarke had clearly shewn how she had 
effected it. In the outset of the business, Jt had 
been declared that there was a conspiracy aganst 
the Duke of York, extending even to the illus- 
trious house of Brunswick, but the witnesses, 
instead of appearing to be in a conspiracy with 
Mjts. Clarke, seemed to be in one against her. It 
had been said too that infamy must attach some 
^ where'; and where had it fallen ? Not on the 
uccuser most certainly. Jacobins had been 
talked of ; but where did jacobins dwell ? Jaco- 
bins indeed there were ; and the genius of jaco* 
binism presided in Gloucester-Place — there he 
held his midnight revels, and there sat the Duke 
of York himself as chairman of the festive board. 
There was the nest in which jaeobinism was 
nourished. Jacobinism held its habitation as 
much in the palace of the prince as in the cot- 
tage of the peasant ; and if we would exclude 
him from thtr latter, we must be cautigus not 



* Wr, WarOle, 



t Mr. Wbitbread. 



to admit him into the former. Jacobinism makes 
the food it feeds upon j it hangs upon a princess 
follies, that it may turn them into vices, and 
even aims its venom at senates, in tempting them 
to neglect the faithful discharge of their duty. 
The house had been reduced to a -melancholy 
situation by the letter of the Duke of York; 
they were obliged to credit the evidence they 
had heard, even against tlie honour of a prince.f 
It was a little extraordinary to observe the chan- 
ceUor of the exchequer, the attorney-general^ 
and in fact the whole legal phalanx of the house^ 
whose constant and practical habit was accusa- 
tion ; now ranged, as if urtd voce^ on the side of 
the accused. How did the Duke of York behave 
to Mrs. Clarke, she for whom he had expressed 
such fondness ? What a picture did this woman 
present even when contrasted with a prince i 
VVhat a melancholy comparison ! She demanded 
her annuity only to pay the debts she had con- 
tracted under his protection, and he refused her 
that paltry pittance, because she could not pro- 
duce his bond. So much for the honour of 
a prince. :|: As to the question whether the house 
ought to address his majesty to remove the Dukd 
of York from his command, it was impossible 
to conceive a case in which the representatives 
of the people could address for the removal of a 
public servant from his situation if not upon th^ 
evidence they had before them. If once the 
opinion should prevail that the house of commons 
had heard of corruption existing in the state^ 
and heard of it witn indifference — ^if ever that 
fatal time should arriye, no man could tell the 
consequence.^ 

It was contended by the supporters of the 
Duke of York, that Mrs. Clarke was wholly un- 
worthy of credit, and that there was no evidence 
to establish the corrupt participation or criminal 
connivance of the duke. Was it to be supposed 
that an illustrious prince, of such high rank^ 
would associate himself with such miscreants aa 
the witnesses in this investigation ? If he had 
entered into so foul a plot, he would have found 
different agents ; he would not have surrounded 
himself with men of honour and the avowed 
enemies of army-brokers, but he would have 
found some supple, bending, complying agent, 
for his military secretary. If it could o^ce be 
supposed that the duke was a party in such a 
conspiracy, how was it possible that there should 
have been any distress for money, whea there 
was a mint for making it constantly at work ^ 
There were then in the army upwards of ten, 
thousand, officers ; and such was the eagerness^ 
for promotion, that there were always persona 
enow 'to give ample premiums above the re- 
gulated price. Had not his royal highness felt 

Sir Francis Burdett. § Sir Samuel Romilly, 



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6eeure ia conscious innocencey was it to be sup- 
posed that he would have Yentnred to discard 
Mrs. Clarke, to withdraw her annuity, to irritate 
ber to the utmost, and to set all her threats at 
defiance ^'^ It wa&'true indeed that Mrs. Clarke 
had obtained money by inducing a belief that 
she had great influence over the duke ; but in 
no one instance could it ever be proved that his 
royal highness was acquainted with any of her 
stratagems, m\ich less had he ever participated 
in the fruits of her impositions.f If the Duke 
qf York had not entertained a high sense of the 
value of honour and character, he would not 
have parted from Mrs. Clarke, when he found 
ber character would not stand the test of inves- 
tigation. It ought to be recollected, that the 
person against whom the charge now under 
the consideration of the house was directed, was 
not only high in office and in rank, but one 
whose birth placed him so near the crown, that 
events might one day call him to the throne 
itself; and yet, by the proceeding now proposed, 
the house was called upon, on the most ques- 
tionable evidence, to disgrace itself, by pro- 
nouncing the duke guilty of the lowest and 
most infamous species of corruption.;]: 

In favour of Mr. Bankes's motion it was 
urged, that the case of Dr. O'Meara, which 
rested upon the Duke of York's own letter as 
much as upon the evidence of Mrs. Clarke, 
shewed that the duke held communication with 
his mistress on public concerns. It was aston- 
ishing that the constant applications of this wo« 
man did not create some doubts and suspicion 
in the royal mind of the duke. The house wasl. 
not only the guardian of the public purse but of 
the^blic morals, it was impossible, after the 
evidence that had been given, to entertain any 
^donbt that a public scandal had been brought 
upon the country by the conduct of his royal 
highness ; and it was necessary, as a reparation 
to public morals and decency, to remove hini 
from the command of the army.§ The dukl» 
could not be ignorant that the mistresses of 
princes are in every instance the source and 
means of corruption. It was customary in that 
house to call things by very soft and gentle 
names. That which used to be called adultery is 
now living under protection ; and by applying 
these delicate expressions to acts of immoredity^ 
a blow was levelled at the morals of the country. 
Suppose the case to be according to the mildest 
interpretation of his friends, tliat the duke had 
710 knowledge or suspicion of the transactions, 
but that he was completely deceived and blinded 
by the woman whom he passionately loved, that 
would be a sufficient reason for calling for his 
removal from the command of the army ; the 



1800 



more innocent and unsuspecting he was described BDOK lY. 
to he, the more danger there was that the enemy .—— « 
might find out his foible, and use it to the dis- Cbap. X. 
advantage, and even to the ruin of the country. || 
The first division on the questioti whether 
the house should proceed by address or reso-* 
lution, decided the fate of Mr. Bankes's amend- 
ment, and there appeared for proceeding by 
address, one hundred and ninety-nine ; for pro- 
ceeding by resolution, two hundred and ninety- 
four ; leaving a majority against Mr. Bankes's 
address of ninety-five. A second division then 
took place on Mr. Wardle's motion, which was 
supported by one hundred and twenty-three, 
and opposed by three hundred and sixty-four 
voices. On the 17th of March the chancellor 
of the exchequer brought forward his resolution, 
modified by more mature consideration, and ex- 
pressed in these terms :— 

That this bouse having appointed a committee to 
investigate the conduct of the Duke of York, a« cona- 
mander-in-chief, and having carefully considered the evi- 
*dence which came before the said committee, and finding 
that personal corruption, and connivance at corroptioni, 
have been imputed to his said royal highness, find it 
expedient to pronounce a distinct opinion^ upon the said, 
imputation, and are accordingly or opinion that it s 
wholly wiUiout foundation. 

This motion being put, was cai-ried in the 
afiirmative; there appearing for the motion, 
two hundred and seventy-eight, against it, one 
hundred and ninety-six, mcyority eighty-two. 

Previous to the divisions it was pretty ge- 
nerally understood that the Duke of York had 
come to the determination to resign his ofiice 
of commander-in-chief; and on the 20th of 
March the chancellor of the exchequer rose in 
his place to announce, that his royal highness, , 
having obtained a complete acquittal of those 
criminal charges which had been moved agaibst- 
him, was desirous of giving way to that public 
sentiment which those charges, however ill- 
founded, had unfortunately drawn on him ; that» 
under these circumstances, he had tendered 
to his majesty his resignation of the office of 
commander-in-chief, and that the king had been . 
graciously pleased to accept the same. 

The issue of this great and important trial 
did honour to the English nation. It showed thd 
people, notwithstancUng the deficiency in the 
just me^LSure of their representation in ^arlia-t 
ment, that their voice could be heard in any 
great political emergency, and that even a prince 
of the blood, enjoying the favour of his father^ 
and himself so near the throne, could not resist 
the public will. The fate of the Duke of York 
sufficiently proved that responsibility is more 
than a name*; but candour demands the admis* 



Mr, Barton. f The Attomey-gciieraL $ Mr. Perceval. § Mr. Bankes. i| Mr. Wilberfwe, 



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lU 



VISTORY OV THE UTABB 



1809 



POQK^^* iiMi, (faftt the Mune ^f justiee was ia this ease 

r; ~ mvorted ; md Umi it was the aation, and net 

caip. x. ^1^ representatims of the nation, that eompelled 
his r<^al highness to resign. Although it mia:ht 
have heen wished that the house of ooramoos had 
aeted moK eouipl^ely as the organ of the peo* 
pie ; Tet it is oonsolatory to remaric, that while, 
en the one hand, <he nation was not disposed to 
tang9 its pmileges of assernhMng for the pur- 
pose of deekring its sentiments on public afiairs ; 
the ministers of the erown, on the other, felt the 
^denee and propriety of yielding to the publio 
▼oiee. . When their extreme unwillingness to 
give up his royal highness is consid<md, and 
when the denunciation of infaimy and the acou* 
sation of jacobinism which they suspended oyer 
the head of the accuser are recollected, some 
stirrings of indignation will arise; but wh«i we 
reflect on what the British nation felt and ex- 
pressed on this occasion, and on the effect which 
the expression of these sentiments produced, we 
look round in vain for any other people who 
would have been equally bold, persevering, 
temperate and successful. The intrepid and 
mamv conduct of Colonel Wardle, and of those 
who had been his principal supporters, was pub- 
licly acknowledged in the warmest terms of 
gratitude, esteem, and admiration, by the cities 
of London and Westminster ; and the impres- 
sive voice of the people, raised in almost every 
county, city, and town, in the kingdom, served 
to show, that a sense of public wrong, where 
injury has been sustained, and of pnbUc s^ati- 
tnde, where benefits have been conferred, are 
ever to be found amongst a free and generous 
people. 

On tiie resignation of the Duke of York, 
the office of commander-in-chief was conferred 
on General Sir David Dundas, and the nation 
had the satisfaction to find, that one of the first 
consequences of the investigation was the enact- 
ment of a law, declaring the brokerage of offices) 
either in the army, the church, or the state, to be 
a crime highly penal. 

In the course of the investigation into the 
conduct of the Duke of York, it was ascertain- 
.ed beyond all doubt, that there was a regular, 
systematic, and ledmost avowed traffic in East 
India appointments, as well as in subordinate 
places under government. These discoveries 
kd to the appointment of a committee of the 
house of commons to inquire into the abuse of 
East India patronage ; and from the report of 
that body it appeared, that a vast number of 
eadetships and writerships had been dbposed of 
in an illegal manner. To remedy so great an 
evil, Mr. Thelluson, one of the directors, deeply 
implicated in these transactions, was, at the 
iisual annual election, rejected by a great ma« 



jority ; and the court, after long and animated 
debautes, determined, that all those youn^ men 
named by the committee of the house oi com* 
Bons as having obtained their appointments by 
<N>rrupt practices, should be deprived of their 
employments and recalled from India. 

The examination of the witnesses by the 
eommittee appointed to inquire into the abuse 
of India patronage, developed transactions inti- 
mately connected with tiie character of the 
house of commons, and the proceedings of some 
of its most distinguished members ; and on the 
95th of April, Lord Archibald Hamilton rose to 
submit a motion to the house, grounded on the 
conduct of Lord Castlereagh, who, in his evi- 
dence before that committee, had stated, that he, 
in the year 1805, delivered into the hands of his 
friend Lord Clancarty a writership, of which' he 
had tiie gift, for the purpose of exchanging it 
for a seat in parliament. This negociation, it 
appeared, was carried on between Lord Cas- 
tiereaeh and a Mr. Reding, an advertising 
place-broker, who was a perfect stranger to 
his lordship. The treaty was opened by letter ; 
and it appeared from the evidence on the table 
of the house, that Lord Castlereagh told Mr. 
Reding that he did not want a seat for 
himself but for one of his friends. Difierent 
meetings took place between Lord Castlereagh 
and Mr. Redmg, but the nomination to the 
writership did not finally take place, and the 
negociation was broken off; but this plea, said 
Lord Archibald Hamilton, cannot avail his lord-* 
ship, for his intention was obvious, and of that 
intention the house was to judge. 

Lord Castiereagh expressed his sorrow, that 
any act of his, or rather any intention, could be 
deemed such as to call for parliamentary inquiry ; 
tile case before them had no reference to pecu- 
niary transactions ; and he could only regret 
that any motives of private friendship or of pub- 
lic seal should have induced him to do any thing 
requiring the cognizance of that house. If he 
had erred it was unintentionally, and he would 
submit vrith patience to any censure which he 
might be thought to have incurred : having made 
this declaration, his lordship bowed to the chair 
and retired. 

After his lordship had withdrawn, the mi- 
nutes of the evidence wa*e read, and Lord A. 
Hamilton moved, 

" That it appears to tbia house, from the evidence 
npon the table, tiiat Lord Viscount Castlereagh, in the 
year 1805, he havings just quitted the oflSice of president of 
the board of controul, and beings then a privy counsellor, 
and one of his m^esty's secretaries of state ; did deliver 
up into the hands of Lord Clancarty, a writership of which 
he had the gift, for the purpose of exchanging it for a 
seat in parliament. That merely from the disagi*eements 
of some subordinate agents employed, this design was not 



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OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 



Id5 



carried into effect. That such conduct was a dereliction of 
his duty, as president of the hoard of controu], a g^oss 
Tiolatioii of his engagements as a servant of the crown, and 
an attack on the purity and constitution of the liouse." 

A • long debate ensued, in ^iiich there was 
an unusoal degHwuof mildness and forbearance, 
and in which it was contended, by the friends of 
his lordship, that the intention ought not to be 
punished with the same severity as the actual 
conunissifin of an offence. There was no malus 
animus ; no corrupt design appeared in the 
whole transaction ; and it was evident that the 
noble lord had not acted in his official capacity, 
but merely as an individual wishing to oblige his 
friend. Officially he bad committed no offence, 
and the degree of punishmeiii ought to be pro- 
portioned to the degree of guilt.* On these . 
grounds it was moved that the house should pro- 
ceed to the order of the day. 

It was on the other band contended, that the 
intention manifested and acknowledged by Lord 
Castlereagh was sufficient to establish his cri- 
minality ; and that if the negociation failed, it was 
not for want of inclination on the part of the 
noble lord.t This was an abuse of the patron- 
age of a minister with a view to make an attack 
on the independence of parliament ; and if the 
house shrunk from the performance of their 
duty in this case, by passing to the order of the 
day, they would sanction the opinion, that they 
were always ready to punish the petty offender 
in retail, but that they passed over the wholesale 
trade in corruption without animadversion. The 
offence was one of the gravest kind. What was 
the crime of Hamlin compared with this ? and 
yet the poor Plymouth tin-man was sent to gaol 
for oflering Lord Sidmouth a bribe, while it was 



CtlAP. 



1809 



recommended to pass over the conduct of the BOOK IV. 

noble lord in silence. This would not be deal '■ 

ing out equal justice ; it would not be doing 
justice to the character of the house, it would 
make the whole nation parliamentary reformers. ;( 

At the close of the debate the house divided, 
when the motion of Lord A. Hamilton was re- 
jected by a majority of two hundred and thir- 
teen to one hundred and sixty-seven voices. A 
motion was afterwards proposed, and carried, to 
the effect, that it was the duty of the house of 
commons to maintain and guard the purity and 
independence of parliament ; but that the inten- 
tion charged not having been carried into effect, 
no criminatory proceeding appeared to the house 
to be nec'essary. 

The finances of this year, like those of the 
last, exhibited no feature of novelty ;§ and the 
navy and army estimates were nearly the same as 
in 1808. The fourth report of the committee of 
public expenditure was, however, received with 
considerable surprise ; and the disclosures it ex- 
hibited regarding the conduct of the commis- 
sioners appointed to manage, sell, and dispose of 
the Dutch ships detained or brouo^ht into the 
ports of Great Britain, could not fail to awaken 
the public indignation. This document, which 
was brought under the consideration of . the 
house of commons by Mr. Ord, on the Ist of 
May, stated, that the commissioners were five in 
number, namely, James Crawford, John Breek- 
wood, Alien Chatfield, Alexander Baxter, and 
John Bowles ; that the appointment of the com- 
missioners took place in the year 1795, and that 
their transactions were nearly brought to a close 
in 1799. As no fixed remuneration had been 
assigned to them, they resolved to remunerate 



Lord Binning, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, and BIr. Canning. f Mr. C. W. Wynne. 

§ FINANCE. 



Mr.TVhitbread. 



PUBLIC INCOME of Great Britain for the Year 
ending the 6tb of January, 1809. 



JBr wKhetj^.Mtvcnye. Grots Jieceiptt, | Faid into the Bxcheq , 



Customs 9,«14,151 

Rxduw 19,824^15 9 

StunjM ^ 4,821,865 2 

Land&AjsesedTaxa 7,606,192 18 

Poft Office 1,498,251 9 

>1iscd.PaiDftneDtrax. 168,258 11 

Hered. Revenue 65,119 16 

Kxtraord. Resoorcei: 

s. S {(mtams 2,784,544 4 

{? 2 < Excise 6.876,798 17 

^H (Properly Tax 11,413,562 4 

MiseeL Income .... 2,781,698 15 

I^AAOs, including) 

£1,200,000 for the V 10,102,620 15 
Benrice of Ireland... J 



4 
51 

1 

74 



H 



£. s. 

7,726,116 19 9i 

18,182,174 12 if 

4,695,871 9 lol 

7,789,816 19 41 

1,268,556 2 l{ 

164,225 15 5i 

109,541 16 81 

2,568,850 17 8| 

6,827,510 11 10| 

11,155,152 2 l| 

2,758,967 17 2J 

10,102,620 15 6 



Grand Total— £77,157,258 1 7 7" 
WhiicfiaBt Treasury Chamber$t 7 

24tA ^JlfarcA, 1809. j W. 

VOL. II. — NO. 46. 



£75,1 29,1 85 17 44 



(S^ed) 
HUSKIS50N. 



PUBLIC EXPENDITURE of Great BriUin for the 
Year ending the dth of January, 1809. 



Head4 of Expenditure, 



Symt. 



Interest 

Chane of Maaagement 

Reduction or National Debt 

Interest on Exchequer Bills 

Civil List 

Civil Government of Scotland ^ 

Payments in anticipation, &c «.. 

Navy 

Ordnance 

Army 

Extraordinary Services 

Loans to Sweden and Sicily, including \ 
£2,589.166 15^ 4d. to Ireland. j 
MiBoeUaneous Services 



Jt'. 


«. 


d. 


20,771,871 


15 


H 


210,549 


2 




10,188,606 


16 




1,610,562 


16 


10 


1,658,677 


5 




85,470 


4 




787,262 


5 




17,467,892 


8 




5,108,900 


5 




11,555,299 


12 


10 


5,847.762 


2 


11 



5,989,166 15 4 
2,920,491 8 31 



Deductions for Sums forming no part of the 1 81,980,'#12 8 
Expenditure of Great Britain. •. • J 2.589,166 15 
Grand TotaL-- £79,591 ^545 



JVhiUhaU, Treasury Chambcrs,\ 
2M qf Marcht 1909. j 

I I ' 



4^ 



15 2| 



(Signed) 
W. HUSKISSON. 



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186 



tilgTORV or THE WARS 



Chap. Xt 



1S09 



BDOKIY. ilMu^»elr^f Md ohflfged tk commission of fite 
per cent on the gross proceeds of their sales, 
^hich eomttiissioil atnounted in all to «£ 132,000, 
being aft the rate of ^20,000 for each commis- 
sioner. Not satisfied with this enormous allow- 
ance, the money intrusted to their hands was 
employed in discounting private bills for their 
own emolament^ and when an application was 
made to them by Mr. Pitt, in 1706, to pay a sum 
of money into the exchequer, in aid of the public 
Exigencies, they refused to aflford any relief to the 
state, although it was now^bvious that they had 
at that time in their hands a balance amounting 
to j£'lOO,000. This conduct, Mr. Ord said, was 
the more to be deprecated, as one of the commis-^ 
sioners — ^Mr. John Bowles, was a monopolist of 
loyalty, the eulogist of existing power, and the 
denouncer of all who might condemn abuses, or 
call for reform^ as vile and unprincipled jacobins. 
After an animated discussion, the house resolved 
that the commissioners, taking advantage of the 
emission of government to inquire into their 
proceedings, had, without authority, appro^ 
priated to their own use large sums of the pub- 
lic money, and had thereby been guilty of a fla- 
grant violation of public duty. 

The exposure of the conduct of the Dutch 
commissioners was followed by a charge, ex* 
hibited by Mr. Madocks, of corrupt practices 
agaiust two of his majesty's ministers. The 
honourable ^ gentleman, without giving the 
ttuthority on which his information rested, 
stated, that at the last election a sum was 
paid, through the negociation of Lord Castle- 
reagh, to Mr. Henry Wellesley, as the agent 
of the treasury, by Mr. Quintin Dick, in con- 
sequence of which payment, a seat in par- 
liament for the borough of Cashel was obtained 
by Mr. Dick ; and that Mr. Spencer Perceval 
was privy to the transaction. Mr. Madocks 
stated, that Mr. Dick having accordingly takeu 
his seat in that house, did, pending the discus- 
sions concerning the administration of the army 
under his Royal Highness the Duke of York, 
wait upon Lord Castlereagh, and acquainted 
him with the nature of the vote he intended to 
give upon that subject ; on which Lord Castle- 
reagh, after eonsuUing with Mr. Spencer Per- 
ceval, suggested to Mr. Dick the propriety of 
resigning his seat rather than give the vote he 
proposed. These facts, the honourable mover 
said, he was prepared to prove, and moved that 
the house should resolve itself into a committee, 
to examine into the matter of the said charge. 
Mr. Perceval and Lord Castlereagh pro- 
tested against the dangerous precedent of enter- 
ing into discussions and charges made without 
any specific proof; and the house^ conceiving that 
no sufficient ground had been laid for entering 
on the inquiry, negatived the motion by a ma- 



jority of three hundred and ten to eighty-five 
voices. 

One of the first consequences of the expo- 
sure of public abuses made during the present 
session of parliament, was the introduction of a 
bill into the house of commons bv Mr. Cnrwen^ 
for better securing the purity and independence 
of parliaitient, by preventing the procuring or 
obtaining seats oy corrupt practices, and like^ 
wise for the more efiectual prevention of bribery. 
The unanimous leave of the house was givei^ to 
introduce this bill, which ultimately passed into 
a law. But so completely were the«alutary pro- 
visions of the original measure frittered away 
in its procress through parliament, that many of 
the friends to reform refused to vote for tts enact- 
ment, und^r the apprehension, that H Arould 
stand in the way of more efficient feegulations, 
and tend to give to the treasury a monopoly of 
parliamentary patronage. Pendingihe debates 
on this bill in the committee, the ^eaker took 
occasion to observe, that the question under 
consideration was no less than tlus — ^^ Whether 
seats in this house shall be heneeforth publicly 
saleable } A proposition, at the'sound of which 
our ancestors would liave startled with indigna- 
tion ; but a practice," said he, ^' which, in these 
days, and within these walls, in utter oblivion of 
every former maxim and feeling of parliament, 
has been avowed and justified." 

The parliament was now on the eve of ter^ 
minating its labours for the present year, when 
Sir Francis Burdett submitted to the considera- 
tion of the house of commons a plan of parlia- 
mentary reform, grounded on the laws and con- 
stitution of the country, and resembling in the 
leading features the plan proposed by the Duke 
of Richmond thirty years bei'ore. The disease 
under which tha country laboured, had, he eon- 
tended, been caused by the disunion of property 
and political rights, and the remedy he should 
propose would consist in re> uniting them* 
For this purpose he should propose : — 

" That frtf^holders &nd others, sut:gect to direct taxa- 
tion in support of the poor, the church, and the state, be 
required to elect members to serve in parliament. 

" That each county be subdivided according to its 
taxed male population, and each subdiTision required to 
elect one representative. 

** That the votes be taken in each parish by the parich 
officers ; and that all the elections shall be finished in onfB 
and the same day. 

** That the parish officers make the return to the 
sheriffs' court, to be held for that purpose at stated periods. 

*' And that parliament be brought back to a constitu- 
tional duration." 

It was not the wish of the honourable baronet 
to call for an immediate decision upon this mo- 
mentous subject, but merely to moTC, " That 
this house will, early in the next session of par* 



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OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 



187 



liamenty take into consideration the necessity of 
a reform in the representation." The chancellor 
of the exchequer, and several other members^ 
contended, that the plan now proposed %TonId 
never produce the effects anticipated from it, 
unless the mover of the measure couM altei*) not 
only onr political constitution, but tho frame of 
the human mind; unless he could. at once get 
fid of hiiman prejudices and human passions. 
On a division of the hou¥»e there appeared 
for« the motion fifteen, against it seventy-four 
voices. 

While the question of parliamentary reform 
was under discussion, Mr. Wardle observed, 
that an efficient reform in the commons house of 
parliament would ensure to the people in their 
representatives active supporters of their riijhts 
and faitbfil guardians of their purse ; and he 
did not hesitate to say, that in such an event, the 
amount of the income tax might be saved to the 
public. This declaration he was loudly called 
upon to explain ; and on the 19th of June, the 
honourable gentleman recapitulated tiie savings 
he had calculated upon, and stated them to be in 
the army <£6,18^,000 : in the navy <£5,832,(»)0 ; 
in the management of the revenue <£1, 110,000 ; 
commissions of accounts and inquiry ^75,000 ; 
pensions ^300,000; colonies c£dO*>,000; bounties 
^150,000 ; allowance in management of debt 
«£210,000; military expenditure of Ireland 
•£2,000,000 ; making an aggregate saving of 
^16,849,000 per annum. In order to show how 
these savings might be effected, Mr. Wtirdle 
moved for a large mass of accounts in the respec- 
tive departments of the state to which he had 
referred, all which documents were ordered to 
be liud on the table. 

Two days after the introduction of this 
motion, parliament was prorogued, and never, 
perhaps, in th^ annals of the British legislature, 
had the attention of the nation been fixed with 
more deep and anxious interest upon the pro- 
ceedings of that assembly. 

The transactions of the British navy never 
failed to present a highly interesting and animat- 
ing object ; ^and the gallantry and skill displayed 
in the successful attack on the French fleet in 
Basque Roads, will serve to grace the naval 
annals of Great Britain. The enemy's fleet, 
consisting of eight sail of the line and two fri- 
gates, had recently sailed from the harbour of 
Brest, and effected their etrtape to the mouth of 
the Charante, where they wei^ joined by four 
sail of the line and two frigates, and where they 
anchored under the battenes, in such a manner 
as to afford mutual support and protection to 
each other. In this situation it was determined 
to attack them ; and Lord Cochrane, in the Im- 
perieuse, was dispatched from England on this 
arduous and hazardous service. On the lOtb 



Chap. X. 



leoo* 



of April a number of fire vessels, and transports BOOKIY. 
filled with Congreve's rockets, joined Lord 
Gambier'is fleet ; and ike preparations for tte 
attack were immediately begun. The fitting up 
and management of the explosion ship were 
entirely intrusted to Lord Cochrane, and the 
gallant captain determined that nothing should be 
wanting to render the preparations complete ; for 
this purpose he caused puncheons, placed with the 
ends upwards, to be filled with gunpowder, and 
fifteen nundred barrels of this death-dispensing 
combustible were used to charge the hogsheads. 
On the top of the puncheons, nearly four hun-^ 
dred shells with fusee^ were placed, audita the 
intermediate space about three thousand hand 
grenades. In order that the explosion might be 
as violent and destructive as possible, the pua« 
cheons were fastened together by cables, and 
kept steady and immoveable by wedges, and sand 
rammed down between them. In this floating 
volcano, at which the imaginatioB instinctively 
shrinks with dismay. Lord Codirane, with one 
lieutenant and four seamen, committed himself. 
On the 11th, the fire-ships, led on by Captain 
Woodridge, and the explosion ship, bearing its 
dmall adventurous crew, proceeded to the attack, 
favoured by a strong northerly wind and the 
flood tide. On approaching the enemy^s vessels, 
they perceived a boom stretched across the en- 
trance of the roads in front of thdr line. This 
impediment, however, was soon broken down, 
and the English advanced, undismayed by the 
heavy fire from the forts in the Isle of Aix. 
Lord Cochrane, having approached with his 
ship us near to the enemy as possible, set fite to 
the fusee, and betook himself with his com- 
panions to the boat. Nine minutes after they 
had quitted the ship, and six minutes before the 
time calculated, she blew up vrith a tremendous 
explosion, and scattfTed death and destruction 
in every direction. His lordship had no sooner 
reached his own ship, than he proceeded to 
nttack the French vessels, and sustained their 
fire for some time before any other man of war 
entered the harbour. Early in the morning of 
the 12th, Lord Gambier, in consequence of a 
signal from Lord Cochrane, announcing that 
seven of the enemy's sMps were on shore, and 
might be destroyeo, made the signal to unmoor 
and weigh, but the wind and tide being against 
him, the admiral was obliged to anchor again, 
before he reached the roads. The enemy, avail- 
ing themselres of this circumstance, succeeded: 
in getting six of their ships up the river Cha- 
rante. Four of the remaining ships were attacked 
by Lord Cochrane, in the Impericuse, followed 
by the Revenge, the Indefatigable, and the 
Valiant, of seventy-four guns each : while the 
other ships advanced, his lordship laid his vcs^ 
sel alongside of the Calcutta, and compelled her, 



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128 



HISTOlftY OF THB WARS 



Chap. X. 



.1809 



JiOOK IV. to surrender^ although she bad one-third more 
guns than the Imperieuse. Hi$i lordship, sup- 
ported by the other English men of war, next 
attacked the Ville de Varsovie, and the Aquilon, 
and succeeded in taking them, in the face of tlie 
tremendous fire from the batteries of Aix. These 
ships it was found impossible to get oflT, aqd 
they were destroyed, along with the Tounerre, 
another of the French squadron. By this bril- 
liant and gallant achievement, one ship of one 
hundred and twenty guns, five of seyenty-four 
guns, and two frigates^ were driven on shore, 
and either totally destroyed or rendered useless ; 
one of eighty guns, two of seventy -four, and 
one of fifty guns, with three frigates, were burnt^ 
and the French had the mortification to perceive 
that their ships could not be secured from British 
intrepidity and skill, even by the batteries of 
their own forts, and the intricate and dangerous 
navigation of their own bays.^ 

In addition to the services performed by 
Lord Cochrane, and by some other naval ofiicers 
in the Bay of Biscay, the fleet of Lord Colling- 
wood, in the Mediterranean, distinguished itself 
in the cause of the Spanish patriots. Towards 
the end of October, three sail of the line, four 
frigates, and twenty large transports, wei*e dis- 
patched from Toulon, under the French Ad- 
miral Bauden^ to the relief of Barcelona. As 
soon as this fleet was discovered. Lord Colling- 
wood gave orders to Admiral Martin to chase 
them. The sight of the English fleet was the 
signal for the flight of the French ; and in order 
to escape their pursuers, the line of battle ships, 
and one of the frigates, ran ashore between Cette 
and Frontignan, where they were set on fire by 
their crews, and destroyed, to prevent them from 
falling into the hands of the British. The trans- 
ports separated from the men of war, and took 
refuge in the bay of Rosas ; where, under the 
shelter of an armed store-ship, two bombards, 
and a xebeck, they seemed to regard tliemselves 
secure ; but in this situation they were attacked 
by Captain Hollowell, who headed the boats of 
the English squadron, and notwithstanding a 
gallant resistance, every ship and vessel of the 
enemy was either burnt or brought off^, in the 
sight of thousands of spectators, who witnessed 
the humiliation of their countrymen, and the re- 
sistless bravery of British seamen. 

In the West Indies, the Island of Martinique, 



and the city of St. Domingo, were this year 
added to our numerous possessions f and the 
colony of Cayenne, under the government of 
Victor Hughes, fellan easy conquest to a com- 
bined attack made by English and Portuguese 
troops. In the east, the Island of Bourbon sur- 
rendered to the English on the 21st of Septem- 
ber, and neai'ly about the same time, the small 
Grecian Islands of Zante, Cephalonia, Ithaca, 
and Cerigo, acknowledged the sway of the Bri- 
tish sceptre. 

The unhappy differences between Great 
Britain and America this year assumed a more 
confirmed character, and while both countries 
professed an anxious desire for the revival of 
those amicable relations which had been so long 
interrupted, such was the tendency of the mea- 
sures pursued, that a state of actual hostility 
was fast approaching. For the purpose of re- 
moving one of the most objectionable and irri- 
tating parts of the British orders in council, the 
board of trade, in the beginning of April, issued 
certain regulations, by which it was declared, 
that all neutral vessels were at liberty to trade 
with any port whatever, except those in a state 
of actual blockade ; and the blockade was ex- 
pressly defined to extend to the whole coast of 
France, Holland, and the ports of Italy under 
the dominion of France. By these regulations, 
America was therefore permitted to trade with 
Russia, Denmark, Sweden, and all the ports of 
the Baltic, without molestation ; and all vessels 
conforming to these rules, though brought into 
our ports under the former orders in council, 
were to be liberated without expense or trouble. 
About the same time that these regulations were 
issued in England, an ofiicial assurance was 
given to the American secretary of state, by the 
Honourable D. M. Erskine, the British envoy 
extraordinary, and minister plenipotentiary to 
the United States, that he was authorised to de- 
clare, that his majesty's orders in council, of 
January and November, 1807, would be with- 
drawn, as respected the United States, on the 
10th of June next, in the persuasion that the 
president would issue a procianiation for the re- 
newal of the intercourse with Great Britain. t 
In virtue of this assurance, Mr. Madison, who 
bad been elected President of the United States 
on the resignation of Mr. Jefferson, issued a 
proclamation on the following day, announcing 



* In the coarse of this entorprise, Lord Cochrane displayed his humanity in as signal and noble a manner as 
his couragfe. A captain of one of the French seventy-fours, when delirering his sword to his lordship, lamented, that the 
conflagration of his ship, which was just about to take place, would destroy all the pmperty he possessed. On hearing 
tliis, Lord Cochrane instantly went into the boa^ along with him, in order, if possible, to rescue tlie captun's property from 
the devouring element ; but, unfortunately, his lonLship's humane intentions were fi-ustrated in a most shocking manner : 
as they passed a French ship, which was on fire, her loaded guns went off, and one of the balls striking the French captain, 
l^llled him by the side of his generous conqueror. 

t Mr. Erskine's Letter te Mr. Soaith, dated Washington, AprU 18, 1809. 



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that the trade betureen Great Britain and 
America would be renewed on the 10th of June. 

The American merchants^ preaomia^ on thia 
adjustment of the existing differences, prepared 
to renew their usual diroct and uninterrupted 
communication with the difiisrent states of Eu- 
rope ; and the Briiish merchants were congratu-. 
lating themsdves on the speedy and certain 
prospect of hating the trade to America fully 
opened to them> when they were informed by the 
lords of the council, tliat th6 arrangements en • 
tered into by Mr. Erskine with the American 
government, were unauthorised by his instrup* 
tions, and that, therefore, his majesty did not 
deem it proper or adTisable to carry them into 
effect. At tho same time Mr. Jackson was ap- 
pointed by ministers to supersede Mr. Erskine, 
who, in his zeal to accimmiodate the existing 
differences with America, had, undouhtedly, ex- 
ceeded bis authority. Previously to the arrange- 
ment with Mr. Erskine, the American govern* 
ment, finding the embargo to fall with a severe 
pressure upon every part of the communitv, 
determined upon some relaxation ; and accord- 
ingly the embargo was raised as to all other 
nations, and a system of non-intercourse and 
non-importation towards England and France, 
substituted in its stead.* By tliis act of con- 
gress, all voyages to the British and French 
dominions, and all trade in articles of British 
or French manufacture, were prohibited; with 
tlie reservation, however, that whichever of 
the belligerents should so revoke or modify her 
edicts that they should cease to violate the com* 
merce of the United States, the trade with that 
country should be renewed. 

Soon after the breaking out of the war 
between France and Austria, the British minis- 
try begtm to make preparations for a large and 
formidable expedition, and 40,000 troops, meant 
to be assisted in their operations by the power-- 
ful aid of thirty-five sail of the line, and about 
two hundred sail of smaller vessels, were assem- 
bled on the coasts of Kent and Hampshire. 
Although it was tlie intention of the govern- 
ment to keep the precise destination of the ex- 
pedition a profound secret, yet long before its 
departure the point of attack was generally 
known ill England, and publicly announced in 
the French. newspapers. It is probable, how- 
ever, that when the expedition was first plan- 
ned, and up to the period of the fatal battle of 
Wagram, the Britif^h ministry had other objects 
in view besides the occupation of Flushing, 
and the destruction of the French ships of war 
in the Scheldt ; and it may be fairly presumed 



Chap. X. 
1809 



that their intention was at once to make a diver- BOOK iv. 
sion in favour of Austria, and at the. same time 
to secure an object exclusively British. • 

The expedition ^iras* fitted* out. in the most 
complete manner, and nothing seemed wanting 
to secure it as much success as the nature of the 
enterprise would admit, except the appointo^ent 
of an able military commander. But here, un- 
fortunately, the formidable strength, and the 
complete equipment of the troops, were ren- 
dered useless ; and when it was known that the 
command was to be conferred on the Earl of 
Chatham, a man proverbial for indolence and 
inactivity, the nation no longer looked forward 
to the result with confidence.f At length, on 
the 2Sth and 30th of July, the expedition sailed, 
from the Downs; and on the 1st of Aucust 
Flushing was invested. On the ISth the bat- 
teries were completed, and the frigates and 
smaller vessels, having . taken their respective 
stations, die bombardment commenced on that 
day. The town suffered dreadfully from the 
efiects of Congreve's rockets, while the fortifi- 
cations were little injured. The French Gene- 
ral Monnet, the commander of the place, made 
an attempt .to inundate the island; but this pur- 
pose was not so far effiscted as materially to re- 
tard or impede our offensive operations. On the 
14tfa, Sir Riclianl Strachan, to whom the naval 
part of tlie expedition was confided, cannonaded 
the town for some hours, with so much effect, 
that* a summons was sent in ; but some delay 
and difficulty havim; arisen, the attack recom- 
menced, ana the advanced post was carried at 
the point of the bayonet. The next day the 
enemy demanded a suspension of arms, which 
was succeeded by the surrender of the town, and 
the garrison, amounting to more than four 
thousand troops, were made prisoners of war. 
While tlie operations were proceeding aeainst 
Flushing, the troops who were unemployed were 
suffered to remain cooped up in transports, in- ' 
stead of being sent against the forts of the 
Scheldt, and soon after the surrender of their 
fortress a rumour reached England that no 
ulterior operations would be undertaken. It 
afterwards appeared that no decision on this 
point had been come io before the 27th of 
August, when Sir Richard Strachan, having 
waited upon Lord Chatham in person to learn 
hi^ lordship's plans, vras informed that he had 
come to the determination not to advance. Tho 
French, in the mean time, had ncrt been inactive ; 
every preparation was made to oppose the pas- 
sage both of our army and navy ; • the interior <tf 
the Netherlands, and of France as far as Paris, 



• Act of Coofipren^ dated 1st of March, 1800. 

f When bis lordship held the effioe of First Lord of the Admiralty, he was, in aUusion to his hoar of rising, calM 
the Ikee £ari of Chadiam. 

VOL. II. — NO, 47. K K 



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HISTORY OF ¥HB WABS 



BOOK IV. was stripped of the satioBal guards; and an 



Crap. X. 
.1809 



army. 



fornUable from nimiberB) if mot from 
discipline and experi^ee, bad aetnally been 
collected for tbe defonoe of Antwerp and tbe 
shipping; the naral stores were removed) and 
preparations were made for oonTeying the ships 
so high up the river, as to put thein beyond tne 
reach of either the invading army or navy. 

While th^ commander of the British land 
forces displayed none of the requisite qualities 
of a general, and while, by his delay and inde- 
cision, he gave the enemy an importunity of 
assembling force sufficient to oppose our pro- 
gress, Sir Richard Straehan acted with the 
usual promptitude and decision of a British 
sailor. He offered, in the most unqualified 
manner, every assistsoiee and co«-operation which 
the navy was capable of affording, and received 
wit& undissembled dissatisfaction and indigna- ' 
iion the determination of Lord Chatham to 
reject his proffered ^ assistance, and proceed no 
further. 

The most melancholy and disastrous part 
of this ill*judged and iU^oonducted expedition 
remains to be told. Lord Chatham, with a great 
proportion of tlie troops, returned to England ; 
and the remainder found it expedient to give up 
all their conquests but tbe Island of Walch«ren« 
This pestilential station it was resolved to keep, 
for the purpose of shutting up the mouth of the 
Scheldt, alid for enabHn^ our merchants to in* 
troduce British merchandise into Holland* But, 
from this island, the sale fruit of one of the most 
formidable and expensive expeditions ever sent 
from this country, we were doomed to be driven 
by an enemy more cruel and destructive than 
the Erenoh. A malady of the most filial kind 
soon showed itself among the troops, and sug- 
l^ted, in a language that could not be misun* 
derstood, the necessity for immediate recall. 
Ministers, however, olung with paternal attach* 
, ment to this dearly-bought acquisition, and it 
was not till a great proportion of the forces had 
either died of the prevailing epidemic, or been 
. rendered incapable of performing their duty, 
4hat the fortifications, which we had repaired at 
an enormous expense, were destroyed, and the 
island was evacuated in the sight of an enemy, 
who, knowing that the ravages of disease would 
render any attack unnecessary, took no mea- 
sures to expel the British forces from their 
fatal conquest. 

The attention of the peo{de was soon di- 
verted from the disastrous expedition against 
Walcheren, by two circumstanoes of a very op- 
posite nature— the intrigues and disputes among 



the ministry, and the celebration of a jubilee, on 
the king havins^ attained the fiftietbyear of hia 
reign. It' hud long been suspected- that the 
members of the Brituh cabinet were at variance; 
and the failure of the expedition to Holland 
called forth those disputes into a dimraoeful aet, 
calculated to awaken the public iadigimtion at 
home, and to lower the British government in 
tiie estimation of foreign states.* On the 31st 
of September, a duel tookpla^ bet?ween Lord 
Castiereagh and Mr. Canning, twa members of 
his ms^jestjr's cabm^, holding the highest official 
situations in the state ; the former oeing seore^ 
tary for the war and colonial department^ and 
the latter, secretary for foreign afiairs. The 
parties, who met on Putn^y-Heatii, fired a first 
time without effect ; and as the nature of the 
diflerence did not appear to the combatants to 
admit of explanation or apology, they Arod at 
each other the second time, when Mr. Canning 
received his flmtagonisf s ball in his right thigh. 
This duel was preceded, and immediately occsl^ 
sioned, by a letter from Lord Castlerea^^ to 
Mr. Canning. In this letter, his lordship ac^i* 
ouses the foreign secretary of having clandes- 
tinely endeavoured to procure his removal from 
his situation, and of having obtained a positive 

t promise to that effect from the Duke of Port* 
and. His lordship declares that he would not 
have deemed the conduct of Mr: Canning im- 
proper or unfair towards him, if he had not con-> 
eealed his intention from his lordship, who, as 
tiie person most interested, ought ei^plicitly, and 
at first, to have been made acquainted with Mr* 
Canning's proposal for his removaL Bat in- 
stead of pursuing this manly and liberal course 
of isonduct, Mr. Canning, notwithstanding he 
had declared his eonvietion that Lord Castle^ 
reagh was unfit for his situation) and had pre- 
vailed upon the premier ^to consent to his re-* 
moval, continued to treat his lordship as 'if he 
still possessed his confidence and good opinion, 
and permitted a minister, whom he had denounced 
as incapable, to plan and carrv into execution 
the most extensive and formidable expedition 
perhaps ever sent from the British shdres. 

Against these serious charges^ equally inw 
plioating Mr. Canning as a genUenian and a 
public minister, the nation naturally expected a 
prompt if not a satisfactory reply ; but nearly a 
month elapsed before Mr* Canning found him- 
self prepared to enter on his defence ; and in 
the mean time the ministry was completely dis- 
solved. The Duke of Fortiaad gave in his 
resignation, on account of his age and infirmi- 
ties ; and Lord Castiereagh and Mr. Canning 



* Bonaparte* in a letter to the Emperor of Russia, pending the negociatiomi at Henna, aud dated the lOth of 
October, 1809, says, ** I send your miyesty ihe English journals last receiTed 4 you will tee that the Eagliih Busistry 
are fighting with each other, that there is a revolution ia the ministry ; and that all is perfect aosidiy." 



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OF THK FRENCH ]tEVOLU>riON< 



131 



resigned. At length Mr. Canning^s statement 
msLae its appearance. In this document it is 
admitted that the proposal and plan for Lord 
Castlereagh^s dismissal continued from Easter 
till September ; but Mr. Canning contends that 
it was entirely owing to his lordship*s friends 
that the actual dismission was delayed till the 
termination of the expedition to the Scheldt. 
The principal point on which he insists is, that 
he supposed his colleague knew that his dismissal 
was in contemplation, and that the proposal 
originated with him. Upon the futility or this 
reasoning it is unnecessary to dwell. The line' 
of conduct which Mr. Canning ought to hare 
pursued is obvious and simple ; it was chalked 
out to him by the usual practice of parliament ; 
thcM no member erer makes a motion against 
another, till he has ffiven notice to the genUeman 
who is to be the object of his censure ; and if 
such a proceeding be deemed necessary in par- 
liament, it is still more reouisite in the cabinet. 

On the day after.the auel, Mr. Perceyal, op 
whom, in consequence of the resignation of the 
Duke of Portland, the ostensible, as well as 
the real superintendence of the govemment of 
the country had fallen, wrote to Earl Grey and 
liord Gtrenville, inviting them to co-operate 
widi him, *^ for the purpose of fcNrmiag an ex- 
tended and combined administration.'' Both 
these noblem^ were, at that time in the country, 
and Earl Grey, in roply to Mr. Perceval's letter, 
declined coming to X<ondon, since it was utterly 
impossible for liim to form an union with his 
migasty's ministers, , with any hope of promoting 
the invests .of the country. Lord Grenviile 
imnediatelv ri^paired to town ; but the day after 
his arrival kfi sent af^p^y^ objecting to an union 
with his majesty's present ministers, and adding, 
tba^ Ids olqectioBs were not personal, but applied 



1800 



'' to the principle of the governinent itself, and BOOK IV. 
to the circumstances which attended its appoint- • ' 
ment." After this refusal, Mr. Perceval applied Cjiat.^^ 
to several public men, who were known to be ^^^^^ 
gearerally favourable to ttie line of politics which 
he had pursued ; and after sufiering the mortifi- 
cation of several refusals, the arrangements were 
at length completed. Mr. Peroeval himself took 
the office of irst lord of the treasury and chan* 
cellor of the exchequer; the MaVquis of Welles^ 
le^ succeeded to the foreign department ; Lord ' 
Liverpool was transferred from the home to the 
department of war. and colonies ; Mr. Ryder 
was appointed to succeed Lord Liverpool ; and 
Lord Palmerston was at the same time appoint- 
ed secretary at war, in the room of Sir James 
Pulteney. 

Amidst all the disasters of their arms and 
the embarrassments of their councils; the British 
people were not unmindful of the virtues of 
their sovereign. Hence the enthusiasm msini- 
fested on that day, uriiich, for tiie tliird time in 
the annals of their country, saw a monarch, 
deservedly dear to his people, enter the fiftieth 
year of his reign. Nor was the celebration of 
this day more remarkable for the enthusiastic 
loyalty which was displayed, than for the wise 
and humane manner in which the gratitude of 
the nation to providence was expressed, for 
having permitted their sovereign to reigh so 
long, and for tiie continuance of independence 
and prosperity in the midst of the wreck of 
Europe.^ Numerous institutions of benevolence 
and utility were founded in various parts of 
the empire; the hungry were fed ; the naked were 
clothed ; the prison doors were thrown open to^ 
numbers ^ of unfortunate debtors ; and every * 
heart which man was capable of making glad re- 
joiced on this memorable day.* 



* In lurreyiBg tbe suvnmnding statea on this 4ay of Jabilee, it appemred thai the abort period of twenty yeara 
)nid'«we|yt from their thronea all tbe sovereigiia of Europe, that ooonarch alone excepted wfaoae long and eventful reiga 
Iha mikonal festival of tbe 96th of October, 1809, was appointed to celebrate : and the foUowing brksf but ^inpreben- 
aive record, will afford an impreasiye illustration of tbe mutations of the present age, and of the instability of human, 
greatness. 

Louii XVI. King of Fiance, deposed lOch of August, 179S» cse- WiBiam V. Staddiolder of HoQsad, dmeed, Jtn. 179S ; died, April, 

cuted Jsnuinr Slit, 1798. 1806. 

Lovus XVII. £fld in the Tenpfe^ June 9thy 1795. Chedes EmsnueU Kiaa of Saidinia, <x ^ June ith, 1801. 

Jesc^ih II. Emperor of Geimany, \ r Feb. SOdi, 179a Charles IV. and Fei&and VII. Kings/ 

Leopold 11. Bmperar of Germanj, / VMaieh Ist, 1792- of %iain, f -^ 

Orthatlnell KmpreiB of Russia, V Died < Nov. 17th, 1796. GustavusAdotohus IV. Kiag of Sweden, f^^P^'*^^ 

Froderick-WiUiam II. King of Prussia, \ } Nov. I6th, 1797. Pope Pius VII, V 



Christum VII. King of Denmaik, ^ K March I5th, i80& 

fltanisSauB, Khigof FMnd, deposed K07. Sffth, rm% died Feb. 

ISdl, 179B. 
Pope Pius VI. depesed Februaiy, 1798; died August 19tli, 

1798. 



I May, 1808. 
.March 13,1809 
(June ist, 1809. 

Feidinand IV. King of Nqdes, J Q Jan. SSd, 1799. 

GuittmislIL Khigof Sweden, > (March 27th, 1792. 

Paul L Emperor of Russia, }-A«MSin«frd-{ March 22d 1801. 

Selim III. Grand Seignor, j iMaj 29tb,.1807. 

Maria Frances leabaUa, Que^nof Po.tnga], expMiiated, Nov. 1807. 



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CHAPTER XI. 



Spanish Campaions : State nf the ho$tik Armies ai tike Beginning of the Year .1800 — Capture 
of Oporto by the French^Defeat o^ the Spamarde at MedeUin — Treaty of Peace and 
Alliance between Spain ar/d Great Britain-^Retnm of Sir Arthur Wellesley to the Penin' 
sula — Expulsion of the French Army from Oporto — Second Siege and Fall of Saragossa-^ 
Defeat if General Blake in Catalonia — Battle (f Talavera — Retreat of the British 
and Spanish Armies after the Victory of Talavera — Elevation of Sir Arthur WeUesley to 
the Peerage — Appointment ff the Marquis if WeUesley as Ambassador Extraordinary 
to Spain — The Nature if his Miation— Recall if the Marquis^Defeat if General 
Venegas near Toledo^Signal Defeat if the Spanish Army under General Ariezaga-^ 
Defeat of the French Army at Zamames — Battle of Alba — Fall of Gerdna — Popular Com-- 
motion at Seville— Fall of that City — Advance if tlie French Armies to Cadiz— Dissolu- 
tion of the Supreme Central Junta and the Appointment of a Council of Regency — Abortive 
Attempt to rescue Ferdinand FIL — MiUtury Operations in Portugal— Plan if the Cam- 
paign — Advance of the French Army under Massena into Portugal— Fall of Ciudad Rodrigo 
and Almeida — Battle of Busaco^Retreat of Lord Wellington to the Une% of Torres 
Vedras — Close of the Campaign — Election of the SpamA Cortes — Meeting if the Cortes in 
the Isle if Leon^^The Proceeiiings if that Body — Appointment of a new Council of 
Regency— Situation of the Peninsula at the Close of the Year 1810. 



BOOK IV. FROM the moment that Bonaparte left the 

" peninsula in order to prepare for war against the 
^"A|^^XI. Emperor of Austria, the operations and move- 
^"^T^Jj^ ments of the French armies in Spain became not 
*^"^ only less interesting, but more difficult to be 
traced and narrated. The marshals of France, 
instead of following up the grand scheme of 
their emperor, by connecting and uniting their 
whole force, and pressing forward against the 
different Spanish corps successively, divided 
their forces into as many bodies as there were 
hostile armies opposed to them. Instead of dis- 
tinguishing themselves by the celerity of their 
movements, and by quickly following up their 
successes, they advanced slowly, and generally 
remained stationary after a victory. It must, 
however^ be observed, not only in justice to the 
enemy, but as a tribute tlue to the Spaniards, 
that a victory in Spain did not, as in Germany, 
open the way for a rapid and secure advance. 
The Spanish armies were almost always con- 
quered in regular and general engagemepts, but 
the spirit of the people, although it sometimes 
unaccountably slumbered, generally broke out 
immediately after the defeat of their afmies, and 
never failed to fill up the vacancies in the patriot 
ranks. After the army under Sir John Moore 
had embarked for the peninsula, the attention 
and movements of the French were principally 
directed to the pursuit and discomfiture of the 
Spanish corpsi which stiU occupied the centre 



of the kingdom, and to the occupation of such 
of the sea-ports in the north and east as kept 
open the communication with England, or that 
contained the Spanidi navy. Accordingly^ in the 
centre of Spain the Duke of Belluno attacked' 
and defeated the division of the Due del Infan-; 
tado's ' army, under the command- of General 
Venegas ; while in the north the Duke of Dal* 
matia advanced to Ferrol, and, through the pusil- 
lanimity and perfidy of the dvil and muitarf 
authorities, made himself master of that place^ 
as well as of the fleet moored in the harbour. 
The next place against which the operations ef 
the French were directed was Oporto, and of 
this city, though defended by twenty-four thou- 
sand troops and two hundred pieces of cannon, 
the Duke of Dalmatia possessed himself with- 
out encountering any fiNrmidable resistance. 

In the beginning of April, 1800, the prin- 
cipail Spanish and French armies occupied the 
foUowiBff positions : The Marquis del Komana 
was at .Yillafranca ; General Cnesta,haviog been 
joined by the division under the Due d' Albu- 
querque, had halted in his retreat before the 
French near Talavera ; General Reding, having 
suffered severely in an attempt to surprise Barce- 
lona, and in a succession of engagements near 
Tarragona, had be^ reinforced by the army of 
General Blake, and was, with that general, 
employed in opposing the progress of the French 
in Catalonia. Of the French forces, Soult was 



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at Oporto ; Ney in the ^ neighbourhood of Co* 
ranoa and F^rrol ; and Victor Tvas advancpg 
towards Lisbon, by the route of Badajoz, with 
the Spanish force under General Cuesta in his 
front. 

The only engagement worthy of notice, 
either on account of its general nature, or the 
consequences which resulted from it, was fought 
between >f arshal Victor and General Cuesta, at 
Medellin, a town of Estramadura, equi-distant 
from Merida and Truxillo. Towards this place 
the Spanish general marched with a determina- 
tion to attack the invaders, and on the 20th pf 
March he found the whole of Victor's division, 
consisting of twenty thousand infantry and three 
thousand cavalry, drawn up in front of Medellin. 
Unintimidated by the force and skilful dispo- 
sitions of the enemy, Cuesta determined upon a 
rapid and general attack, and by -the gallantry 
and steadiness of his intantry, one of the French 
batteries was carried. To support this vigorous 
operation, the Spanish cavalry regimeuts of 
Amania and Infante, and the two squadrons of 
the imperial chasseurs of Toledo, were ordered 
to advance, but instead of executing the orders 
of tiieir commander, they fled before the enemy, 
and threw the left wing of the Spanish army 
into^ disorder. The French general, availing 
himself of this circumstcCnce, directed his undi- 
vided efforts against the right and centre of the 
Spaniards, and General Cuesta, finding all his 
endeavours to rally his forces unavailing, was 
obliged to commence a disorderly retreat. In 
this engagement the patriots lost, according to 
the French accounts, tburteen thousand men in 
killed and wounded, with six standards, and the 
whole of their artillery. 

The disposition of the British government 
towards the Spaniards still continued favour- 
able ; and disappointment and disaster had by 
no means damped their ardour in the patriotic 
cause. The relations of the two countries had 
hitherto been destitute of the usual formalities ; 
but, early in the present year, a solemn treaty 
of peace and alliance was entered into between 
Great Britain and the authorities administering 
the Spanish government in the name of Ferdi- 
nand VII. By this treaty, which was negoeiated 
on the part of the Spaniards by Don Pedro 
Cevallos, his Britannic Majesty pledged himself 
to assist the Spanish nation in their struggle 
Against the tyranny and usurpation of France, 
and not to acknowledge any odier King of Spain 
and the Indies than his Majesty Ferdinand VII. 
his heirs, and lawful successors. 

In order to carry into effect the promised 
assistance which the British government had 
determined to afford to the patriots, and at the 
same time to free Portugal from the presence of 
Ibe French army, Sir Arthur Wellesley sailed 
Yot, II.— 'No, 47. 



from Portsmouth on the 15th of April, and BOOK IT 

arrived at Lisbon on the 22d of the same month, 

to take the command of the British army, which, Chap. XI. 
by reinforcements sent principally from Ireland^ ^"^fiiT**^ 
had been swelled to thirty thousand men. On ^^^ 
the arrival of Sir Arthur Wellesley at Lisbon, 
he determined to dispossess the French un- 
der Marshal Soult of the city of Oporto ; and 
with this view he assembled the British army 
at Coimbra, on the 7th of May, and advanced 
towards the Douro. Marshal Soult, aware of 
the magnitude of the force which was advancing 
iagainst him, and sensible that he was by no 
means equal to the combat, withdrew the main 
body of his army, and the second city in Portu- 
gal fell into the hands of the British almost 
without resistance. Sir Arthur Wellesley, 
having placed Oporto in a proper state of de- 
fence, returned to the south of Portugal, where 
his presence had become necessary in order to 
protect Lisbon and its vicinity from the French 
urmy^ which was advancing along the Tagus, 
under Marshal Victor. This general, finding 
the capital open to his attack, commenced a 
^apid march from Badajoz, and was diverted 
from his purpose only by the return of Sir 
Arthur Wellesley, accompanied by the intelli- 
gence that he had received of the flight and par- 
tial defeat of the Duke of Dalmatia. 

In the mean time, the affairs of the patriots 
were chequered with alternate success and dis- 
aster in the greater part of the peninsula, but 
in Galicia their successes greatly prepon- 
derated. In the north-east prodigies of valour 
had been displayed ; the second siege of Sara- 
gossa rivalled the first, and will for ever occupy 
a distinguished place in the military annals of 
Spain. A body of about ten thousand men, 
who had escaped from the battle of Tudela, 
bad thrown themselves into Saragossa, and the 
citizens and peasants from the country swelled 
the number of its defenders to about fifty thou- 
sand men. The second siege was commenced 
about the middle of December, 1808, and P^a- 
fox ordained, that all the inhabitants, of what- 
ever rank or condition, should consider them«, 
selves bound to devote their persons, their pro- 
perty, and their lives, to the aefence of the city. 
To a summons from Marshal Moncey to surren- 
der, this heroic chief replied — " Talk of capitu- 
lation when I am dead!^' and the soldiers and 
the citizens proved themselves worthy of their 
illustrious leader. On the 10th of January the 
bombardment began ; and Moncey being inca- 
pacitated by sickness. Marshal Lannes was sent 
by Bonaparte to take the command of the 
besieging army, which consisted of from fifty to 
sixty thousand men. The French, well aware 
that the only way to conquer Saragossa was to 
destroy it bouse by house, and street by street, 
Ll 



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BOOK IV. proceeded upon this Bystem, and three com- 
•i— — - panics of mioers and eight oompanies of sappers 
Chap. XL were continually employed in carrying on this 
^•^^'"^-^ subterraneous war. During the boml^ardnient, 
1800 which continued two and forty days, there was 
no respite either by day or by ni^ht for this 
deToted city ; even the natural order of light 
and darkness was destroyed — by day the place 
was iQTolved in a red sulphureous atmosphere of 
smoke, which hid the race of heaven ; and by 
night, the fire of the cannons and the mortars, 
with the flames of burning houses, kept the 
hemisphere in a state of terrific illumination. 
After a glorious defence, the garrison began to 
experience a want of ammunition, whi<£ was 
succeeded by the horrors of famine ; and a 
pestilential disease appearing at this moment in 
the city, served to nil up the dreadful climax. 
On the 1st of February, the situation of the 
place ap]>eared hopeless ; but the governor- 
general still refused to capitulate, and for seven- 
teen days more the defence was continued ; 
when Palafox himself, being seized with the 
contagion, was obliged to transfer his authority 
to a Junta, of which Don Pedro Maria Ric wcus 
appointed president. On the 10th the enemy 
obtained possession of the Puerto del Angel, and 
to such a deplorable situation was the garrison 
reduced by its accumulated miseries, that all the 
efibrts of Don Ric proved fruitless. Disease 
had subdued the inhabitants ; two thirds of the 
city had been destroyed ; thirty thousand of the 
people had perished, and from three to four hun- 
dred were dying daily of the pestilence. Re- 
duced to this situation, the city capitulated, and 
the French, after a siege of two months, obtained 
possession of a mass of ruins. 

The supreme junta of Spain pronounced 
the funeral oration of Saragossa in an address to 
the nation — ^^ Spaniards !^' said they, ** the only 
boon which Saragossa begged of our unfortu- 
nate monarch at Yittoria, was, that she might be 
the first citv to sacrifice herself in his defence. 
That sacrifice has been consummated. But, 
Spaniards, Saragossa still survives for imita- 
tion and example ; . still survives in the public 
spirit, which, trom her heroic exertions, is for 
ever imbibing lessons of spirit and constancy. 
Forty thousand Frenchmen, who have perished 
before the mud walls of Saragossa, cause France 
to mourn the barren and ephemeral triumph 
which she has obtained, and evince to Spain, 
that three cities of equal resolution will save 
their country and baffle the tjrrant Time passes 
away, and days will come when these dreadful 
convulsions, with which the genius of iniqaity is 
now afflicting the earth, will have subsided. 
The friends of virtue and of patriotism will then 
oome to the banks of the Ebro to visit the ma- 
jestic ruins of Saragossa, and beholding them with 



admiration and with envy, will exclaioi-— ' Here 
stood that city, which, in modem ages, realised 
those ancient prodigies of heroism and ccmatancy, 
which are scarcely credited in history. The 
subjection of this open town cost France naoro 
blood, more tears, more slaughter, than the 
conquest of whole kingdoms ; nor was it French 
valour that subdued it ; a deadly and general 
pestilence prostrated the strength of its defeoderst 
and the enemy, when they entered, triumphed 
over a few sick and dying men, but they ^id not 
subdue citizens, nor conquer soldiers !* " 

After the fall of Saragossa, an attempt was 
made by General Blake to regain possessiou of 
that city, but in this he entirely failed, and the 
Spanish army under his command became ex* 
posed to a fatal and inglorious defeat at Belchite. 
According to the account of this battle pub- 
lished by the Spanish general, one of his regi- 
ments was thrown into confusion by the dis* 
charge of the enemy^s grenades ; the panic 
spread rapidly ; regiment after regiment fled 
without discharginpr a gun ; and in a short time, 
the general and his officers were left alone to 
oppose the enemy. The fruits of this victory, 
disgraceful to the Spaniards, rather than honour- 
able to the French, were nine pieces of cannon, 
immense quantities of stores and provisions, and 
upwards of three thousand prisoners. 

The inactivity to which th^ army of Sir 
Arthur Wellesley had been doomed after their 
return from Oporto, was relieved by a plan oon* 
certed between the British general and General 
Cuesta, by which it was proposed to attack the 
central French armies, and to obtain possession 
of the Spanish capital. With this view, a junc* 
tion of the British and Spanish forces took place 
in the neighbourhood ot Flasencia, on the 20th 
of July. Sir Robert Wilson, who commanded 
a Portuguese corps, which he had brought into 
a state of excellent discipline, was ordered to 
advance to Ascolona, on the river Alberche. 
The division of the Spanish General, Venegas, 
at the same time broke up from Madrilejos, and 
advanced to Arganda. After these preparatory 
movements had oeen made, the combined Bri- 
tish and Spanish army, amounting to about 
sixty thousand men, of which twenty-four thou- 
sand were British, proceeded to Talavera, where 
the French army, under Marshal Victor, thirty- 
five thousand strong, had been for some time 
stationed. On the 23d the allied forces moved 
upon Oropesa, and drove in Victor's rear-g^uard, 
which was drawn up in order of battle upon n 
plain about a league firom Talavera. The hos- 
tile armies were now in sight of each other, and 
Sir Arthur Wellesley determined to attack tbt 
French general the following day, and to bring 
him to action before he was joined by Joseph 
Bonaparte and General Sebastiani, who were 



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both marohing to his relief. For this purpose 
the British columns were formed at fire o'clock 
in the morning; but, at the moment when 
the troops were ready to advance, they learned, 
to their extreme disappointment and mortifica- 
tion, that General Cuesta, not wishing to j>ro- 
fane the sanctity of the sabbath bv secular em- 
ployments, had determined to delay the attack 
till the following day. On the morning of the 
t4th, the British and Spanish armies were again 
drawn out; but Victor, less scrupulous dian 
Cuesta, had, during the evening of the sabbath, 
retreated from his position in order to effect a 
junction with other divisions of the French 
army of the centre ; and so deficient was the 
comhiaed army in the means of transport, that 
it was found impossible to pursue the enemy. 
Ttiis inconvenience had long been felt, and Sir 
Arthur Wellesley, before he left Plasencia, was 
under the necessity of informing General.Cuesta, 
that it would be impossible to continue to co- 
operate with the Spanish armies, unless the 
means of transport were supplied. To aggra- 
vate this evil, both the British and Spanish com- 
missariats were in tiie most deplorable state, 
and the combined armies became, in a certain 
degree, competitors for subsistence. Thus dr- 
eumstanced, the British troops halted from ab- 
solute necessity, and Sir Arthur Wellesley came 
to the determination to return to Portugal, if 
more vigorous exertions were not made by the 
•ufMreme junta to supply the wants of his army. 
Cuesta appeared fully sensible of the propriety 
of this resolution, and, trusting that the posses- 
sion of Madrid, which seemed now almost within 
his reach, would relieve all the wants by which 
the combined army was surrounded, he deter- 
mined to advance in the pursuit of Victor. 

On the 25th, the French force, under Joseph 
Bonaparte and General Sebastiani, formed a 
junction with Marshal Victor at Toledo. By 
this accession of strength, the force of the enemy 
was swdled to forty-five thousand men ; and 
General Cuesta, finding himself unable to with- 
stand so formidable an army, fell back, in great 
disorder, and with considerable loss, upon the 
British position at Talavera. 

It was now obvious that the enemy intended 
to try the result of a general action, and Sir 
Arthur Wellesley selected the neighbourhood 
of Talavera as the scene of operations. The 
positioD taken up by the troops extended more 
than two miles } the ground was open upon the 
left, where the British army was stationed, 'and 
it was commanded by a height, on which was, in 
echellon, and in second line, a division of in- 
fantry, under the orders of Major-general Hill. 
Between this height and a range of mountains 
still further upon die left, was a valley, which it 
was not at first judged necessary to occupy. 



i80» 



The right, consisting of Sanish troops, extended, BOOK VJ. 

immediately in front of the town of Talavera, 

down to the Tagus. where the ground was Chap. XL 
covered with olive trees, and much intersected ^ 
by banks and ditches. The read leading from 
the bridge over the Alberch^, and tlie avenues 
' to the town, as well as the town itself, were oc- 
cupied by the Spanish infantry. In the centre, 
between the armies, there was a conimanding 
spot of ground, with an unfinished redoubt, ana 
which post was occupied by Brigadier-general 
Alexander Campbell, with a division of infantry, 
supported in their rear by General Cotton's 
brigade of dragoons, and some cavalry. 

At about two o'clock in the afternoon of the 
27tfa, the enemy appeared in strength upon the 
left bank of the Aloerch^, and manifested Un in- 
tention to attack General Mackenzie, who had 
been placed, with a division of infantry, and a 
brigade of cavalry, as an advanced post, in the 
wood which covered the left flank of the Bri- 
tish army. These tfoops sufiered considerably, 
but they were withdrawn in perfect order, and 
took their place in the line. The enemy now 
cantionaded the left of the British position, and 
attacked the Spanish infantry with his horse, 
hoping to break the ranks, and carry the town ; 
but he was bravely withstood, and finally re- 
pulsed. Early in the evening, Marshal Victor 
pushed a division along the valley, on the left of 
the height occupied by General Hill ; this he 
considered the key of the British position, and 
the eflbrts of the J^rench to obtain this eminence 
corresponded with the estimation in which it 
was held. For a moment the attack was suc- 
cessful ; but General Hill instantly charged the 
assailants with the bayonet, and regained the 
post. Undismayed by this rtpulse, the French 
repeated their attack about midnight ; but they 
were again repulsed with great slaughter. Both 
armies passed the night on the field, and several 
partial engagements were fought before the 
dawn of the followino^ day. These niglitly com- 
bats were conducted with the most determined 
fury ; the men, after they had discharged their 
fire-arms, frequently closed, and beat out each 
other's brains with their muskets. 

In the course of the evening, the French 
had ascertained that anv attack upon the town, 
posted as the Spaniards were, was hopeless ; 
they had also discovered that no impression 
could be made upon the centre, and conse- 
quently that the left, where they had already 
sufiered so much, was the only practicable point 
of attack. Accordingly, at day-break on the 
28th, General Rufiin advanced with three regi- 
ments in close columns against the eminence 
occupied by General Hill ; but here again they 
were resisted by the bayonet, and driven back, 
leaving the field covered with their slain. About 



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136 



IJISTOKY OF THE WAUS 



ClIAP. XI. 

1800 



UOOKIV. eleven o'clock, the enemy, findin^f liimself baffled 
ID all his efibrts, Muspended the attack, and 
dined upon the field of battle. Wine and bread 
were at tho same time served out to the British 
troops, and during this pause in the work of 
destruction, the men in both armies repaired to 
a brook to quench their thirst, and stooped to 
the stream in the presence of each other without 
molestation ; at this moment the heat and ex- 
asperation of battle was suspended ; the troops 
felt that respect which proofs of mutual courage 
bad inspired, and numbers of them shook bands 
across the brook before the battle recommenced. 
About noon. Marshal Victor ordered a ge- 
neral attack with his whole force upon that part 
of the position of the allies which was occupied 
by ' the British army. In consequence of the 
repeated attacks made upon the left, Sir Arthur 
Wellesley had now placed two brigades of Bri- 
tish cavalry in the valley, supported in the rear 
by the Due d' Albuquerque's division of Spanish 
cavalry. The general attack began by the 
march of several columns of infantry into the 
valley, with a view to make another attack on 
the height occupied by General Hill. From 
the moment this operation commenced, the firing 
of the musketry was heard on all sides like the 
roll of a drum, with scarcely a monoient's inter- 
ruption, during the remainder of the day ; and 
the deeper sound of the heavy cannonade re- 
sembled continual peals of tlmnder. The oper« 
ations of the French were deranged by LevaFs 
division, which, instead of forming in echellon 
in the rear, advanced to the front. Sebastiani, 
perceiving the blunder committed by this divi- 
sion, sent a brigade to extricate Leval from his 
perilous situation, which, after considerable loss, 
was effected. This attack upon the hill was 
formidable in the extreme, but, like all the 
former, it failed. The French General, La 
Pisse, who was the first to cross the ravine, 
was mortally wounded, and his men were driven 
back with severe loss. About three o'clock in 
the afternoon the enemy again advanced to the 
attack, with his whole force. Marshal Victor 
had resolved to storm and carry the heights that 
had so repeatedly and so successrully defied his 
former attempts; and placing himself at the 
head of his troops, he led them to the foot 
of the hill, while General Viiatte advanced to 
his support from the valley. At this moment 
General Anson's brigade, consisting of the 
1st German light dragoons, and the 2dd dra- 
goons, with General Fane's brigade of heavy 
cavalry, were ordered to attack the French, 
who had formed in two solid squares, protected 
by a deep ditch, and supported by a tremendous 
fire of musketry and artillery. Here the brunt 
of the action lay ; numbers of men and horses 
fell into the ditch, which, till now, had been un- 



discovered, and numbers were mown down by 
the artillery ; but still the columns advanced, 
and made a desperate charge upon the solid 
and impenetrable squares of the enemy. The 
British suffered dreadfully ; and the 23d regi- 
ment in particular was almost annihilated. This 
gallant attempt, although it was not attended 
with success, had the effect of preventing the 
execution of the enemy's plan, and no further 
attempt was made upon the hill, which was now 
covered with the dead and the dying. 

The attack upon the centre was repulsed 
by Brigadier-general Alexander Campbell, sup- 
ported by the king's regiment of Spanish cavalry, 
and two regiments of Spanish infantry; and 
while >the Spaniards turned the enemy's ilank, 
the English took their cannon. At the same 
time an attack was made upon Lieutenant-gene- 
ral Sherbrook's division, which was on the left 
and centre of the first line of the British army. 
This attack was gallantly repulsed by a charge 
with the bayonet by the whole divi»oR ; but the 
brigade *of guards, impelled by their military 
ardour, advanced too far, and laid themselves 
open, on the left flank, both to the fire of the 
enemy's batteries and to their retiring columns. 
The enemy lost not a moment in seizing the 
advantage that now presented itself, and for 
some time the fate of the day appeared worse 
than doubtful. At this crisis, tne skill and fore- 
sight of Sir Arthur Wellesley turned the cur* 
rent of success which had set in so strongly 
against him, and secured a victory which had 
so long hung in suspense. Seeing the guards 
advance, and aware of the danger to which they 
would be exposed, Sir Arthur Wellesley moved 
a battalion of the 48th from the heights to 
their support ; and this timely succour, with the 
assistance of the second line of General Cotton's 
brigade of cavalry, enabled the guards to extri- 
cate themselves, from the impending danger, and 
decided the fate of the battle. 

Shortly after the repulse of the general 
attack, the enemy commenced his retreat in the 
most regular order across the Alberch6, leaving 
twenty pieces of cannon in the bands of the 
combined army. The loss on both sides was 
severe; the enemy had entire brigades of in- 
fantry destroyed; and his loss in the engage* 
ments of the 27th and 38th was estimated by the 
English commander at ten thousand men. On 
the same authority it is stated, that the British 
had eight hundred killed, three thousand nine 
hundred wounded, and six hundred and fifty 
missing, exclusive of the loss of the Spaniards, 
which amounted to twelve hundred and fifty in 
killed and wounded. In the official account of 
this memorable engagement, Sir Arthur Wel- 
lesley particularly laments the loss of Major- 
general Mackenzie ; of Brigadier-general Lang- 



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OF THE FRENCH ttBVOLUTION. 



137 



worthy of the king's €(ainan kgion; and of 
Brigafle- major Beckett, of the Coldstream re- 
giment of guards.* 

On this ocoasion the British army sustained 
nearly the. whole weight of the contest, and ac- 
quired the glory of having Tanquished a French 
army, double their numbers ; not in a short and 
partial struggle, but in a battle obstinately con- 
tested on two successive days, and fought under 
circumstances which brought both armies into 
close and repeated combat. The king, in con- 
templating so glorious a display of the valour 
and prowess of his troops, was graciously 
pleased to command that his royal approbation 
of the conduct of the army serving under Uie 
command of Lieutenant-general Sir. Arthur 
Wellesley, should be publicly declared in ge- 
neral orders. And the commander-in-chief re- 
ceived his majesty's commands to signify, in the 
most marked and special manner, the sense he 
entertained of Sir Arthur Wellesley's personal 
se^rvices, not less displayed in the result of the 
battle itself, than in the consummate ability, 
valour, and military resources, with which the 
many difficulties of this arduous and protracted 
contest w«^e met and provided for, by his expe- 
rience and judgment. Theconduct of Lieutenant- 
general Sherbrook, the second in command, 
obtained for that officer expressions of the king's 
marked approbation. His majesty observed, 
with satisfaction, the manner in which he led 
on the troops to the charge with the bayonet — a 
apecies of combat which on all occasions so. well 
accords with the dauntless character of British 
soldiers. His majesty was pleased also to no- 
tice, with the same gracious approbation, the 
conduct of the several general and other officers, 
and to declare, that most of them had eminently 
distinguished themselves, and that '^ all had done 
their dutyy The royal approbation and thanks 
were at the same time expressed in the most dis- 
tinct and most particular manner to the non- 
commissioned officers and private men. In no 
instance had they displayed with greater lustre 
their native valour and characteristic energy, 
nor had they on any fohner occasion more decid- 
edly proved their superiority to the enemies of 
their country. These sentiments, which were 
expressed in general orders, were acquiesced in 
by both branches of tlie legislature, who voted 
the thanks of parliament to Sir Arthur Welles- 
ley, and to the officers and men under his com- 
mand ; and as a special mark of his majesty's 
favour and approbation, the commander-in-cluef 



Chap. Xf. 
1809 



at the battle of Talavera, was, on the 20th of BOOK iV. 
August, elevated to the peerage, by the title of 
Viscount Wellington of Talavera and 'of Wel- 
lington, and Baron Douro of Wellesley, in the 
county of Somerset. 

Scarcely had the Britbh troops time to con- 
gratulate themselves on the achievement of this 
brilliant victory, when the unexpected intelli- 
gence was received, that Marshals Soult, Ney, 
and Mortier, had advanced through Estrama- 
dura, and were already in the rear of the com- 
bined British and Spanish army. There was 
now no time . for hesitation or delay ; a retreat 
had become indispensable, and promptitude alone 
could save the army. The bridge of Almarez, 
by which one of the divisions of the English was 
to have crossed the Tagus, was destroyed, and 
the bridge of Arzobispo alone remained for the 

Eassage of the whole army. As no doubt could 
e entertained that the army of Victor would 
again advance as soon as he heard of the ap- 
proach of the French forces through Estrama- 
dura, it became necessary th^t part of the com- 
bined troops should remain at 1 alavera, as well 
for the purpose of checking the advance of the 
French, as for taking care of the sick and 
wounded of the combined army. General 
Cuesta was accordingly left at Talavera, where 
it was hoped he might be able to maintain his 

Eosition ; but in any event it was understood that 
e should by no means abandon the wounded. 
Op the dd of August the British force left 
Talavera, and marched to Oropesa, on the way 
to Plasencia, with an intention to attack the 
force under Marshal Soult. On the evening of 
that day Sir Arthur Wellesley received inform- 
ation that Cuesta meant to quit Talavera imme- 
diately ; and that, for want of conveyance, he 
should be obliged to abandon bis hospitals. The 
Spanish general was not deficient in personal 
gallantry, but he was obstinate, intractable, and 
unfit for command ; and his reason for leaving 
the sick and wounded, by quitting his station 
even before the French approached, seemed to 
partake of th» imbecility of old age : it was not 
that he had any apprehension for the safety of 
his own army, but he was afiraid that Sir Arthur 
Wellesley would not be able to contend with the 
French force that was coming against him ; and 
he had in consenuence left Talavera tluLt he 
might be enablea to support his British ally. 
Surrounded by difficulties, with an army of thirty 
thousand men under Soult pressing upon him 
from the north, and with ^ army equally strong 



* Captain Samuel Walker, ofthe 3d regiment of guards, like his gallant companion in arms, Captain Richard 
Beckett, fell <m the 28th of July, in the prime of L!e, and in the moment of victory, on the plains of Talavera. These 
officers had fougfht the battles of their country in Bgypt, in Germany, in Denmark, and in Portugal ; and tlicir fel- 
low townsmen, the inhabitants of Leeds, erected a monument in. the parish church of that place to commemorEte their pub« 
lie services, and to hand down their memory to future ages. 

VOL. II. — HO. 47. Mm, 



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HISTORY OF THE WARS 



BOOK. IV. under Victor advancing from the east, the British 
* general determined to retreat and to take ap ajpo« 
Chap. XI. sition at Deleytosaon the way to Tnudife. Here 
\««^^v-«i^ he remained unmolested by the French, and was 
1809 enabled to recruit his army; but finding that 
the junta were by no means disposed to supply 
the wants which hadpreyented his pursuit of tbe 
French before the battle of Talavera, he deter- 
mined to retreat to Badsyoz, where, during the 
remainder of the year^ his army continued iuac^ 
tive, and exposed, from the unhealthiness of the 
situation, to .the ravages of a fatal disorder. 

The victory gained at Talavera may un- 
doubtedly be ranged ammig the most qilendid 
efforts of British courage in the military annals 
of our country. But it may be questioned 
whether a consummate general — a commander, 
whose object is not merely to gain battles, but 
to reap and secure all the advantages of victory, 
would have advanced so far into Spain, doubt- 
ful as Sir Arthur Wellesley was of the hearty 
and cordial co-operation of th^ Spaniards ; 
destitute of the means of following up a victory 
or of securing a retreat, and ignorant of the 
strength or movements of the enemy in his rear. 
Possessing, as the British general did, skill, 
courage, and enterprise, he still wanted one 
trait in his character to constitute him a finished 
soldier ; this indispensable requisite was acquir* 
ed in the Spanish campaign of 1809, and the 
circumspection given to the mind of Sir Arthur 
WelleeJey by the battle of Talavera shewed itself 
in all liis future operations, and tended in an 
eminent degree to acquire for him, at no distant 
period, the proud designation of the first captain 
of the age. 

When the combined armies, under Sir 
Arthur Wellesley and General Cuesta, were 
reduced to the necessity of retreating from 
Talavera, Sir Robert Wilson, who had pushed 
almost to the gates of Madrid, was suddenly 
recalled. This partizan corps, owing to some 
impediments that had not been anticipated, did 
not arrive at Valada till the night of the 4th of 
August, when the commander, conceiving it too 
late to retire by the bridge of Arzobispo, was 
obliged to take the route of Bancs, where he was 
' attacked by Marshal Ney and defeated. Sir 
Robert Wilson, on his defeat, retired along the 
mountains, and after a harassing march succeed* 



ed at length, in .forming a junction with' the 
British amqr: 

The appointment of the Marquis of Welles- 
ley as ambassador extraordinary to Spain, was 
announced in the London Gazette of the 1st of 
May ; but it happened, unfortunately, that the 
intrigues in tlie British cabinet did not permit 
his departure from England for Cadis till the 
latter end of the month of July. The Marquis 
of Wdlesley was received with the gneatest 
attention and respect in Spain, and in eondact^ 
ing the delicate mission with which, ke was 
intrusted, he abstained, as much as possible, 
from every thing that could be considered as an 
interference with the domestic relations of thait 
country. In his communications with the junta^ 
he pointed out the only course that could be 
pursued with any rational prospect of success, 
and, in particular, he pressed upon their attention 
the propriety of calling forth and concentrating 
the military resources of the kingdom. Another 
point at which he aimed was, to give a tone 
to public opinion, to excite and direct the 
national spirit, and to apply its energy to na- 
tional objects. With tiiese views^ the British 
ambassador recommended the appointm^t of a 
council of regency, and the sp^dy convocation 
of the Spanish Cortes*-— the former to discharge 
the sovereign functions, and the latter to sup^ 
port the government in the great work of de^ 
livering the Spanish nation from French usuiv- 
pation. He suggested, that ^ the same act 
of the junta by which the regency should be 
appointed, and the cortes called, should con- 
tain the principal articles of redress of grie- 
vances, correction of abuses, and relief of the 
exactions in Spain and the Indies, and also tiie 
heads of such concessions to the colonies as 
should secure to them a full share in the r^re- 
sentative body of the Spanish empire."t What 
effects might have resulted from the further 
exertion of the influence of the- Marquis of 
Wellesley over the Spanish government, can only 
be conjectured, for, in the Autumn of the pre*- 
sent year, he was called from the councils of 
that nation to assume a distinguished place in 
the British cabinet. 

In directing eur attention from the civil 
concerns to the military transactions of this 
period, too many proois. are exhibited of the 



* The supreme assembly or parliament By the original prerogadves of the cortes — a body, partly hereditary 
and partly electiye, no tax could be imposed, no war could be declared, nor any peace concluded, without the 
permission of its members. The power of rescinding the proceedings of all inferior courts, the privilege of in- 
specting every department of administration, and the right of redressing all grievances, bek>nged to the cortes ; 
and those who were aggrieved addressed this body, not in the huuible tone of suppKcants» but with the boldness of 
persons who demanded the birth-right of freemen. Tliis soverei^ia court was held annually in Arragon for several 
centuries; but subsequently it was convoked only once in two years ^ and, uki^iately^ it sunk into a mere assembly 
for registering the edicts of the court. 

t Dispatch fir<Hn the Marquis of Wellesley to Don Martin de Garar, dated Sefille, September 8th> 180a 



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necessity of tbpse maxims ioculeatftd by the 
Marquis of Wellesley on the junta of Spain, 
In the early part of the month of August, soon 
after the battle of Talavera, General Venegasi 
with an army-oomputed at tMrty thousand men> 
descended firom the mountains of the Sierra 
Morena, and on the 10th of that month took up 
a strong position about three leagues from 
Toledo. On the advance of General Venegas 
into the plain, he found himself apposed to a 
French corps under the command of General 
Sebastiani. On the commencement of the en- 
gagement, which took place on a rising ground 
beyond the Tillage- of Almonacid, near Toledo, 
bis line was penetrated in every direction by 
squadrons of French cavalry ; and the Spaniards 
incapable of sustaining the charge, threw down 
their arms and dispersed, leaving their baggage, 
artillery, and ammunition, in &e hands of the 
enemy. 

The disastear of Toledo was followed by a 
change in the command of the army of La 
Mancha, which was now taken from General 
Venegas and confided to the Marquis of 
Areizaga. This army, by extraordinary exer«* 
tions, was soon re-assembled, and swelled by 
the addition of new levies to the number of fifty 
thousand men. With this force, the new com« 
maiider formed a bold, but haaaidous determine 
ation, to advance direct to Madrid. To oppose 
this enterprise, the French forces, under Joseph 
Bonaparte took up a strong position near Toledo. 
The numbers of the Spanidi army failed to.in- 
apire them with sufficient confidence to pursue 
their march, and instead of advancing, as was at 
first proposed, they retreated along the banks of 
the Tajo, followea by the enemy, who came up 
with them near Ocana. On the vast plain by 
which this place i» surrounded, a general battle 
was fought on- the 19th of November. The 
action commenced at eleven- o'clock, and in less 
than two hours the fate of tlie day was oom-^ 
pletely decided. The Spaniards, animated by 
the superiority of- their numbers,- made a. vigor- 
ous resistance, and for scHue time victory seem- 
ed to incline to the side of the patriots. The 
acclamations of triumph had already burst forth 
from their ranks ; but at that moment, a regi- 
ment of cavalry appointed to cover a large b^y 
of Spanish infantry, gave way. Tiie panio 
instantly became general, and the French, too 
well skilled in the art of war to let a circum- 
stance so favourable to their success pass unim- 
proved, pressed upon the deranged battalions 
and completed their overthrow. This signal 
victory was on the following day announced to 
the inhabitants of Madrid, in the most glowing 
language-— << Yeaterday,'' said the official buUe^ 



1809 



tin, ^^theking gained a splendid and decisive liOOKIV« 
victory at Ocana. Two hours were sufficient to ■* 

disperse the army of tlie insnrgents, who ex- Chap. XI. 
pected within two days to make their triumphal ^— — --^ 
entry into Madrid. Four thousand men were 
left dead on the field of battle ; twenty thou- 
sand were made prisoners; and, in a word, the 
whole army was dispersed or destroyed. From 
thirty to forty thousand muskets, twenty stand- 
ards, thirty pieces of artillery, and an incredi- 
ble quantity of baggage, were the fruits of thia 
memorable victory/' 

The battle of Ocana was speedily follow- 
ed by the reduction of Cordova and Seville^ 
and a road was tlius opened^ to Cadiz. The 
threatening aspect of public afiairs awakened 
the fears of the junta ; apprehending that the 
popular indignation might burst forth in some 
fatal explosion, and anxious, perhaps, at the same 
time, to remove a responsibility that became 
every day more solemn and insupportable, they 
issued a manifesto, dated at Seville, on the 
2Bth of October, convoking the cortes on the 
first day of the ensuing year, .and appointing 
the 1st of March as the period at which they 
were to enter upon their functions. The idea 
of appointing a regency was rejected hy the 
junta, from an appr^ension, that, by vesting the 
supreme power in the hands of a few persons^ 
pretensions mi^t be raised incompatible with 
the public tranquillity, and to the prejudice of 
the rights of their ^< adored king,'' Ferdinand.* 

The Spanish armies, in the early part of 
the month of November, consisted of three 
divisions ; the arsoy.of the right under the com^ 
mand of General ulake ; the army of the centre 
under Don Juan Carlos de Areizaga aini the Duo 
d'AIbuqnerque ; and the army of the left undev 
the conunand of the Due del Parque. The 
forces under this general, amounting to about 
thirty thousand men, were posted on the heights 
of Zamames, about six leagues to the south of 
Salamanca. The French army, under General 
Marchand, had for some time evinced by theiir 
movements an intention to lay siege to Ciudad 
Rodrigo, but their design could, not be carried 
into effect till the Spaniards were dislodged ftom 
the lidghbouring hei|^ts. In order to effect 
this purpose, General Marchand left Salamanca^ 
and attacked the Due del Parque in his strong 
position, but after an obstinate and long con^^ 
tinned contest, 4he assailants were compelled to 
retire with the loss of a thousand men, and the 
Spaniards, following up tlieir success, obtained 
possession of the city of Salamanca. 

The French, after their defeat at Zamamea^ 
gradually accumulated a force amounting to* 
twenty thousand men, with an intention of 



* M[«nifi?stQ of th^ Sapfeme .Junta, iated Seville, Oetfl^r ^6th, . 1809» 



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HISTORY OP THE WARS 



.CUAP. 



1800 



iiOOK. IV. makiDg a second attack upon the army under the 
Spanish general, who had now occupied a posi- 
tion on the heights of Pena de Francia, in the 
vicinity of Salamanca. The Due del Parque, 
reduced by the advantages he bad already 
gained, and anxious to co-operate with the army 
of the centre in the proposea advance to Madri«l9 
quitted his strong position, and crossed over the 
Tormes to the right bank of that river. Here 
Marshal Kellerman was posted, with an army 
with which he would not have ventured to 
attack the patriots, but which, when acting on 
the defensive, proved itself their superior. The 
battle was fought at Alba, on the 2Bth of 
November, and terminated in the total defeat of 
the Spaniards. The victory was not long doubt- 
ful ; either from some accidental disorder or 
sudden alarm, the Spanish cavalry, that con- 
stant depository of panic, took 4o flight without 
firing a shot, and all the efforts of their officers 
to redly the troops, and to retrieve the fortune of 
the day, proved inefiectual. The Spaniards, in 
their precipitate retreat, abandoned their bag- 
gage, and left in the hands of the enemy fifteen 
.pieces of cannon, six standards, ten thousand 
muskets, and about two thousand prisoners. Ia 
this fatal en^gement, according to the French 
accounts, thirty thousand Spaniards were van- 
quished by twelve thousand French troops, and 
the loss of the retreating army amounted in slain 
to three thousand. 

In the mean while, the fortress of Gerona 
was compelled to surrender to Marshal Augereau 
on the 10th of December, after having sustained 
a siege of nearly six months, and endured all 
the horrors of famine. The garrison and inha- 
bitants emulated the exploits of their country- 
men at Saragossa, and the patriotic devotion of 
these fortresses was required to prevent the 
friends of national independence from despair- 
ing of the Spanish cause. 

The close of tlie year 1800 witnessed the 
successive defeat and dispersion of the principal 
armies of Spain, as well as .the fall of several 
of the fortresses of that country. Of the causes 
which led to these disasters, some are obvious 
and indisputable. . None of the patriot generals 
had displayed any extraordinary military talents, 
their measures were taken without concert, and 
they by no means adhered to that mode of 
warfare which was best suited to the situation of 
their country. The zeal of the people, at first 
so animated, seemed to have suffered conside- 
rable diminution. And the supreme junta — 
that body, whose duty it was to keep the public 
enthusiasm in active exercise, and to give to the 
national exertions a direction the most conducive 
to the success of the patriot cause, were miser- 
ably deficient in those statesman-like talents, by 
mrhich alone the liberty and independence of 



their country could be secured and rend^ed 
permanent. 

After the battle of Ocana, the French ad- 
vanced into the south of Spain : knowing how 
easily the barrier of the Sierra Morena would be 
forced, they looked upon the possession of Cadiz 
as secure. The command of the army destined 
to this enterprise was vested in Marshal Sonlt, 
assisted by Marshals Victor and Mortier, and 
accompanied by King Joseph in person, who 
attended to take possession of the kingdom of 
Andalusia. The Spanish General, Areizaga, 
had lost his presumption at Ocana, and was pre- 
pared for defeat before he was attacked. On the 
advance of the enemv, the Spaniards gave way 
at every point ; and on the 20th of January, 
1810, the head- quarters of the French army 
were established at Baylen, the place where, at 
a former and not very distant period, they had 
suffered so signal a disaster. Five days before 
the French army entered Andalusia, the supreme 
central junta at Seville had announced their 
intention of transferring the seat of government 
to Cadiz ; and the island of Lieon, which is 
separated from that city by the river of Santt 
Petri, was fixed upon as the place where the 
eortes should hold their sittings. The junta 
had now entirely lost the public confidence, and 
the termination of their power was at hand. 
Every hour brought fresh tidings of the progress 
of the enemy, and the murmurs of the people 
of Seville became louder as their agitation 
increased. The members of the government 
were hastening their departure for Cadiz ; their 
equipages were conveyed to the quavs, and the 
papers and archives from the public ofiices 
were embarked on the Guadalquivir. A con- 
spiracy had been forming for some days, at the 
head of which stood Count de Montijo and Don 
Francisco Palafox, one of the members of the 
junta, and the brother of the hero of Saragossa. 
On the morning of the 24th, the populace assem- 
bled in the Square of St. Francisco, and in front 
of the Alcazar ; some demanded the deposition 
of the junta ; others, more violent, insisted 
that they had betrayed their country, and that 
they should be put to death ; but the universal 
cry was, that the city should be defended, and 
that no person, whatever his rank or authority, 
should be suffered to quit the place. In this 
emergency, Don Francisco de Saavedra, the 
minister of finance, was called upon to take 
the direction of public affairs. Montijo and 
Palafox, who had some days before been placed 
in duresse by the junta, on a charge of con- 
spiring against the government, were liberated ; 
and the Marquis Romana was nominated to 
tlie command of the army of the left, fiom 
which he had been lately removed by that 
body. The people, however, called upon 



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OP THE ^rei^ch: he volution. 



i4i 



Roinana to take upon himself fhe defence df 
the city; but the marquis, brave and patriotic 
as he was, evaded their importunities, and 
hastened to Badajoz to protect that important 
fortress ; while Seville, incapable of withstand- 
ihg the force by which it was goon after assail- 
ed, shared the fate of CordoVa, and passed 
under the French yoke. 

But the possession of the country and all 
the inland towns of Andalusia was of little 
importance, eotnpared with the occupation of 
Cadiz. Were it possible that the fate of Spain 
could have depended upon any single event, it 
would have been the capture of Cadiz at tfiis' 
crisis ; and the French, well aware of its im- 
portance, advanced to the coast with all their 
usual rapidity. The city was utterly unpre- 
pared for an att&^ck ; there were not one thou- 
sand troops in the island of Leon, and not as' 
many volunteers as would man the works. 
The batteries of St. Fernando, one of its main 
biilwarks, were unfinished ; the people of Cadiz, 
indeed, had Considered the danger as remote, 
tfnd had it not been for the genius, energy, 
and decision of a single individual, Bonaparte 
might have executied his threat of taking ven- 

feance on Cadiz for the loss of his souadron. 
i the time that the French advancea across 
the Siefrra Mbreua, the Due d^ Albuquerque was 
on the banks of the Guadiana ; but by a rapid 
march of two hundred and sixty miles, perform- 
ed in eight days, he placed himself on the 30th 
of January between Cfadiz and the French army, 
and, on the Sd of February, entered the island 
of Leon at the head of his small army, which 
consisted only of eight thousand troops. Having 
saved this place by his prudence, the duke lost 
no time in securing his possession ; and the peo- 
irfe, who, as he observes, when they are guided 
by their first feelings, usually see things as they 
are, hailed him as their deliverer, and con- 
ferred on htm the office of governor by general 
aeclanjiation. 

It was essential to the salvation of the 
country that a government should be established 
at Cadiz, whidi should be recognized by the 
whole of Spain, and the members of the supreme 
central junta, who had arrived in the island of 
Leon, fe<^lthgthat they had lost the public con- 
fidence, yielded reluctantly to the necesisity of 
appointing a council of regency. The persons 
elected to the discharge of the duties of this 
high office were, Don Pedro de Quevedo Quin- 
taha, the Bishop of Orense; Don Francisco 
de Saavedra, late President of the Junta of 
Seville ; General Castanos ; Don Antonio de 
Escano, Minister of Marine ; and Don Esteban 
Fernandez de Leon, a Member of the Council of 
the Indies^ as the representative of the colonies. 
To these persons the junta transferred tbdr 
VOL. II. — ^No. 47. 



Chap. XI. 

i8ia 



authority, providing, however, that they should BOOK IV. 
only continue to exercise the sovereign power 
till the Cortes assembled, who were then to de- 
terniihe upon the form of government under 
which the authority of Ferdinand Vll. should 
be administered. On these appointments being 
announced to the members of the council of 
regency, Don E. F. de Leon declined to accept 
the office on the plea of ill health, and Don 
Miguel de Lardizabal y Ariba, another Member 
of the Council of the Indies, was appointed in 
his stead. The junta accompanied the decree 
for the appointment of the regency with a fare- 
well iiddress to the people, condemning the 
tumultuous proceedings at Seville, and justify- 
ing themselves like men who felt that they had 
been unjustly censured because thev had been 
unfortunate; and , it must be coursed, that 
though in their administration there was some- 
thing to condemn, and much to regret, yet thero 
was Assuredly much to applaud. Called to 
their new and elevated situation in the crisis 
of their country^s fate, they maintained the inti- 
mate relations of Spain with foreign powers ; 
they drew closer, the bonds of their colonial con- 
nections ; and they resisted with dignity and 
etkct the perfidious overtures of the enemy. 
The world will, one day, excuse their errors, 
do justice to their intentions, and remember with 
admiration, that, of all the modern governments 
6f Spain, this was the first which addressed the 
Spaniards as a free people, and the first that 
sanctioned the constitutional principles of 
liberty, which had for generations been sup- 
pressed. 

Marshal Victor, on his arrival before Ca- 
diz, sent a summons to the junta of that city, 
requiring them to surrender, and informing them 
that he was ready to receive their submission to 
King Joseph. In answer to this imperious 
mandate the junta replied, that they acknow- 
ledged no other King; of Spain than Ferdinand 
VI I. and the Due d* Albuquerque declared, in 
reply to a similar summons from Marshal Soult, 
that so far from surrendering to the usurper, his 
troops would nerer lay down their arms till the 
independence of their country was secured. 

In the month of April, about the time when 
the French armies opened their batteries before 
Cadiz, the British cabinet made an attempt to 
rescue the person of Ferdinand out of the hands 
of Napoleon. The person employed in this 
mission was an Irish adventurer of the name of 
Kelly ; the plan, it appears, was concerted with 
the Marauis of Wellesley, the British secretary 
of state lor foreign affairs, who had placed at 
Kelly's disposal a squadron off Quiberon, from 
whence the prince was to embark. Kelly, under 
pretence of having some valuable articles for 
sdie, made his way to Valenyay, the residence, 
N N 



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BOOK'IV or rather the place of imprisonment of Ferdi- 

-•^ nand, and endeayoured to speak with the prince. 

Chap. XI. To effect this purpose, he disclosed his inten- 
' tions to the Infante, Don Antonio, and to 
Amazaga, the intendant of the royal prisoner's 
household. Ferdinand was no sooner made 
acquainted with Kelly's visit than he sent for 
Berthemy, the governor of the castle, and with 
the greatest emotion informed him, that an Eng- 
lish emissary had found his way into the castle, 
and that he was furnished with ample creden- 
tials to show that he came from the British 
government.* It is scarcely necessary to add, 
that Kelly was immediately placed under arrest, 
and the vigilance of the French governor over 
the person and suite of the unfortunate monarch 
was, if possible, increased by this abortive 
attempt. 

The military affairs of Portugal, in 1810, 
were inuch more important than those in Spain. 
Lord Wellington, w)ien he was under the neces- 
sity of retreating, after the battle of Talavera, 
seemed, for the present, to have abandoned all 
idea of advancing into Spain, and to have de- 
termined to direct and confine his operations to 
the defence of Portugal, till a more auspicious 
state of affairs should arise. To attain and 
secure this great object, his lordship formed a 
plan, which, though it was not completely de- 
veloped, nor productive of the beneficial conse- 
quences expected to result from it, till the be- 
ginniDg of the following year, it is necessary 
here to explain, in order that the movements of 
the allied armies may be perfectly understood, 
and justly appreciated. As the force which this 
country could send into the peninsula was neces- 
earily srqall in comparison with the immense 
ariiiiea of France, and as the Portuguese troops 
could not at first he expected to equal the 
British, it was expedient to defend Portugal in 
that particular spot, where inequality of num- 
bers would be compensated by local and arti- 
ficial strenjvth, and where the means of supply-> 
ing and increasing his force wquld be easy to 
the British genersu and proportionately difiicult 
to the enemy. Liord Wellington soon perceived 
that nu place in Portugal presented so favour- 
able a situation for this purpose as the lines 
of Torres Vedras, and he determined to rnake^ 
this his stai\d. This position was capable of 
being rendered absolutely impregnable : lying 
near the Tagus, his army could receive rein- 
forcements and supplies readily from England, 
and his vicinity to the sea would enable him„ 
in case of exigency, to embark without delay. 
The French general, on the other hand, would 



be in the very heart of a hostile country, the 
inhabitants of which were neither disposed nor 
able to supply his wants ; and from the nature 
of the war in the peninsula, it would 'be ex- 
tremely difficult to procure the supplies from 
any great distance. In order to render the 
defence of the lines of Torres Vedras more 
effectual and secure, and at the same time to 
render the situation of the French, if they should 
advance to Lisbon, more difiicult and desperate, 
Lord Wellington determined ta retard the pro- 
gress of the enemy as long as possible, without 
hazarding a general engagement. In further- 
ance of this plan, his lordship^ with his com- 
bined army of British, Spanish, and Portuguese, 
advanced, at the commencement of the summer,, 
to the north-eastern frontier of Portugal ; hia 
force consisting at that time of about thirty 
thousand British, and nearly double that num- 
ber of the native armies. 

Napoleon was, on his part, evidently pre- 
paring to make a more powerful effort to put an 
end to the war than had ever been made since 
he hiitiself advanced into Spain ; Massena was 
dispatched from Paris to put himself at the head 
of an army, composed of the divisions of Soult 
and Ney, and of large reinforcements brought 
from France, as well as from various parts of 
the peninsula. The numerical strength tff this 
army has been differently estimated ; Massena 
himself, in a proclamation addressed to the 
Pprtuguese, soon after his arrival in the penin- 
sula, l*ated his force at upwards of a hundred 
thousand men ; but when he advanced into Por- 
tugal, it most probably did not exceed seventy 
thousand. 

In the beginning of the month of July the 
hostile armies were posted as follows ; a small 
French corps was stationed be(ore Badajoz, 
watched by the Spanish army of Romana, (con- 
sisting of nine thousand men), and by General 
Hill, with a British force amounting to about 
five thousand. The ffrand French army, under 
Massena, was posted before Ciudad Rodrigo, 
which fortress he determined to take before he 
advanced further into Portugal. The head- 

?uarters of the English army were in front of 
/clerico. Jjord Wellington's army was formed 
into five divisions, of which the first, under Ge- 
neral Spencer, was at Celerico ; the second, 
under General Hill, at Portalegra; the third, 
commanded by General Cole, was cantoned at 
Garda ; the fourth, under General Picton, was 
at Pinhcl ; and the light division, under Ge- 
neral Crawford, including two regiments of 
Portuguese ca^adores or marksmen, was ad- 



^ The credentials here alluded to consisted of a letter fi^m Ferdinand himself, signed in bis own hand, and 
cosintei-signfd ** Marquis VVellesley ;" and a letter addressed by Charles IV. to his Britannic Majesty 09 occasioi^ 
ff Ferdii^and's intended marriage, the authenticity of which was attested by th^ noble marquis. 



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OP THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 



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Tanced close to the French army at Ciudad 
Rodrigo. . Each diyision bad attached to it 
some Portuguese regiments, with one or more 
English officers in them, and by whose efforts 
they had been brought into such excellent order 
and discipline^ that it was reasonably expected 
they would, in the hour of trial, not disgrace 
their companions in arms. 

After the fall of Ciudad Rodrigo, which 
was defended with great bravery, and did not 
surrender till the fortress was no longer defen- 
sible, the French general advanced to the siege 
of Almeida. Massena opened his trenches be- 
fore this fortress on the 15th of August. While 
a false attack was made against the north of the^ 
town, two thousand men dug the first parallel to 
a depth of three feet ; and on Sunday, the 26th, 
at five o'clock in the morning, eleven batteries, 
mounted with sixty-five pieces of cannon, opened 
their fire. Tlie garrison consisted of five thou- 
sand men, of whose spirit no doubt was enter- 
tained; the city was well provided, and its 
works had been placed in so respectable a state 
that Lord Wellington felt assured the enemy 
would be detained till late in the season. These 
well-founded expectations were frustrated by 
one of those casualties, which sometimes dis- 
concert the wisest plans, and disappoint the 
surest hopes of man. On the night after the 
batteries opened, the large powder magazine in 
the citadel blew up with a tremendous explo- 
sion. More than half the artillery men, a great 
number of the garrison, and many of the inhabi- 
tants, perished ; the guns were disrooi|nted ; and 
the works were rendered no longer defensible. 
The necessary and almost immediate consequence 
was the surrender of the place, and all the troops 
in the garrison were made prisoners of war. 

On the fall of Almeida, Massena advanced 
further into Portugal, and Lord Wellins^ton 
retreated slowly before him, taking the road by 
Coimbra. His lordship, who had well consi- 
dered every part of the country, came to the 
resolution to take up a position on the Sierra 
de Busaco, and there to resist the advance of 
the French army. The British and Portuguese 
troops were posted along the ridge of the moun- 
tain or Sierra, extending nearly eight miles, and 
forming tlie segment of a circle, whose extreme 
points embraced every part of the enemy's posi- 
tion, and from whence every movement below 
could be distinctly observed. On the 26th of 
September, the light troops on both sides were 
engaged throughout the line. At six o'clock on 
the following morning, the French, under Ney 
and Regnier, miide two desperate attacks upon 
Lord Wellington's position ; one on the right, 
the Qtber on the left, of the highest point of the 



XI. 



Sierra. The division under Ney gained the top BOOK IV. 

of the ridge, but was driven back with the 

bayonet ; and another division, further to the p°^_ 
right, was repulsed before it could reach the top ^^TICT 
of the mountain. On the left, the attack was ' *°*^ 
made by three divisions, only one of which made 
any progress towards the summit, and this force, 
being charged with the bayonet, was driven 
down with immense loss. The Portuguese soK 
diers, upon whom the success of the war was 
ultimately to depend, established this day their 
character for courage and discipline, and proved 
that, however the government had degenerated, 
the people, when properly directed, were the 
same as in the days of Nuno Alvares. Lord 
Wellington bore testimony to the merit of his 
allies ; he declared that be had never seen a 
more gallant attack than that made by the Por- 
tuguese troops upon the enemy, who had reached 
the ridge of the Sierra ; they were worthy, his ' 
lordship said, to contend in the same ranks with 
British troops, in that good cause which they 
afforded the best hopes of saving. Generad 
Junot made also a curious, but unintentional 
acknowledgment of the. g^lant conduct of the 
Portuguese: Lord WeUington, he said, had 
practised a ruse de guerre^ and deceived his 
enemy by dressing Englishmen in Portuguese 
uniforms. On this memorable day, the opera- 
tions of the French army were directed by Mar- 
shal Massena in person, whose troops actually 
engaged amountea to twenty-five thousand men ; 
of this force, two hundred and eighty-six were 
taken prisoners, including Qeneral Simon, three 
colonels, and thirty-three officers ; two thousand 
French troops were left dead on the field, and 
the number of wounded was in equal proportion. 
The loss of the English amounted to one hun- 
dred and seven killed, four hij^ndred ^nd ninety- 
three wounded, and thirty-one prisoners ; and 
that of the Portuguese to ninety killed, five 
hundred and twelve wounded, and twenty pri- 
soners.^ The .enemy, thus repulsed in hisat^ 
tempts to open a passage for his further advance 
into Portugal, accomplished .by a manceuvre 
what force had failed to effect. On the evening 
of the 28th, Lord Wellington observed the 
French army withdrawing from their position, 
and silently moving round the northern edge of 
the Sierra, from whence they advanced to Ave- 
lans, on the high road to Coimbra. The British 
general had foreseen this movement, and had 
given orders to Colonel Trant, who commanded 
the Portuguese militia, to occupy Sardao ; but 
the general officer who commanded in the 
north, having sent the colonel round by Oporto, 
he was prevented from executing this order till 
the night of the 28th, when he found the Frenclt 



ImKdi Wellington's Biflpatches, dated Coimbra, September 30, 1810. 



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141 



HK1P0RY OT TKE WARS 



BOOK IV. 

CiiftP. XI. 

1810 



i& possession of (hitt plaee. In this situativn, 
Lord WelliDffton^ in order to preyent his army 
being cut off from CoimWa, 'Or compelled to- 
fight a general aotion on disadvantageitiiff 
ground, was under the WBcessit^ of quitthig 
Busaeo^ and relreating to the ten hank of the 
Mondego. It is diffi^t to^ comprehend the 
conduct of the French general in bis attack 
upon the English position at Bnsaeo, he made, 
it appears, a desperate efibrt against troops, 
placed in a position almost impregnable, for Hke 
purpose of accomplishing that which was after- 
wards effected without either ti^ouble or loss. 
In the afternoon of the 8<Mii, the French ad- 
vanced-g^ard appealed in the firout of Coimbra, 
and the next di^y, iiord WdUngton, continuing 
his retreat, fell haek upon Leyria, aad finom 
thenee to the lines of Torres Vedras. So per- 
fectly oonnlieed was the French* general that 
the retreat of Lord WeUington was for the 
purpose of embarking al Lisbon, and' that his 
sole object should be immediate and close pur- 
suit) that he abandoned his wounded at Coim- 
bra with little or no protection, and advanced 
without taking the precaution to -forai and esta- 
blish magaiinesi On* his arrival at Torres 
Vedras, after reconnoitering the British line, 
he found their position to be impregnable, and 
here the enror he had comoritted^ in making so 
incautious an advunce, became manifest. These 
lines, strong by nature, and greatly improved 
by art, extended to a distance of thirty-five 
nules, flanked, on one side by the sea, and on 
the other hj the Tagus. The British army con- 
sisted of thirty thousand efficient troops ; besides 
twenty-five thousand Portuguese regulars, forty 
thousand militia, and about ten thousand Span- 
iards. This amn^ was divided into four divi- 
sipns, and each division occupied one of the four 
passes of the mountains. The French force, 
when they reached the vicinity of Torres Vedras, 
oould not consist of more than sixty thousand 
men, harassed by fatigue, straitened for provi- 
siiHis, and without magaxines in their rear ; and 
when the relative strength and situation of the 
two artoies was known in England, the destruc- 
tion of the enemy was regarded as inevitable. 

Massena, however, contrary to the sanguine 
calculations of the British nation ; and contrary 
also, it should appear, to the expectations and 
conjectures of Lord Wellington, kept his posi- 
tion in front of Torres Vedras till the 14th of 
November, when he marched for Santarem. On' 
the morning of the following day the allied army 
broke up, and followed the march of the enemy, 
firmly hoping that the time for his destruction 
had now arrived. But on examining his position 
at Santarem, it was not judged advisable to 
make an attack. Lord Wellington therefore 
contented himself with fixing his head-quarters 



at Cartaxo, about ten miles nearer Lisbon ; and 
in these positions the two armies remained at tiie- 
close of the year* 

One of the last papers which issued from 
tile royal press at Si^ille, before the seat of 
govenmient was transferred to Cadiz, was an* 
ediet prescribing the manner in wMch the' mem- 
bers of the cortes should be chosen. This plan 
¥ras formed at once with a suitable reference ta 
established usages, to the present circumstances 
of the country, and to the future convenience of 
the electors; The mode of Section' was so regu • 
lated as almost to preclude any Undue interfer-- 
ence or influence. A pdrodhial junta wais to be 
formed in every parish^ and to consist of every 
householder above the ag^ of twenty-five yeat^, 
eiJcept such as were disqualified by crimes, or 
mental incapacity. The parochial or primary 
electors were to advance, individually, to a table, 
at' which the parish officers and parish priests 
presided, and there to name a person to be the 
elector for that parish ; the twelve persons who 
obtain^Bd the majority of names were then to' 
retire to fii£ upon some person to act as thdr 
parochial representative in the district assembly/ 
The primary election bdn^ thus completed, Aie 
parochial junta was to proceed to the church in* 
processicm, the deputy walking between the 
alcade, or mayor, and the priest. Within eight 
days after the primary election, the parocLaal 
deputies were to assemble in the principal town 
of the district, and in the same manner to choose 
one or more electors for the district, according 
to its extent. The (Ustrict delegates being 
chosen, they were to repair to the place ap- 
pointed for the final electicAi, and there to elect 
the members of the cortes. 

No qualification was required for a member 
of the cortes other than that he should be above 
twenty-five years of age, of good repute, and not 
actually the salaried-serVanft of any individual 
or pubtic body. All those cities which had sent 
deputies to the last cortes, assembled in 1789, ' 
were each to send a representative to the cortes 
that was now about to meet in the isle of Leon ; 
and each of the supreme juntas of the nation 
enjoyed the same privilege. The provinces were 
to send a member for every fifty thousand inha- 
bitants, estimated according to the census of 
1787, which rated the population of Spain at 
10,534,985, making the number of elective de- 
puties two hundred and eight, exclusive of sixty- 
eight supplementary deputies, who were to be 
returned to serve in the cortes in case of the 
death of any of its members : it was further di- 
rected, that in the choice of representatives, tho?e 
should be preferred, who, ceteris paribus^ were 
able toserve their country at their own charge' 
but a sum was fixed for the members of 120 
rials a day, while they weve in actual attendance* 



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9F THE FRENCH EEYOLUTION. 



145 



By this mode of election^ founded on the prin« 
ciples laid down in the French constitution of 
1790, it will be perceived that the parishes 
elected the fnembers to represent them in the 
electoral district assemblies^ these appointed the 
the representatives of the provincial meetings, 
and they again chose the national representa- 
tives, designated by the name of the Cortes of 
Spain. To the number of the cortes twenty-six 
members were added, us representatives of the 
Spanish possessions in America, the Columbian 
islands, and the Philippines. 

It was originally intended that the cortes 
should assemble at Seville on the 1st of March ; 
but the French having obtained possession of 
that city, the isle of Leon was fixed upon as 
the place of their meetings and the first session 
opened its proceedings on the 24th of Septem- 
ber. At nine o'clock in the morning of that 
day the deputies assembled in a hall which had 
been fitted up for their sittings in the Palace 
of the Regency. The military were drawn up 
under arms, and the members repaired in pro- 
cession to the parochial church, where the mass 
of the Holy Ghost was performed by the Car- 
dinal Bourbon, the Archbishop of Toledo. After 
a solemn discourse from thelSishop of Orense, 
who was president of the regency, each of the 
members swore to preserve the Spanish nation 
in its integrity, and to omit no means of de- 
livering their country from its unjust oppressors. 
These ceremonies being concluded, the proces- 
sion returned in the same order to the hall of 
the assembly, and the members seated them- 
selves indiscriminately as they entered the hall. 
The first act of this national assembly was to 
declare the cortes legally constituted in a general 
and extraordinary congress, wlierein the national 
sovereignty resided ; but as it was not proper 
that the legislative and executive powers should 
be united, they delegated the executive authority, 
in tlie absence of their King, Ferdinand Vil. to 
the members of the council of regency. After 
the necessary preliminary business had been dis- 

Eatched, a ^' self-denying ordinance*' was passed 
y the cortes, on the motion of Don Antonio 
Capmany, the deputy for Catalonia, whereby 
it was enacted, that no member of the cortes 
should be permitted, during the exercise of his 
functions, nor for one year afterwards, to solicit, 
or accept, for himself, or for any other person 
whatsoever, any pension, favour, reward, honour, 
or distinction, from the executive power. 

The liberty of the press, without which all 
pretensions to national freedom are vain and 
illusory, was the next subject of Importance 
which occupied the deliberations of the cortes. 
** Whatever light/* said Arguellas^ by whom 



this subject was introduced, ^' has spread it- noOK iV. 
self over Europe, that light has sprung from 



the liberty of the press ; and nMions have risen C^hap. 
in proportion as that liberty has been enjoyed by ^*^T^^ 
them; while others, involved in ignorance, and *^'^ 
fettered by despotism or superstition, have sunk 
in the same proportion. Spain,'* continued he^ 
^^ has, for many ages, been in chains ; insulted 
and degraded by a succession of governments 
who have despised the wishes of the people^ 
The morals of the nation partook of this perverse 
influence, and the glory of Spain disappeared in 
the same proportion as its liberty." *^ Look at 
England, on the other hand, that free and ge- 
nerous country, which owes its liberty and all its 
morality to a free press. England has been the 
faitliful friend of Spain ; and upon the colossal 
power of England, which the liberty of the 

{)ress has raised, the independence which is yet 
eft in Europe rests for its support.*'* This 
discussion was resumed in several successive 
meetings before it was finally settled, and the 
opposition seemed to gain strength in the pro-^ 
gress of the measure. ^* The liberty of the 
press, without a censor," said Llaneros, " in- 
stead of being necessary or useful, is injurious, 
and has never been wished for in Majorca, which 
island I represent. Where there are good cen- 
sorial tribunals, the liberty of the press will 
never be wanted. The court of the holy inqui-* 
sition is such a tribunal ; and to that court the 
decision of the question should be referred !" 

At length the friends of the liberty of tlie 
press triumphed over its adversaries, and a 
decree was passed, by a majority of sixty-eight 
to thirty-two voices, by which it was enacted^ 
^^ that all bodies and individual persons, of what^ 
ever state or condition, are at liberty to write, 
print, and publish their political sentiments, 
without the necessity of any license, revision, oi^ 
approbation, previous to publication ; that authors 
and printers are responsible for the abuscvof this 
liberty ; that scandalous libels, and calumnious 
writino« and works, subversive of the funda- 
mental principles of the monarchy, or ofieiisive 
to public decency and good morals, shall be 
punished according to law ; and that the respec* 
tive judges- and tribunals shall look to the pun- 
ishment of such offences." By another article 
of this decree, it was enacted, " that all writings 
upon matters of religion shall remain subject 
to the previous censorship of the ecclesiastical 
ordinances, according to the decree of the coun- 
cil of Trent." Thus one essential portion Of 
the liberty of the press, that which related to 
religion, was interdicted; and the law for 
securing the free discussion of political topics 
was so much circamscribed by restrictions^ and 



VOL, Il."-*M0. 48. 



♦ OHveroSi 
O o 



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HISTORY OF THE WAftS, <&C. 



I^OORIV. 80 highly objectiouable, as to the constitution 
■ of the tribunal before which questions of libels 

Chap. Xf were to be determined, that the liberty so much 
^•''^"'r^^ dwelt upon and extoDed, was, in effect, rather 
1^10 nominal than real. 

One of the first acts of the cortes was to de- 
clare, ^^ that the rights of liberty and citizenship 
belong to the Spaniards in America/' This de- 
claration was followed by enactments, conferriag 
upon the inhabitants of the colonies the same 
right of electing deputies which the people of 
Spain possessed, and providing that one de- 

Suty should be returned to the cortes for every 
fty thousand inhabitants, including in this 
number, not only the casts, but all such as were 
not actually in a state of slavery. These pri- 
vileges the colonies claimed as their birth-right, 
and it was hoped that, by a wise, just, and lenient 
policy, the new government might succeed in 
tranquillizing the agitations that had so long 
prevailed in their settlements, and that those 
' possessions might still continue to form a part 
of the Spanish empire. 

In the interregnum, between the dissolu- 
tion of the supreme central junta, and the 
convocation of the cortes, the council of re- 
gency had failed to afford satisfaction either to 
Spain or to her allies. This body had scarcely 
taleen any measures to recruit the armies, or 
to repair the disasters to which they bad been 
e^^posed. Their whole conduct was feeble, 
languid, and inefficient ; while the circumstances 
of their country demanded men of talents, 
energy, and decision. A new regency was 
accordingly appointed on the 28th of Octo- 
ber, consisting of General Blake, who com- 
ipauded tlie army of the centre ; Don Pedro 
Agar, a captain in the Spanish navy, and di- 
rector-general of the academies of the royal 
' marine guards ; and Don Gabriel Ciscar, the 

governor of Carthagena. 

Cadiz ut this time presented one of the 
most extraordinary spectacles in history. The 
enemy surrounded the bay, and possessed all 
the adjoining country, wherever they could cover 
it ^vi(U troops, or soour it with their cavalry. 



From this neck of land the cortes legislated 
for Spain and her dopendencies ^ and the first 
free parliament which had for centuries met 
in the peninsula, was regarded with the deepest 
anxiety in all the regions to which the Spanish 
name extended. In the bay, the English 
squadron, part of that fleet which had so long 
blockaded this very port, was ridins^ at anchor, 
intermingled with those ships which, for so 
many years, had borne a hostile flag, but which 
were now engaged in a cause vitally dear to 
both countries. For three centuries 6adiz had 
been one of the most important ports in Europe ; 
its harbour was now crowded with vessels more 
than at any other period ; and its increased 
population had drawn thither traders from all 
parts of the commercial world. 

In the course of the year, the enemy had 
obtained many and great advantages. They 
had occupied the kingdom of Andalusia ; they 
had reduced all the fortresses in Catalonia, Tar-' 
ragona alone excepted; and they had gained 
possession of Cindad Rodrigo, and Almeida. 
Still the aspect of affairs was less unfaTourable 
than it had been at the close of the preceding 
year. At that time Andalusia was laid open to 
the French ; the Spaniards were under an un- 
popular government ; and they had no cortes to 
which they could look up. The submission of 
Austria left Bonaparte at liberty to direct his 
whole attention, and his undivided force, to the 
conquest of the peninsula. The difficulty of 
co-operation between Spain and her allies had 
been grievously felt ; and the British army, after 
one of the most brilliant achievements of modern 
times, seemed to be mouldering away in sick- 
ness and inaction. That army, acting in con- 
junction with Romana, and with the Portuguese 
troops, was now baffling and defeating the 
utmost efforts of the French, led on by Napo- 
leon*s most distinguished generals. The Span- 
iards, after the defeat and dispersion of their 
armies, were again rallying in the field ; and the 
government of Spain seemed determined to 
adopt those measures, which could alone secure 
the country from vassalage and degradation. 



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CHAPTER XII. 



British History : Meeting of Parliament-^ Inquiry into the Policy and Conduct of the WaU 
cheren Expedition-^ Standing Order of the House of Commons for the Exclusion of Strangers, 
enforced by Mr, Yorke — John Gate Jones committed to Newgate for a Breach of Pri* 
vilege — Mr, Yorke appointed Teller of tlu Exchequer^ and First Lord of the Admiralty — 
Deprived of his Seat for Cambridgeshire — Motion of Sir Francis Burdett for the Liberation 
of Mr. Gale Jones — Sir Francis Burdett pronounced guilty of a Breach of Privilege, and com- 
mitt ed to the Ttwer — His Liberation — Public Finances — Appointment of the Bullion Committee — 
Mr. Brandos Plan of Parliamentary Reform — Motions for Catholic Emancipation — Earl Grey'* s 
Motion on the State of the Nation — Prorogation of Parliament — Death and Character of 
Mr. Windham — Capture of Guadaloupe— Gallant Naval Exploit — Capture of the Dutch 
and French Settlements in the Ea.%t — Death of the Princess Amelia — Indisposition of the 
King — Abrupt Meeting of Parliament — Repeated Adjournments — Appointment of a Regency 
in the Person of his Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, 



THE political horizon, at the commence- 
tnent of the year 1810, presented a dark and 
lowering aspect. The war on the continent, 
-which had excited ssuch high and animated 
hopes, had terminated in the triumph of France, 
and the defeat and humiliation ot the Emperor 
of Austria. It was not, indeed, known, that the 
illustrious house of Hapsburg contemplated a 
family union with the founder of the Napoleon 
dynasty, but it was apparent that Francis had 
sheathed the sword in ciismay, and that Austria 
continued to e^st only by the suSrauce of 
France. In the peninsula, the campaign of 1800, 
which had opened under the fairest auspices, 
had terminated disastrously ; and in all parts 
of the Spanish dominions, even in those which 
distance and oceans had conspired to secure, 
the standard of civil war was unfurled, and the 
conflicts of contending parties threatened to 
separate the colonies from the parent state. 

In this state of aflTairs, parliament assembled 
on the 23d of January, 1810, and the opening 
speecTi, which, owing to his majesty's continued 
and increasing infirmities, was read by com- 
mission, turned principally upon topics calcu- 
lated rather to increase than to disspel the general 
gloom. Among the most prominent of these 
was the peace recently concluded between Aus- 
tria and France ; the disastrous expedition to 
Walcheren ; the precarious state of our relations 
with Sweden ; and the necessity of affording 
further assistance to Spain and Portugal. 

The first subject proposed to parliament 
was the usual address on hi j majesty's speech. 
This address was moved in the house of lords by 
the Earl of Glasgow, seconded by Lord Grim- 



stone ; and in the house of commons by Lord bqOK JV. 
Bernard, seconded by Mr. Peel. In both houses , — 
amendments were moved, and the formidable Cuap. XII. 
numbers in the ranks of opposition served to v.-*^v^*^ 
shew that the late changes in the cabinet had 1^1^ 
tended to weaken a government already feeble in 
the senate, and by no means strong in public 
estimation. 

The debates on the address, which turned 
principally upon the conduct of the war in Spain, 
were followed by votes of thanks to Lord IVel- 
lington and his army, for the skill and gallantry 
displaced in the battle of Talavera ; and these 
discussions were succeeded by a motion made by 
Lord Porchester, for an inquiry into the policy 
and conduct of the late expedition to Walcheren, 
under the Earl of Chatham. To give efficacy to 
this inquiry, his lordship moved for the appoint- 
ment of a committee— not a select and secret 
committee, he said, before whom garbled ex- 
tracts might *be laid by ministers themselves, 
in order to produce a partial decision, but a com- 
mittee of the whole house, by which oral evi* 
dence might be examined at the bar. This 
motion was opposed by ministers, but without 
success, for, on a division of the house, there ap- 
peared, for the motion, one hundred and ninety- 
eight ; against it, one hundred and eighty-six 
voices. 

On the 1st of February, the day before the 
investigation commenced, Mr. Yorke, the mera- 
her for Cambridgeshire, gave notice that he 
should, during the inquiry, enforce the standing 
order of the house for the exclusion of strangers. 
Mr. Sheridan deprecated the idea of proceeding 
in an investigation, in which the nation w^s sa j 

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Chap. XII. 



1810 



BOOK IV. deeply interested, with closed doors, and asked 
whether it could be endured that the people 
should be kept in complete ignorance oi what 
parliament was doing at one of the most awful 
moments of its existence? Mr. Windham in- 
quired what was the yalue of their constituents 
knowing what was passing in that house ? Sup- 
pose they should never know it, the difference 
would only be that which existed between a re- 
presentative form of government and a demo- 
cracy. It was not till between the last twenty 
and thirty years that the debates had been pub- 
lished at all, and he was one of those that liked 
the constitution as it was, not as it is. Persons 
made a trade of what they obtained from the 
gallery, among which persons were to be found 
bankrupts, lottery-office-keepers, footmen, and 
decayed tradesmen. He did not know any of 
the conductors of the press, but he understood 
them to be a set of men who would give into 
corrupt misrepresentations, and he was deter- 
mined not to favour such characters by lending 
bis hand to abrogate an order which was made 
to correct an abuse. Sir Francis Burdett said, 
if he could see in that house a body of gentle- 
men, fairly and freely elected by the people as 
the chosen guardians of their rights— if he could 
see no placemen or pensioners within those 
walls, and if no corrupt or undue influence could 
be supposed to operate on the minds of any of 
the members of that assembly; then, indeed, he 
should feel no particular objection to the inquiry 
being conducted in secret ; unfortunately, how- 
ever, the case was different, and the house stood 
in the eyes of the public in a very opposite 
situation. It had been considered by some, that, 
in point of character, they were on their last 
legs ; but, for his part, he feared that they had 
not a leg to stand upon. Mr. Sheridan said, 
that to some of the doctrines broached by Mr. 
Windham be had listened with regret, and to 
others with horror ; and his jfriendship for that 
gentleman made him almost wish, for the first 
time in his life, that the public had been ex- 
cluded from the debate. Then passing, by a 
rapid transition, to the subject of the press, he 
exclaimed — *^ Give me but the liberty of the 

Eress, and I will give to the minister a venal 
ouse of peers — I will give him a corrupt and 
servile house of commons — I will give him the 
full swing of the patronage of office — I will 
give him the whole host of ministerial influ- 
ence-^I will give him all the power that place 
can confer upon him, to purchase up submission, 
and overawe resistance ; and yet, armed with 
the liberty of the press, I will go forth to meet 
him undismayed ; 1 will attack with that mightier 
engine the mighty fabric he has raised ; I will 
shake down from its height corruption, and bury 
it beneath the ruin of the abuses it was naeant to 



shelter." But however eloquently Mr. Sheridan 
enforced his arguments, the sense of parliament 
was against him ; and a majority of one hundred 
and sixty-six to eighty members, decided, that 
the standing order of the house for the exclusion 
of strangers should remain unaltered. 

A parliamentary proceeding in which the 
public was so deeply interested, naturally became 
a subject of general discussion, and on the l§th 
of* February, while the investigation into the 
Scheldt expedition was proceeding in the house 
with closed doors, Mr. Yorke complained of a 
breach of privilege. His conduct in that assem- 
bly, he said, had been made the subject of dis- 
cussion in a speaking club, called the Bairisa 
Forum, and their hand bills, which were stuck 
upon all the walls of the city, stated, that, " after 
an interesting discussion, it was unanimously 
decided, that the enforcement of the standing 
orders, by shutting out strangers from the gal- 
lery of the house of commons, ought to be con- 
sidered as an insidious and ill-timed attack upon 
the liberty of the press, as tending to aggravate 
the discontents of the people, and to render 
their representatives objects of jealous suspi- 
cion.^' The same hand-bill proposed a question 
for the next night's meeting, couched in these 
terms—" Which was the greatest outrage apon 
public feeling, Mr. Yorke's enforcement of the 
standing orders, or Mr. Windham's recent at- 
tack upon the liberty of the press ?" This Mr. 
Y'orke complained of as a gross violation of the 
privileges of that house, and John Dean, the 
printer of the hand-bill, was ordered to attend 
at the bar. On the following evening the printer 
appeared, and after humbly begging pardon of 
the honourable house for his offenc^*stated that 
John Gale Jones was the author of t|fe obnoxious 
hand-bill. Mr. Jones, when summoned to the 
bar, acknowledged that he was the author of 
the paper in question, adding, that he had 
always considered it the privilege of every Eng- 
lishman to animadvert on public measures, and 
the conduct of public men ; but, on looking over 
the paper again, he found he had erred, and 
begged to express his contrition, and cast him- 
self upon the mercy of the house. The speaker 
now put the question, that John Gale Jones has 
been guilty of a gross breach of the privileges 
of tliis house, which was carried unanimously ; 
and on the motion of Mr. Yorke, he was com- 
mitted to Newgate. The printer, having given 
up his author, was reprimanded and discharged. 

The question of privilege served as a kind 
of episode, and withdrew public attention in 
some degree from the inquiry which was now 
resumed. Among the papers laid before parlia- 
ment, was a " copy of the Earl of Chatham's 
statement of his proceedings ;" dated the 15th 
of October, 1809, pr^ented to tlie king on th« 



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14th oi February, 18 K). The tenor of the nar- 
rative was to impute blame to the naval part 
ot'.tiie expedition, and his lordship represented 
its fa'dure to have arisen^ ^* either from insuffi- 
cient arrangements on the part of the admiral, 
Sir Richard Straehan, or from unavoidable 
diflBculties, inherent in the nature of the expe- 
dition itseli'i which, being entirely of a naval 
nature, did not come within his province.'' The 
presenting of such a document to the sovereign 
ny a military commander, without the interven- 
tion of any responsible minister, and witiiout the 
knowledge of the accused party, was depre- 
cated as a clandestine and unconstitutional at- 
tempt to poison the royal ^ ear ; and a motion 
made by Mr. Wliitbread for an address to his 
Duyesty, praying that copies of all papers sub« 
mitted to him by the Earl of Chatham, at any 
time, concerning the expedition to the Scheldt, 
might be laid before that house, was carried in 
opposition to ministers by a majority of seven 
voices. This proceeding was followed by a vote 
of censure, proposed by Mr. Whitbread, and 
amended by Mr. Canning, in which Lord Cha- 
tham was pronounced highly reprehensible for 
the communication made to his. majesty; and 
bis lordship, in order to avoid an address to the 
king, praying for his removal from his majesty^s 
councils, resigned his office of master-general of 
the ordnance. 

Mr, Whitbread, while animadverting upon 
the surreptitious manner in which the narrative 
of the Earl of Chatham had been presented tQ 
the king, touched upon a topic which particu<r 
larly associated itself with the name of Chatham x 
*' It was," said Mr* Whitbread, '' the first com- 
moner in England, 1 mean the man who was 
afterwards created William, Earl of Chatham, 
which first discovered, that, from the beginning 
of the present reign, there had existed a secret 
and midignant influence behind the throne, 
greater than the throne itself. Strange fatality ! 
that in the son of that very man, who first 
made the bold and awful annunciation, should 
be found one of the agents of that occult influ- 
ence, which the father so long deprecated, and 
so magnanimously resisted." 

In the mean time the examination of evi- 
dence upon the Walcheren expedition, which 
had occupied the house from the 2d of Feb- 
ruary to the 2flth of March, was concluded; 
and Lord Porchester moved two series of reso- 
lutions, to the eSeety that the expedition was 
und^taken under circumstances which afibrde^ 
no rational hope of adequate success, and at the 
precise season of the year when the disease, 
which had proved so fatal, was known to be 
most prevalent; that the advisers of that ill- 
judged enterprise were therefore highly repre-i 
hensible for the calamities with which its failiiro 

vol., II. — NO. 48. 



1810 



had been attended ; and that their conduct, in BOOK IV. 

delaying the evacuation of Walcheren, called for -—'—■ 

the severest censure. After four nights debate ^ap.XII. 
the question was put to the vote, when there ^ 
appeared, for Lord Porchester's resolutions, twe 
hundred 'and twenty-seven, and against them, 
two hundred and seventy -five voices. The 
house next decided upon an amendment of 
General Crawford's, purporting, that though 
the house considered with regret the lives whicb 
had been lost, it was of opinion that his majesty ^s 
ministers had proceeded upon good g^unds in 
undertaking the expedition ; which amendmeni 
was carried by a majority of forty voices. The 
second set of resolutions, censuring ministers for 
delaying the evacuation of Walcheren, wasnega^ 
tived by a ms^ority of two hundred and seventy- 
five to two hundred and twenty -four ; and a re-* 
solution, approving their conduct for . retaining 
the island till the time it was abandoned, was 
carried by a majority of two hundred and fifty- 
five to two hundred and thirty-two voices* 

This decision was considered as an escape, 
but by no means as a triumph, on the part of 
ministers. It was, however, obvious, that the 
question of the policy of the expedttaen to the 
Scheldt was one widi regard to whieh . impat- 
tial men might differ ; and though the opini<» of 
the country was by no means in unison with the 
decision of parliament, the result of the inquiry 
produced none of those fiselings of disapfioint* 
ment, with which the issue, of the inv^estigation 
Into the conduet of the Duke of YoriL had^ 
during the preeeding session, agitated th^ 
community. 

The conduct of Mr, Yorke, in enforcing the 
standing order of the house of commons, wa^ 
duly appreciated both by ministers and by tb^ 
public. The former were so sensible of the 
benefits they had derived from his seasonable 
services, that he sooii obtained ^e sinecure 
office of teller of tbe exchequer, and the b>^hly 
responsible situation of first lord of the admi- 
ralty. In consequence of these appointments^ 
he was under the necessity of vacating h^ seat 
for the countv of Cambridgeshire, which' he had 
represented tax twenty years ;. and in the popular 
inaignation that he had to encounter^ as well 
as in the defeat of his attempts to obtain hia re< 
election, the sense of the nation was iiinequl- 
yocally pronounced qn the merits a^d mptivea 
of his public conduct. Mr. Yorke was poposed 
in his election by Lord Frauds Godolphin 
Osborne ; and so decided and general was the 
sense of tbe freeholders of the county on the 
day 0^ nomination against their late member^ 
that Mr. Yori^e thought it prap«r to decline the 
poll ia favour of the new candidate, and to take 
refuge in the Cornish borough of St. Germaina. 

Although several of the members of th^ 



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HISTORY OF TltE WARS 



BOOK IV. house of commoni had expressed their doubts of 

— the policy of oomnritting Mr. Gale Jones to 

Chap.XII. Newgate, yet none of them liad denied, or 
^""^yTT^ doubted, the power of the house to' punish a 
*^^^ breach of privilege by imprisonmckit; This was 
reserved for Sir Francis Bnrdett-^a man, who, 
as his friends' insist, newr sufiers to pass un- 
noticed or unemployed an opportunity of de^ 
fending the liberties, and securing the propertied 
«f the subject ; or, as his enemies assert, of 
shaking the foundations of goYernment, and in- 
spiring dissatisfaction and discontent among. thQ 
people. On the daj when the committal took 
place. Sir Francis was confined to his house by 
indisposition ; but as soon as possible after his 
' return to his parliamentary dutv^ he moved for 
the liberation of the. prisoner of privilege, ground- 
ing his motion on an assumption that the house 
of commona had exerted a power which the 
eonstitutfon did not confer upon them, and of 
ydiich no precedent could be found, except in 
. tJie worst periods of our history. The motion 
wa^ made by Sir Francis Burdett on the l^th 
of March, and in the speech delivered on thai 
ooeasion, great research and knowledge of the 
law uid practise of parliament, were £splayed. 
The boBonr^le baronet, at tiie conclusion of his 
speeeh, moved, that John Ghde Jones should be 
discharged ; which motion was resisted by both 
•ides of the house, and negatived by a majority 
of one 'hundred and fifty^three to fourteen 
iroiees. The speech ddivered on this occasion 
Sir Francis Burdett pnblished in a periodical 
piqier, of the 24tb of the same month,* with a 
letter prefixed, addressed to his constituents. 

" The house of commonst" say« Sir Francis, 
** having passed a Tote, which amounts to a declaration, 
Ihttt an order of theirs is of more weight Ifaaa Maffiia 
Charts and the laws of the hnd, I think it my duty toli^^ 
my seatimeiits thereoa before my constitamts, whose 
character, as freemen, and whose personal safety, depend, 
in so gvtBX a de^^ree, upon the decision of thisquestion — a 
Quesdon of no less importance than this: Wnetfaer our 
hberty- be still to-be secured by the laws of our forelktbeis, 
or' to be laid at the absolute mercy of a part of our fellow* 
iultl<^ctli, collected together by means which it is not neces* 
sary for me to describe ? Should the principle, upon which 
the ' gentlemen of the house of commons have thought 
proper to act in this instance, be once admitted^ it is tm- 
toosi^ble for any one to conjectare how soon he himself may 
te sammoned from his dwelliBg, and be hurried, without 
trial, ai^d without oath made against him, from the bosom 
of his family into the clutches of a eaoler. ft is there- 
fore no^ die time to resist the doctrme upon which Mr. 
Jones has been sent to Newvate; or, it is high time -to 
cease all preteasiotts to those Iwerties w4iioh were ooquived 
by* our forefathers after sp many struggles and so maoy 
sacrifices. We seek for, and we need to seek for, nothing 
new ; we ask for only the birth- right of ^he people of Eng- 
land, namely,* the lows of England. To these laws we 
have a right fo ^look, with conftdetice, for seeariw ; to 
thesfe low the iiUlmdual now imprisoned, bas,thio«gb me, 
applied for redress in vain. Yoar voice may come with 



more force; may command greater resp^<rt ; and I am 
not wilhout hopes that it may prove irresistible. If any 
of you be liable, at any time, to be sent to gaol without a 
trial, and as long as ff pleasel( the parties sending you 
there (perliaps to ih^ end iif y^ilt* lif<^ without any court 
to appeal to> wilhoat any mean 9f redreas; if this be 
the case, shaJl we stilfl boa^ of the laws and liberties of Eng* 
land ? But I would faiu believe that such is not to be our 
fate. Oiir fathers made stem grira-visae^ed prerogative 
hide his head ; they broke in pieces his sharp and massy 
sword; and shall we, their sons^ be aihdd to enter > the 
Usto with undoBned pcirilege^ assomtDg the powesssf 
prerogative." 

The speedi, or ajtvument, as it was now 
entitled y con tained^ amkbtinany^ legal and ooA" 
slitutHMial reierenoesy sereral passages in the 
sanj^e bold and animated strain. 

** 1 have little- doubt," says Sir Francis- in this 
argument, '^ of bein^ able to coayinee every impartial 
mind, that the house of coo^mons, hy proceeding to Judg* 
ment — passing sentence of imprisonment — and issuiuf a 
warrant of commitment, has gone beyond it& prescribed 
limits, acted in a manner inconsistent with the ends of itb 
iastitntiou, and Violate th^ fundamental principles ef tb« 
law and constitution of die land.'\.. ......'' By proceeding 

thus, they have exercised a jurisdiction not vested ia 
them ; a jurisdiction beyond the limits of king, lords, and 
commons, while Magna Charta remains unrepealed — and 
repealed it never can be till England shall have fbund her 

grave in thefximiption of the house of oommom;'' «< As 

to the speaker's warrant, Isjtthis iastrument, this thing, sm 
generis, be contrasted with the description of the properties 
of a legal warrant. Does it not evidently appear, that this 
piece of unsealed paper, signed by the sperucer, by which 
an untried subject has been outlawed, bears no feature of 
legality, and tlmt, fironi the oonimencemeiit of this proceed- 
ing, in its progress, to its conclusion, there is oot >oae 
step that has not been marked in a peculiar nianner vritli 
disrespect to the laws— a disrespe<;t, in which all parts 
bavo oeen wonderfully consistent throughout, in consti- 
tuting tiici most anlawfol act the aiind of man can possibly 
conceive P'.*.v'' Upon what ground or pretenee has the 
house assumed such a ppwer to punish P Since they have 
taken upon themselves such a power^ it is fair to call upon 
them to shew how ' they came by it, and when they first 
claimed it. The 'commencement of this usurpation was 
when'^hey gst rid of the npper housd of payliaknoat; and 
cut off the head of the king. (Charles 1.^ They stiU, it 
seems, are emboldened to mamtain an illegal power, not 
pretended to even by the king, but which these local sove- 
reigns ov«r the king claim as of right. But no wonder, 
wMD diey hli¥eso entiMtt departed from tlie emis of th^ 
iDStitutioB^-*«S waroibred to be prov^ 1^ Mr^ Madocks, 
and acknowledged by themselves, in the oever-to-be-for- 
ffotten morning of the 1 1th of May, 1809, when, from 
being the lower, or inferior, (for it is the same sense, one 
being an English, and another a Latin, word) branch of 
the legislatore, they became the proprietors by burgage 
tenure of tlie whole repre^entatioA ; and in that capacity, 
inflated vrith their high flown, fanciful ideas of mi^esty^ 
and tricked out in the trappings of royalty, think privi- 
lege and protection beneath their dignity, assume the sword 
ofpreroi^tive, and lord it equidly over the king and the 



In consequence of this publication, it was 
moyed, by Mr. Letbbridge, and decided by .a 
majority of the house of commons, that Sir 
Francis Burdett bad been guilty o£ pubUsbing 



♦ Cobbett's. Weekly Political Register. 



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OF THB FttSNCMi RBVOLUTION. 



Idl 



a scandalous and libellous paper, reflecting upon 
the just rights and priyileeea of that honourable 
bouse^ for ivhich offence he was ordered to be 
taken into custody by the s^jeant-^at-tarms, and 
committed to the Tower. The motion for com'* 
mitment, which was made by. Sir Robert Sails-* 
buryy.was carried, after a long and animated 
debate, by a migority of one hundred and ninety 
to one hundred and fifty-two yoices. The 
division did not take place till seyen o'clock on 
the morning of Friday, the 6th of April ; and at 
half-past eight, the same mofming, the speaker 
signed tibe warrant, and delivered it to Mr. 
Colman, the seijeant at arms, with a direction 
to execute it before ten o'clock, that he might 
not have to convey his prisoner to the Tower 
through the streets of Loiidon in the middle of 
the day. Owing to the absence of Sir Francis 
from, town, the serjeant-at-arms did not see him 
till the afternoon of that day, when the baronet, 
who was then at his house, in Piccadilly, told 
him that he intended, to write to the speaker, and 
that he should be ready to receive him the; next 
morning, at eleven o'clock. The serjeant-at- 
arms then retired, and reported to the speaker 
theateps that had been taken ; when Mr. Abbot 
. advised him to go back, and execute the war- 
rant without further delay. In compliance with 
this advice, he returned to the house of Sir 
Fraaeis, and informed hiin, that he had been 
reprimanded by the speaker for the delay that 
had already taken plaee, and intimated that he 
must accompany him to the Tower forthwith. 
To thi» Sir Francis Burdett. replied, '\U you 
bring an overwhelming {oree I must submit ; but 
I dare not, from my allegiance to the -king, and 
mj respect to the laws, yield a voluntary sub- 
mission to the warrant you have just exhibited^ 
it is iUegal*; and you must leave my house." 
Mr. Colman^ feeling himself- at a loss how to 
net, withdrew, and repaired to the office of the 
#eeretwry of state. On the evening of the day 
on whidi the house of commons directed the 
speaker to issue bis warrant for the apprehension 
and commitment of Sir Francis Biircktt, the 
populace began to collect before bis house, in 
Piccadilly. On Saturday, in the afternoon, the 
concourse of people was so great, and the resist- 
ance to the execution of the warrant so highly 
probable, that ministers thought proper to call 
out all the military who were in London, and 
sent orders to several regiments, who were within 
a day's march, to proceed to the metropolis 
with all possible dispatch. The populace wlio 
were before the baronet's house, compelled all 
.the passengers on horseback, or in carriages, to 
pull off their hats as they passed, and in the 
evening they paraded the neighbouring streets, 
•>DaUing &>r liffhts,^ breaking the windows of sucli 
houses as did not illuminate, and more particul- 



arly venting their fury on the hpuses of his ma- B00)1IV» 

esty's ministers, and of such men^bers of the ■ 

house of commons as had distinguished them- Oiup.Xlf^ 
selves by speaking in favour of the imprisonment ^"""T^C^ 
of Sir Francis Burdett. *^** 

A doubt now rose in the mind of the ser- 
jeant-at-arms, whether the warrant, under which 
he acted, would authorise him to. break open the 
baronet's doors, which, he had learnt, were 
strongly barricadoed ; and the opinion of Sin 
Vicary Gibbs, the attorney-general, to whom 
the question was submitted, tended rathier to 
confirm than to remove his apprehensions: 
There was no precedent to govern his decision, 
the, attorney-general said, but reasoning from 
analogy, the tendency of his opinion was, that 
the door might be broken open for the purpose 
of executing the warrant ; but if, in any conflict 
that might take plaee in consequence, death 
should ensue, the officer who executed the war-* 
rant would stand justified or not, as the breaking 
of the house might be deemed lawful or unlaw- 
ful. On this opinion, vague and incouclusuve at 
it was, the seijeant at arms was obliged to act, 
and a little before eleven o'clock on the morning 
of Monday, the Qth of April, Mr. Colman, ae- 
coropanied by messengers and poUce oflicera, 
and supported by a large military force, broke 
open the baronet's house. Mr. Colmay, ad- 
vancing to Sir Francis Burdett, and at the same 
time presenting his warrant,. said, ^' You are my 
prisoner." " That," rejoined Sir Francis, ^^ is 
not a legal instrument; and I tell you, dis- 
tinctly, that I will not voluntarily submit to. an 
unlawnil order. I demand, in the king's name, 
and. in the name of the laws, tliat you forthwith 
retire from my house." " Then, Sir," said the 
seqeant, ^^ I must call assistance, and force you 
to yield." The constables now laid hold on Sir 
Francis; Mr. Jones Burdett, and Mr. Roger 
O'Connor, who were in the room, immediately 
took him by the arm ; but the peace officers 
dosed on all three, and drew them down stairs. 
Sir Francds was iheiBL conducted to the coach, 
which, preceded and guarded by a large body 
of cavalry, conveyed him to the Tower. At the 
time that the seijeant-at-arms', and his attendants, 
broke into the house of Sir Francis Burdett, 
very few people were collected in Piccadilly, but 
the report of his seizure spread rapidly through 
every part of the metropolis ; and before the 
coach,- which, to avoid going through the city, 
had taken a circuitous routed arrived at Tower- 
Hill, the multitude in that quarter was immense* 
As soon as they perceived tlie carriage in whioh 
he was conveyed, their heads' were instuitly un- 
covered, and the air rang with acclamations in 
favour of the man whom they regarded as suf- 
fering in the cause of the liberties of his countiry. 
No attack was isade upon the- military till they 



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HISTORY OF THE WAllS 



BOOK \\i began fo retarn ; but scarcely had they entered 

— ; East-Cheap, when they were assailed in the rear 

OiiAp. XII. by a shower of stones and mud.. For a const* 
^'^'Ty""^ derable time the soldiers endured this attack 
^^® with coolness and patience ; but at leni^h, find- 
ing the mob grow more daring, they fired seve- 
ral shots, by which, unfortunately, eight persons 
were wounded, two of them mortally. 

The letter which Sir Francis Burdett had 
addressed to the speaker, on Friday evening, 
was communicated to the house of commons on 
Monday, and produced an unanimous resolu- 
tion, ^* That the letter of Sir Francis Burdett to 
the speaker is a high, and flagrant breach of 
privilege." In this letter the baronet declared, 
that his duty to his king, and to his constituents, 
wbuld not allow him voluntarily to obey the act 
of any set of men, who, contrary to the laws, 
assume the sovereign power ; ^and he professed 
his readiness to accept the meanest office that 
W<>uld vacate his seat to get out of an associ- 
ation, whioli bad illegally usurped the whole 
power of the realm. 

Sir Francis Burdett was abundantly cod^ 
soled under his imprisonment in the Tower by 
the addresses he received from different parts of 
the kingdom, and by the petitions that were 
sent to the house of commons for his liberation. 
The first place that petitioned was the city of 
Westminster ; and the counties of Middlesex 
and Berkshire, as well as the livery of London, 
the borough of Southwark, and the towns of 
Rochester, Hull, Reading, Nottingham, and 
•Sheffield, followed their example. 

' Although the warrant by which Sir Francis 
Burdett was committed to the Tower, directed 
that he should remain imprisoned during the 
pleasure of the house of commons, yet it had 
always been customary to liberate persons thus 
committed when the prorogation of parliament 
took place, and that period was anxiously ex- 
pected by the friends of the baronet in the 
metropolis. Although his liberation, by the 
effluxion of time, could not, in any respect, be 
considered a triumph, it was determined to cele- 
brate the da^, and preparations were made to 
. conduct him in great state i'rum the Tower to Ids 
.house in Piccadilly. Early in the morning of 
^ « the 21st of June, all the streets through which 

tth^^^procession was to pass, were crowded with 
^wliiqif^ who meant either to witness or to join in 
the splendid pageant. The hour at which it was 
known that parliament would be prorogued wid 
looked for with intense anxiety, and the most 
efftetual methods had been taken to communi- 
cate the notice from Westminster-Hall to the 



Tower. The expected intelligence at last 
arrived; parliament was prorogued, and Sir 
Francis Burdett was free. The immense multi- 
tudes on Tower-Hill pressed forward to catch the 
first glimpse of the popular favourite. Several 
minutes elapsed after the prorogation had been 
made known to the governor of the Tower, but 
the baronet did not appear. At length, after ' 
long and anxious expectation, it was announced 
by a speaking-trumpet, from the battlements of 
the fortress, that *' Sir Francis Burdett left the 
Tower by water at half-past three o'clock." His 
friends were, for some time, incredulous, and it 
was suspected that it Was meant to detain him ; but 
they soon became convinced that he had crossed 
the river, and was probably at that time far ad** 
vanced on his road to his country-house at 
Wimbledon. Discontent and chagrin began to 
appear amone the multitude : they had been led 
to understand that the procession was planned 
and arranged with the knowledge and approba- 
tion at Sir Francis Burdett, and no . intimation 
had been given t^at he had changed his* mind. 
That this disappointment did not lead to acts of 
violence and fury, says much for the moderation 
of the people ; that it did not make an impres- 
sion permanently disadvantageous ix> the baronet, 
proves the strong hold he had obtained on publis 
dpinion. The explanation given by Sir Francis 
of this part of his conduct was by no means 
satisfactory ; if, as he stated to the committee 
that waited upon him, he apprehended mischief^ 
he ought not to have countenanced the proces- 
sion in the first instance ; and as to the neces- 
sity of an expression of the public sentiment, no< 
such necessity existed, the public having already 
sufficiently expressed their feelii^s and views of 
his imprisonment.* 

The representative for Westminnter, con* 
oeiving that the law of the land had been out« 
raged in his person, commenced actions, against 
the speaker of the house of commons, for issu- 
ing the warrant for his arrest and imprisonment ; 
against the seijeant-at-arms, for executing the 
warrant generally, and for breaking open the 
outer-door of his house in its execution ; and 
against Earl Moira, the governor of the Tower, 
for illegal imprisonment. These actions the 
house of commons ordered the attorney- general 
to defend. The plea was, that the warrant, 
being issued by the authority of the house of 
commons, was a legal instrument, and that 
therefore the arrest and imprisonment were 
legal. This plea, as miglit have been foreseen, 
was admitted; and the privileges of parliament 
were allowed by the judges of the court of 



»:.*.♦ ifhe liberation of Mr. John Gale Jones from Newgate, took place at the same time that Sir Francii 
Burdett was lilbefaarged from th« Tower; and Mr. Jones arriyed in suffieienl time at Tower* U ill to occupy ibt 
pvincipal place in ihe procaanon, oo its retora into WeaU^inster. 



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Vingp's beach, not to be cognizable in a court of 
l^w, but to be p^t of the laws of the land. 
Thus^ the attempt of Sir Francis Burdett to 
overthrow this branch of the privilege of par- 
liament, like all unsuccessful attempts to call in 
question ancient rights, served to confirm those 
privileges, and gave to the claims of the house 
of commons a solemn judicial recognition. 

The early part of the session of parliament 
of 1810 was almost exclusively occupied by the 
inquiry into the Walcheren expedition, and the 

{>roeeedings in support of the privileges of par- 
iament. On the lOth of May the budget was 
brought forward, and the supplies voted for the 
year amounted to <£'52,18$,000, of which the 
proportion for Ireland was .£6,106,000. The 
ways and means, without the imposition of 
any new taxes, were estimated at a surplus of 
«£141,202 over the demand, including, however^, 
a loan of eight millions, which was borrowed at 
£4. is. S^d. per cent.; nearly fifteen shillings per 
cent, below the rate of legal interest.* There 
was no reason, Mr. Perceval said, to appre- 
hend any thing like decay in our finances, for, 
the more they were examined, the better satis- 
fied we should be of their prosperity. This 
very year, when men of great autnority antici- 
pated a failure, there had actually been a very 
considerable increase. The ofiicial value of the 
imports was o£'d6,255,209, nearly five millions 
more than in the most prosperous year of peace. 
The exports of our manufactures amounted to 
c£35,107,000, between eight and nine millions 
more than tliey were in 1802. The exports of 
our foreign goods were, however, nearly four 
millions less than at that time. " Thus,'* said 
Mr. Perceval, " while this country is greatly pro- 
gressive in prosperity, the orders in council have 



reduced the receipts of the customs in France UOOK IT. 

from two millions and a half, to half a million, 

being a diminution of four-fifths of the whole Chap. XII. 

anounf ^^^DT^ 

Mr. Huskisson said, that in the midst of aU **^® 
this vaunted prosperity, the national debt con- 
tinued to increase; and he inquired if it was 
possible to go on much longer, adding from a 
million to twelve hundred thousand every year 
to the public burdens ? 

One of the first measures adopted by the 
' friends of economical reform was contained in a 
motion made by Mr. Bankes, to the efiect, that 
the act for suspending the granting of offices in 
reversion should be made perpetual ; and a bill 
for this purpose passed the house of commons 
almost without opposition. When this bill • 
reached the upper hoAse it was thrown out at its 
second reading by a large majority. Mr. Bankes, 
finding, as he said, that there was a determined 
principle to oppose the bill in its present shape, 
introduced a second bill for a limited neriod; 
but this attempted compromise provea inef- 
fectual, and the second bill was, in like manner; 
rejected by the peers, with a pertinacity not less 
injurious in itself than offensive to the publie 
feeling. 

A subject of vital importance to the interests 
of the community, and to the commercial credit 
of the country, was brought under the consider- 
ation of parliament, by Mr. Horner, who, on the 
1st of February, moved for a variety of accounts 
and returns respecting the present state of the 
circulating pieaium, and the trade in bullion. 
On the production of these papers, a committee 
was appointed for the purpose of inquiry into the 
present high price of bullion, and the consequent 
eiTect on the value of the paper currency ; but 



FINANCE. 



HUB Lie INjCd^rR «f Great Britain for the Year 
einllng the 6th of January, 1810. 

Braucfies of ttvr.aue, Groxn Recdpti. | Fa id itUo tlig Excheq , 



Ciistomg 10,552,9Sa 8 

Kxciae 19,385,496 19 

Sumps « 5,463,425 8 

l^irid& Asseaed Taxes 8,482,574 1 

Pofit-Office ...: 1,610,5»5 5 

Arijcd.Penn«n«itTax. 127*750 9 

Hcrcd. Ilevpnue 87,148 16 

Kxtnord. Resources. 

sSCrustoms 3,597,201 15 

i^{ Excwe 5,778,396 12 



Excwe 5,778,396 

1 Property Tax 12,415,8(« 

Miscel. Income 2*900,874 4 

Loanfi, including) 
3.O(X),0OO for the}- 14,67^,668 18 
serTice of Ireland... J 



1 

71 



7 

llj 



8,568,032 

17,184,931 

5,309,843 

8,742,483 

1,370,069 

123,664 

118,750 



d 


Uj 
11 

H 
11; 

7: 

5: 



3,07«,76I 19 

5,638,216 11 

12,160,162 8 

2,»'38,359 15 

14,675,666 U 



111 

5 
6 



Grand Ji'otal— i:84,915,«^95 13 _ Oj| 1 £79,902,943_ 
WiatdioiU Treasury Chamhen, ) ^^1?]«*>_ 



li 



S4M of March, 18ia 
VOL. U. — NO. 48. 



RICH. WHARTON. 



PUBLrC EXPENDITURE of Great Britain for the 
Year en«ling the 5th of January, 1810. 



Heads of Expenditure, 



Stmu. 



Interest 

Char^ of Management 

Reduction of National Debt 

Interest on Exdiequer BiUb 

Civil List , 

Civil Government of Sootlaad 

Pajnnenta in anticipation, &c 

Navy 

Ordnance ^ 

Army • 

Rxtraordinarv Services 

Loons to Sweden, Sicily, Portugal, A; Austria, 1 

includingi;2,92l,527 15^. ^d. to Ireland, j 

Miscellaneous Services 



cfc'. 

20,996,059 

222,775 

10,904,450 

1,869,943 

1,606,038 

90,954 

789,754 

19,236,036 

4,374»184 

12,591,040 

5,872,054 





s» 

•10 
11 


4,971,527 15 6^ 

1,459,434 4 % 



Deductions for Sums fomiing no part of the \ 84,977,248 
Expenditure of Great Britain > 8,949,960 



Grand Total— £82.027.288 

WhiiehaU^ Treamry Chofkbert^X (Signed) 

244h of Mar(^^ 1810. J 

Q a 



3 



IJ 



RICH. WHARTON. 



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154 



HISTORY OP THE WARS 



Chap. XII. 
1810 



BOOK IV. this inquiry opened so wide a field of inrcstiga- 
tion, that it was not till the eve of the pro- 
rogation of parliament that the report of the 
committee could be submitted to the house. The 
bullion committee, after a patient and laborious 
ij)Yestigation,were decidedly of opinion, that the 
evils, into the causes of which they were com- 
missioned to inquire, were to be attributed to an 
excessiTe issue of Bank of England paper ; and 
it was stated in their report, that " a general 
rise of all prices, a rise in the market price of 
gold, and a fall in the foreign exchanges, will be 
the effect of an undue quantity of circulating me- 
dium in a country which has adopted a currency 
not exportable to other countries, or convertible 
at will into a coin that is convertible." But 
though the Bank of En^^land notes were in 
reality at a discount, that discount, in the judg- 
ment of the committee, did not arise from want 
of credit, or confidence in the funds, and stabi- 
lity in the bank, but merely from over issue. 
And it was stated, that '* no sufficient remedy for 
the present evil, or security for the future, 
could be pointed out, except the repeal of tire 
law which suspends the cash payments of the 
Bank of England." To efiect so important a 
change, the committee was aware that some 
difficulties must be encountered ; but all hazards 
to the stability of the bank, and all injury to 
public credit, might be obviated, by restricting 
ci^h payments for two years from the present 
time, and by intrusting to the bank itself the 
charge of conducting and completing the 
operation.* " 

The question of parliamentary reform was 
brought under consideration in the house of 
commons, by Mr. Brand, on the 21st of May. 
Having stated the evils resulting from the pre- 
sent defective state of the representation, he 
proceeded to suggest a remedy. He did not 
mean to touch the ngbt of voting for county 
members, except by letting in copy-holders, 
and assimilating the mode of voting in Scotland 
to the practise in England. The honourable 
ipember^y ip the plan now sublBitted to the CQUsi-^ 



deration of the house, proposed to disfranchist 
the boroughs in which the members were re* 
turned on the nomination of individuals ; and as 
the number of members would be diminished in 
that proportion, it would be proper to transfer 
the right of returning such members to populous 
towns, and apply any surplus 'to the larger 
counties. The duration of parliament should^ 
he conceived, be triennial, with a concurrent 
arrangement for collecting the votes by districts 
and parishes. It was not his intention to pro- 
pose that all persons holding offices should be 
excluded from the house of commons; but iu 
order to secure the independence of parlianieut, 
persons holding offices without responsibility — 
mere sinecures, should not be suffered to have 
seats in that assembly. On these grounds he 
brought forward his present motion, and he 
trusted the house would give it all tiie consi- 
deration to whicii the subject was entitled. Of 
one thing he was certain, that the country must 
either have a temperate reform, or a military 
government. In conclusion, he moved for the 
appointment of a committee to inquire into the 
state of the representation of the people in par- 
liament ; which motion was rejected by a large 
majority. 

The frequently agitated question of catholic 
emancipation was this session brought forward 
in both houses ; and motions for the removal of 
the disabilities under which his majesty's roman 
catholic subjects labour, made by the Earl of 
Ponoughmore and Mr. Grattan, were rejected 
both in the lords and commons by considerable 
majorities. In the discussion on the catholic 
question in 1808, it had been stated by Lord 
Grenville in the house of lords, and Mr. Grattan 
in the house of commons, that the catholics were 
willing to allow to the crown a vetOy or negative, 
in the appointment of their bishops; but the 
catholics of Ireland, after deep deliberation, 
came to the conclusion, that it would be deroga- 
tory to their character as a religious conun unity, 
and would involve a compromise of the coDsti^ 
tution of th^ir church, to purchase an extension 



* From the appendix to the report of the bullion committee it appeared, that, in the years 1701 and 1792, 
before the breaking out of the revolutionary war, the amount of bank notes in circulation was eleven millions and 
a half. In 1797, the bank was relieved by act of parliament from the necessity of paying in cash payments, when 
two additional miUions in small notes were issued. For two years after the passing of the bank restriction bill, gold 
never exceeded its legitimate price of «£3 17s. 6d. per ounce ; and consequently, the foreign exchanges remained at par, 
and the circulating medium suffered no depression. In 1799, an increase of four millions took place in the paper cur- 
rency of the bank, which circumstance, co-operating with the subsidies paid to foreign powers, and the increased importa- 
tions, in consequence of the failure of the harvest, advanced the bullion pdce of gold to £4 per ounce. At the end of the 
ear 1808, the issues of the bank were still further increased ; and «I1 those alarming symptoms, the existence of which 
gave rise to the bullion committee, appeared, and continued to gain strength ; specie became every day more and more 
scarce, and at last nearly disappeared altogether ; and the exchanges wi$b the continent, and the price of bullion, rose ex- 
cessively. The bank still enlarged their issues ; and on the 12th of May, 1810, ^he amount of the Bank of England paper 
in circulation was swelled to twenty-one miltions, of which fifteen millions were in large, and six miUions in small 
notes. It was further stated, that the issue of paper money had been greatly increased by the transactions of the coundy 
banks, which now amounted to upwards of seven hundred, and by fitr the greater part of whom were issuers of notes. 



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OP THE FACNCH REVOLUTION. 



155 



of their civil privileges, by conceding to a pro- 
testant sovereign the right of interference in the 
appointment of the catholic prelacy. Thi$» deci- 
sion, though it diminished the number of the 
friends of cathokc emancipation in the British 
parliament, sufficiently proved that the members 
of the church of Rome in these realms felt no 
inordinate anxiety for the attainment of political 
power, and that, when their civil rights interfered 
-fvith their religious obligations, they were pre- 
pared to sacrifice the former at the shrine oi the 
latter. 

On the Idth of June, when the present 
session of parliament was drawing to a close. 
Earl Grey submitted to the consideration of the 
Jiouse of peers a motion on the state of the na- 
tion ; this motion he introduced by an elaborate 
and eloquent speech, which he concluded with a 
series of resolutions, embracing the principal 
points brought under discussion, and of which 
the following is the substance : 

That an bumble address be presented to bis mi^esty^ 
assorin^ biro ibat the house is conrinctd, tbai peace, so 
anxiously, desired by his majesty's loyal people, wiU be 
best promoted by proving to the world that we possess the 
means of permanently supporting the honour and inde- 
pendence of our country against every species of attack 
by which the enemy might nope to at^sail us ; that for this 
purpose it is necessary that his majesty's government 
shouM henceforth adopt a wise and systematic policy, re- 
gulated, not only by a just estimate of our present difficul-* 
tiesy but by a pruoent foresight of the probable exigencies 
of a protracted warfare. That we have to lament that the 
conduct of his majesty's ministers has been, in this respect, 
directly the reverse of what the interest and safety of bis 
majesty's dominions required^ that they have rashly en- 
gaged in expeditions, so defective in their plan, so impoli- 
tic in their object, and so ill combined as to the time at 
which they were undertaken, ibat they could terminate 
only in an unprofitable waste of the resources and the 
bloml of his majesty's faithful subjects. That, while the 
war has been thus unfortunately conducted, the conduct of 
bis majesty's government, with respect to neutral powers, 
has retarded an amicable arrangement with those wbopi it 
was most our interest to conciliate, and unite with us in 
opposition to the measures of France. That in what more 
immediately concerns our domestic policy, we have e^ally 
to complain of want of wisdom and of mresigbt in bis ma- 
jesty's councils ; that instead of p, permiment system of 
financei temporary and impolitic expedients have for t))^ 



1810 



last three years been resorted to ; that the paper circulation BOOK IV. 
has been extended to a degree highly dangerou9 to the pe- ■ i ^ 

cuniary interests of the country; that no attempts have Chap. XII. 
been made to allay the discontents arising from religious 
differences ; and that no measures have ba&n taken to re- 
move the cause of just complaint on the part of a burthen- 
ed people,' by an efiective economy in the great branches of 
the pubUc service. That owin^ to these and other causes, 
discontent and distrust are begmning to diffuse th^nselvea 
among his majesty's faithful people, and t^at the increase 
and extension of these feelings can only be nrevented by 
the adoption of a more wise, liberal, anq enhghtenea 
policy ; that in recommending such a system of policy to 
nis majestv, we can never lose sight of^^our obUgatioBk to 
support the just prerogatives and useful spl^dour of the 
crown, the venerable establishments of our holy religion, 
And tlie ancient and essential rights and privileges of par-* 
lijament. 

The Earl of Liverpool, in opposing the ad- 
ilress, contended, that a favourable change had 
already taken place in the state of public affairs. 
Our commerce and revenue had increased in a 
manner hitherto unexampled ; the number of 
vessels taken firom the enemy, and those of our 
allies rescued from his grasp, vras immense ; the 
French had been, for the first time in the history 
of modem Europe, driven entirely out of the 
West Indies ; Portugal, which had been over- 
run by the enemy, had seen the armies of France 
expelled by British valour. Spain had beep en- 
couraged to struggle with her oppressors by our 
example ; the port of Lisbon was now free ; and 
Cadiz and Ceuta were at present occupied by 
the British in conjunction with Spanish troops. 
Such was the real state of things, at a period 
when the noble lord had thought proper to draw 
so gloomy a picture of the situation of the 
country, and to move for so severe a censure on 
his migesty's government. After a very ani- 
mated debate, the house divided, when Earl 
Grey's motion was rejected by a majority of 
a hundred and thirty>four to seventy-two voices. 

The motion for an inquiry into the state of 
the nation was the last subject of importance 
that engaged the attention of parliament ; and on 
the 2ist of June the two houses were prorogued, 
by a speech delivered in his majesty's name by 
the lore} chancellor,* 



* During the present session of parliament, di^d the Right Hon. Wnxuii WRn>^AM, % man wliose name, in the 
history of Uterature and pf politics, will be joined with those of Jphnson, Burke, Fox, and Pitt. His death, which was 
occasioned by an opev^tio^ for the removal of An indolent, encysted tumour, took place on Monday, the 4th of June, in 
the 6l8t year of his age. No man occupied a more elevated situation in the estimatiop of all parties, for honour, integ^t}'* 
and patriotism, than Mr. Windham ; but there was a certain tortuousness in his political course, which gave to his conduct 
an air of eccentricity ; and his great talents were, on some occasions, applied to the purpose of adTocating established 
abuses, even at the expense of humanity. As an official and party man, irom a chivalry of sentiment inseparable from 
his nature, be occasionally displayed a dissonance of opinion from those with whom he acted, but his intentions were 
always pure ; he was not made to belong to any set or party of men ; he moved in an orbit of his own ; and was 
never to be diverted from bis purpose by any considerations either of fear or favour. As an orator, he was simple, 
eloquent, prompt, and graceful. As a statesman, he entertained a most profound veneration for the constitution of bis 
country ; and even his faults were not of au ordinary or grovelling kind. He aimed not at the attainment of transient 
popularity, but aspired to a lasting and imperi^habbe reputation ; and his sovereign embalmed bis memory with this high 
enlogium — '* Windham wtis a genuine patriot and a truly honest man.'* 



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156 



HISTORY OP THE WABS 



BOOK IV. 

Chap.XU. 

1810 



After the fall of Martinique, the only set* 
tlement of importance poaseased by the enemy, 
in the West Indies was the island of Guada- 
loupe; and early in the present year, an expe- 
dition, under the command of Lieutenaat-gene- 
ral Sir George Beckwith, called from Martinique 
against that colony. The preparations for the 
attack were completed aoout the middle of 
January, and consisted of an army of about six 
thousand men, which was divided into five bri- 

Shades, apd accompanied with a suitable naval 
orce, under th^ command of Sir Alexander 
Cochrane. On the 27th the expedition arrived 
at St. Marie, and by the prompt and judicious 
operations of the troops, the enemy was driven 
firom the positions he had occupied in advance, 
and oblifl^ed to oompress his torce beyond the 
bridge of Nozeire, having the river Noire in his 
front, and extending his left in such a manner 
into the mountains as to make it difficult to dis- 
lodge him. The great obstacle in the way of 
the advance' of the British army was the pas- 
sage of the Noire, to the defence of which the 
eoiemy had pa>d the utmost attention. Sir 
George Beckwith, aware of the difficulty of 
carrying this position, determined not to hazard 
an attack in front, but to turn the enemy's left 
by the mountains and fall upon his flank. This 
difficult enterprise was confided to the reserve of 
the British army, under Brigadier-general Wale, 
who was ordered to carry through the operation 
on the night of the 3d of February. General 
Wale, having obtained impoi'tant intelligence, 
which led him to think that the route marked 
out in his orders might be considerably shorten- 
ed, and that the manoeuvre might succeed with 
less difficulty and loss if it were executed dur- 
ing the preceding day, advanced on his own 
responsibility, and after a short, but severe con- 
flict, forced the pass of the river, and completely 
aucceeded in his undertaking. This exploit 
decided the campaign ; no sooner had the Cap- 
tain-general, Ernouf, perceived that his flank 
was turned, and that the heights were in pos- 
session of the British, than he hoisted the white 
flag at his head -quarters, and all the other places 
in the island surrendered without resistance. 
At the fiame time the French part of the island 
of St. Martinis was surrendered by capitulation ; 
and on the 14th, Commodore Fa'hie took pos - 
session of tiic, whple island. After the surren- 
der of Stv Martinis, the British commodore 
sailed for Eustatius, which capitulated without 
resistance; and thus the enemy was deprived of 
his last colonial possession in the American 
islands^ 



A few weeks before the fall of Guadaloupe^ 
two French frigates, of forty, eight guns each, 
along with two vessels of the same nation 
armed en ftute^ carrying troops and stores for 
the succour of that island, were met at sea by 
the Junon frigate, Captain Shortland, about 
one hundred and fifty miles from their destina- 
tion. The British captain, having beea decoyed 
into a situation which left him no alternative 
but either to fight or to surrender, determined to 
. encounter the enemy, while a brig that was in 
company efiecfl^d her escape. The two frigateat 
lay, one on each side of the Junon, while one 
of the smaller vessels passed her bowsprit on 
the larboard, and the other on her starboard 
quarters. In this situation, they opened a 
most destructive fire upon tiieir victim from all 
sides, the muskets of the enemy's troops being 
particularly galling. Captain Shortland soon 
perceived that his only hope of success depend- 
ed upon an efibrt to board one of the frigates ; 
but the party ordered upon this service were 
almost all cut ofi^, by a general volley directed 
against them by the troops. After the battle had 
raged for some time, the enemy, in their turn, 
attempted to board, but they were three times 
repulsed; and it was not till after an action of 
an hour and a quarter that the Junon struck her 
colours. In this unequal conflict ninety of the 
British seamen were Killed and wounded, and 
the vessel was reduced to so complete a wreck 
that the next day she was set on fire and destroy- 
ed. The gallantry displayed in this action, in 
which Captain Shortland was mortally wouud- 
ed, has never been surpassed in the annals of 
the British navy. Every man did his duty, 
and the gallant captain, with a pike in his hand, 
headed his men till the last moment, when a 
langridge shot laid him senseless on the deck, 
and terminiited his heroic career. 

In the month of January, the Dutch settle- 
ment of Amboyna, with the neighbouring de- 
Cendent islands, were carried by a coup de main^ 
y an expedition under Captain Tucker, when 
seven armed ships and forty seven merchant ves« 
sels, many of them richly lad^n, rewarded the 
gallant enterprise of the victors. 

The islands of Bourbon and the Mauritius, 
or the Isle of France, had long served to afibrd 
shelter and protection to a very large number of 
French privateers, which scoured the seas in the 
track of the East India shippini^, and had rap- 
tured vessels of that description to an enormous 
amount. Their captures they took either to 
the Isle of Bourbon or the Isle of France, but 
principally to the latter *,^ as being -a place not 



* In the ton months preceJing the fall of this island, it has been ica^culated that the insurance offices of Benfifal 
alone, were losers three millions sterlino^ by captures— f Account of Iht Capture of Mmuriiias) This is probably an ex- 
aggeration, but the real loss must have been immpnse to aflord conntonanoe to snob a statement. 



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only naturally of greatei^ strength^ hat garrison* 
ed and protected by a mach krger force. In the 
hopes of regainUig this booty, and for the pur- 
pose of rooting out the nest of priTateers which 
Infested these aeas, e^^peditions were planned, 
first against the Isle of Uourbon^and afterwards 
egainst the Ide of France. A force was coUect- 
isd, coosasiing of two thousand fiye hundred 
Europeans, and two thousand native troops, 
who were afterwards joined by a thousand men 
from the Island of Rodriguez, under Lieutenant- 
colonel Keating,^ to whom the command of the 
expeditiQU against the Isle of .Bourbon was con- 
fided. By Ihe co-operation of the naval part of 
the expedition, under Commodore Rowley, the 
deatrueiiw of the French battieries aad guns at 
St PauPs took plaoein the month of September, 
1800 ; and dispositions baying heen.knade for an 
attack oil St Dennis, a herald presented him- 
self ^tb an offer from. the goYN^nor, Cetonel St* 
Susanna, to capitulfite, winch proposal was 
^^adily $u3quiee3oedin, andtbe whcdeislaiul passed 
\iQder the sway of the JSrHish sceptre. 

A body of troops from the BritiA settle- 
ments in India and the Gape of Good Hope, 
imoouiiting to about ten thousand, destined for 
tlie.redoc^on of the Isle of France, arrived at 
thcjpl^e.of rendezvous on the 2Lst of Novem- 
ber, 1810. This army' was commanded by 
llfajor-general John Abercrombie, second son of 
General Sir Ralph Abercrombie, and the whole 
fleet under Admiral Bertie, including transports 
and ships of war, amounted to seventy sail. On 
the 29th of November, the troops effecteil a 
landing under cover of the fire-ships, and on 
the 3d of December, prepared for attacking the 
forts; but on the day following, General de 
Caen, the French governor, rendered all further 
operations unnecessary by proposing to capita* 
late on the condition that the troops shoald return 
to France without being considered as prisoners 
of war. These terms, under all the circumstances, 
it was thought advisable to allow, and on the 
same day the capitulation was signed, by which 
the Isle of France, an immense quantity of 
stores and valuable merchandise, five large 
frigates, some smaller ships of war, and twenty- 
eight merchantmen, with two captured British 
East lodiamen, were surrendered to his ma- 
jesty's arms. By the conquest of these islands, 
the French were deprived of their last establish- 
ments beyond the Cape of Good Hope, and 
tireat Britain now reiirned without a rival 



1810 



in the east, with the exception of the Dutch set- BOOK IV 
laments in the Island of Java. ;; 

Towards the close of the present year, an Chap. XII. 
event occurred which suspended the royal func- " ~ ' 
tions, and plunged the country into great dis-> 
tress and embarrassment. The Princess Amelia^ 
the youngest and favourite daughter of the king, 
after a painful and protractea illness, died on 
the ild of November. The circumstance of an 
amiable and beloved child, in the prime of life^ 
passing rapidly to her dissolution, in the midst 
of the most acute suffierings, natursdiy preyed on 
the paternal fedings of his majesty : his whole 
mind became absorbed in the fate of his daughter j 
he dwelt upon her deplorable situation with 
harassing and weakening grief and despair; 
till at length the powers of his understanding 
sunk under the pressure, and he fell a prey to 
that mental disorder, under which he had suf- 
fered so much two and twenty years before, and 
to which he had been occasionally subject in the 
interval.* 

Some days before the indisposition of the 
king, a proclamation had been issued, stating 
it to be the royal pleasure that parliament should 
not assemble till the month of Decembci^; but 
the us^ial commission not being prepared, tho 
meeting of parliament took place on the 1st of 
November, the period to wnieh, by a former 
commission, it had been prorogued. The only 
case in history exactly similar to that which now 
presented itself was the precedent of 1788-9 ; 
parliament had that year been prorogued to the 
20th of Novemb^, and as the regular commission 
for its furtlier intended prorogation had not been 
signed by the king, it necessarily met -on that day^ 
The peers and the commons each remained in 
their separate chambers, and after the state of 
his majesty^s mental health had been explained^ 
an adjournment for fifteen days was unanimously 
resolved upon. This precedent, so analogous in 
its circumstances, was strictly followed upon the 
present melancholy occasion ; and the lord 
chancellor and the speaker of ihe, house of com« 
mons were directed ^to transmit letters to the 
members of their respective houses, requiring theii^ 
attendance on Thursday the 15th of November. 

From the peculiariy mild symptoms assumed 
by his majesty's complaint at the commencement 
of his present illness, it was hoped that the 
malady would not be jof long continuance, but 
would soon yield to medieal care and skill. 
Sir Henry Halford, and Drs. Heberden and 



* When the Princess Amelia felt that her enil was fast approaching^, she ordered a ring to be made, incloeihg A 
lock of her hair, and inscribed with the words — " Rtmemher me.*' This token of her dying affection she silently 
placed npon the finger of her royal father at his next visit to her chamber. Her own departure was so near that she nerer 
knew the fatal consequences. The king, who felt ail that this charge imported, retired from her apartment euremely 
agitated, and when the dissolution of his beloved child actually took place, his mind was ue longer in a Mate to derive ooN* 
Matiou from the reflection that death had tsraiinated her sttffaings- 
VOL. lU — NO. 48. R a 



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158 



HISTORY OF THE WAR3 



Cbap. XII. 
1610 



BOOK IV. Bailie, were the physicians first called in. Bj 
them the bulletins were signed, which were 
regularly issued, at first once, and aft^wards 
twice a day, from the S9th of October to the 4th 
of Noyember, when the signature of Dr. Rey- 
nolds, for the first tune, appeared. On the 0th 
day of that month, Dr. Willis was called in ; 
and from this circumstance it was inferred that 
his majesty^s disorder had assumed a more de- 
cided and obstinate character than was originally 
contemplated. 

When parliament again assembled on the 
15th of Noyember, ministers informed the two 
houses that the medical attendants of his majesty 
were unanimously of opinion that his majesty's 
health was in a state of nrogressiye improyement, 
and that they continuea to express the most flat* 
tering and confident hopes that he would, in a 
yery short space of time, be enabled to resume 
the personal exercise of the royal functions. On 
the ffiutb of these representations, the two houses, 
after some debate, consented to a second ad- 
journment till the 20th of Noyember. 

In the interyal, all the members of the priyy 
council were summoned by the president to as- 
semble for the purpose of examining the phy- 
sicians, touching the state of his miyesty's 
health, and the probability of his speedy resump- 
tion of the royal authority. Earl Camden, as pre- 
sident of the council, alone interrogated the phy- 
sicians, and the answers, which were yery short 
and general, conyeyed an opinion that his ma- 
jesty's complaint was of such a nature that his 
recoyery could not be long delayed. 

Taking their stand upon the result of this 
examination, ministers, when parliament met on 
the 29th of Noyember, again moyed and carried 
a further adjournment till the 13th of December. 
During this period, the disease of his msgesty by 
no means abated, and it was generally under- 
stood that the malady threatened a long and 
tedious endurance, and eyen cast doubts upon 
the ultimate and perfect recoyery of the royal 
patient. When, therefore, parliament met for 
the fourth time, ministers were under the neces- 
sity of proposing that the physicians should be 
examined by a committee, appointed by each 
bouse ; and of explicitly stating, that if the re- 
port should not hold out a prospect of speedy 



recoyery, they would then propose measures to 
supply the defect in tiie royal authority. The 
physicians, in the examination that took place, 
described his majesty's disorder to be a derange* 
ment of mind, closely allied to delirium, and 
occasionally falling into it ; and the result of the 
inquiry established the fact, that his majesty 
was not only at this time totally incapable of 

Eerforming the high functions of his royal office, 
ut that his recovery would be slow and remote: 
Under these circumstances, all idea of fiirther 
adjournment was at an end, and ministers 
found it. absolutely neoessuj to proceed towards 
the appointment of a regency. The session not 
having been opened by the royal autiiority, could 
not b^ constitutionally regarded as the parlia- 
ment of the united kingdom of Great Britain 
and Ireland, but merely as a conyention of the 
two estates ; it was necessary, therefore, to haye 
regard to this character in the mode of their pro- 
ceedings ; and in opening the business in the 
bouse of commons, on the 20th of December^ 
Mr. Perceval moved three distinct propositions, 
declaratory of the present incapacity of the king ; 
of the competency of the two houses of parlla* 
ment to supply the defect ; and of the necessity 
of passing a bill for maintaining entire the con^ 
stitutional authority of the king.* The first of 
these resolutions passed unanimously ; the second^ 
with the single negative of Sir Francis Burdett, 
who denied that all the estates of this realm were 
*< lawfully, fully, and freely represented in par* 
liament.'' On the third resolution, Mr. Pon- 
sonby moved an amendment, to the effect that an 
addresa should be presented to the Prince of 
Wales, praying him to take upon himself the 
office of regent. On this amendment, long and 
animated debates took place, but as Lord Gren- 
ville and his friends adhered to the doctrines 
which they had maintained and acted upon with 
Mr. Pitt on a form^ occasion, the opposition 
were out- voted in the commons by a majority of 
a hundred and twelve, and in the lords by twenty- 
six voices. - 

It is evident that very serious objection^ 
existed to both modes of proceeding, whether by 
bill or by address ; the mere reading over the 
resolutions suggest them : a regent was to be 
appointed by a bill, that is, in other words^ the 



* Rbsoldtions HovfiD BY Mr. PERCEVAL on the 20rH op December, 1810. 

I. That hit mi^esty u prevented by indisposidon from coming to pailxaaaent, and from attending to public business^ and tliat th9 
peraonal ezerdae of fhe royal authority is thereby, for the present, interrupted. 

IL That it is tlie right and duty of the lords* spiritual and teniporal, and commons of Great Brttun, now assembled, and lawfully^ 
ftilly, and freely representing all the estates of the people of this realm, to provide the means of supplying the delect of the personal exercise 
of die loyal authority, arising from his m^esty^s said indisposition, in such a maimer as the exigency of tlie case may appear to require. 

III. That for this purpose, and for maintaining entire the constitutional authority of the king, it is necessary that the lords, spiritual 
and temfporal, and commons of Great Britain, should determine on the means whereby the royal assent may be given in parlisunent to such 
biU as may be passed by the two houses of parliament, respecting tlie exercise of the powers and authoritiies of the crown^ in the name and on. 
the behalf of the king, during the conttnuaooe of bk ]iiaje6ty*s prcaenfindispo s ition. 



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OF THE FRENCH BETOLUTION, 



150 



king, whose ineapacity was the sole caase of the 
measare, Was, by a fiction of law, to be dedar* 
ed to have giYen his assent to an act (for with- 
out the royal assent an act of parliament is 
of no validity) which constituted another person 
regent ; because, as that bill expressed it, his 
miyesty was incapable of exercising his royal 
functions* The oojeotions to proceeding by ad- 
dress were not so glaring, bnt they were not less 
real : the Prince of W^es was to be requested 
to take upon himself the office of regent, and 
when he had assumed that office, and opened par- 
liament in that capacity, an act of parliament 
was then to be passed constituting him regent. 

It is well known, that during the king*s 
indisposition, in 1788, Mr. Fox, in a moment of 
unguarded warmth, denied the right and power 
of parliament to confer the royal authority ; and 
asserted, in too strong and unqualified terms, the 
undoubted right of the Prince of Wales, as heir 
apparent, to succeed to the regency as a matter of 
course. This doctrine was now abandoned, and 
it was, on the contrary, distinctly declared by the 
members of opposition, that the prince had no 
right to exercise the royal functions except such 
as he derived from the decision of the two estates 
of parliament.* 

After the resolutions proposed by the chan* 
cellor of the exchequer regarding (he mode of 
supplying the defect of the personal exercise of 
the royal authority, had received the sanction of 
the two estates of the realm, another series of 
resolutions was brought forward by Mr. Perceval, 
expressive of the expediency of vesting the 
royal authority in the Prince of Wales, as 
'* Regent of the Kingdom,'' subject to certain 



Chap. XII. 



restrictions and limitations enumerated in those ^^^^^ ^^• 
resolutions.f 

The members of opposition made a vigor* 
.ous and formidable stand against the general 
' principle of restrictions, as well as against the . 
particular limitations of the royal power, which 
ministers proposed to impose upon the regent ; 
in many of the divisions thev were join^ by 
Mr. Canning and Lord Castlereagh, and their 
respective friends, as well as by other members, 
who usually voted with ministers, and the exist- 
ing government carried some of their motions by 
very small majorities. The proposed exception 
to the grant of peerages in favour of military 
officers, was opposed by Lord Grenville, and in 
this, as in the other restrictions, the precedent 
of 1788-9 was ultimately adhered to. 

As soon as parliament had come to the de- 
termination to proceed by bill and not by address^ 
and Mr. Perceval had sketched the plan of his 
proposed restrictions, he addressed a letter to 
nis Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, com- 
municating to him his intentions. The prince, in 
reply, simply and briefly referred Mr. Perceval 
to the celebrated letter, which, on a similar 
occasion, he had sent to Mr. Pitt, and in which 
he had, in a most dignified and powerful strain 
of argument, protested against the proposed 
plan of restricted regency, not because it con- 
veyed a reflection on his personal character, but 
because, in his opinion, it broke through the 
very essence of the British constitution. His 
royal highness, however, agreed to accept the. 
high and important trust, even though fettered 
and limited m suchamanner'as, in his apprehen- 
sion, might prevent him from fulfilling its duties 



* Mr. Pomonby^s Speedi in the Hoaae of Co&imont» Dee. 20Ch, 18ia 
f RESOLrrioNs uoved by Mr. PERCEVAL, on tue SIst of Dbcexber, 1810. 

I. That ftr the parpoee of proridiiigfor the exercbe of the royal anthority, daring the eontintianoe of his m^Jecty^a iflneai, in such 
manner, and to nidi extent, as the present cucumstances, and the urgent concerns of the nation appear to require, it is expedient that his 
Royal Highness the Prince of Waksj being resident within the realm, shall be empowered to exercise and to administer the royal authority, 
according to the laws and co n sti t ution of Great Britain, in the name and on bdudf of his migesty, and under the style and title of regent of the 
kingdom f and to use, execute, and perform, in the name and on the behalf of his miuesty, all suthoxxtieB, prerogatives, acts of gofemment. 
and administration of the same, that belong to the king of this realm, to use, execute, and per^mn, acceftiing to the law thereof* sutgect to 
such limitations and exceptions as shall be provided. 

II. That the powcn to be given to his Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, shall not extend to the granting of any rank or dignity 
of the peersge of the realm to any person whatever, except to^persons who have rendered eminent services to the country by sea or 
land). 

III. That the said power shall not extend to the granting of any office whatever in reversion, or to the granting of any oflioe, salaiy, or 
pension, for other tenns than during his xxiajeBtj^s pleasure, except such offices as are by law required to be granted for life, or during good 
bdiaviour. 

IV.Thatthesaidpowershallnotcxtendtothegrantingof any part of his majesty *s real and personal estate, exceptat&r asrelatesto 
the renewal of leases. 

V. That the care of his maijaiy^B royal person, during the continuance of his miOo^y** mness, shaD be committed to the queen*s 
most excellent mi^esty ; and that her majesty shall have the power to remove ftcm, and to nominate and appoint such penons as she shall 
chink proper, to the several offices in hia miuesty*s Iiousehold; and to dispose, order, and manage, all other matters and things rcUitiog to the 
care of his majetty^s royal person, during the time aforesaid ; and that, for the better enabling her migesty to discharge this hnportant task, it b 
also expedient that a council shall be apppointed, to advise and assist her majesty in the several matters aforesaid ; and with power, from time to 
time, as they may see cause, to examine, upon oath, the physicians and others attending his migesty^s person, touching the state of his ma* 
jcsty*s health, and all other matters relating thereto. 

The regency bill, of which the above resolutions may be considered as an official abstract, enacted, that the re* 
ftriction imposed on the executive power as exercised by the Pripce Regent, should cease on the Ist of February, 1S13. 



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HISTORY OP THE WARS, &«; 



IJAOK IV. 6o completely and beneficially to the nation as 

..«: he could wish. In these views the royal brotherf 

d^iV. XII. of the prince fuUy concurred, aad in a species 
^^'^v-**^ of extra-official note to the chancellor of the 
18lt) exchequer, entered their protest against a pro* 
ceediug, which they considered ^' perfectly un- 
constitutional^ and as contrary to and subYersive 
of the principles which seated their £unily upon 
Ae throne ot this reahn." 

Parliament was opened in the usual form by 
dommissioA under the great seal, on the 15th of ^ 
January, 1811. The regency bill, which had 
passed through the two houses as estates of the 
realm, was again brought before parliament in 
its Tegular and constitutional character ; every 
part of it was again canvassed ; and, on evei*y 
debate and division, the strength and numbers 
of ministers increased, while the opposition 
became feeble and languid in their resistance. 

It was well Icnown that the political attach- 
ttients and principles of the Prince Regent lay 
all on the side of Earl Grey and Lord Grenville; 
and it was naturally expected that the existing 
administration would be dissolved, and the mem-- 
bers who now occupied the opposition benches, 
iakea into power ; but the period for the install- 
ation was fast approaching, and no arrange- 
ments for a new ministry had taken place. In 
the mean time, the malady of the king, after 
undergoing frequent and great variations, as- 
sumed a much more mild and favourable form, 
and the physicians ag^n pronounced his ma- 
jesty's complete recovery as not far distant. This 
circunikstance, combined with the difficulty of 
administering the affairs of government by any 
other hands than those which would continue to 
possess, through the medium of the queen's 
council,* so large a share of the power and 



patronage of the executive, determined the prince 
to retain the present ministeni. This determina" 
tion he commuAieated to Mr. Perceval, in a note*, 
dated the 4th of Februapy ; at the same iltnt 
explicitly and candidly statiag to him, that the 
irresistible impulse of filial duty and afieetion to 
bis beloved and afflicted father, made him un- 
will'mg to do a single act which might retard his 
recovery ; and that this consideration alone had 
dictated the deoirion now communieoted to Mr. 
Perceval. He added, tiiat it would not be one of 
the least blessings that would result from the 
restorotion of his majesty to health and to the 
personal exefoise of his royal functions, that it 
would rescue the regenc]^ from a situatiou of 
unexampled embarrassment, and put an end to 
a state of affairs, ill calculated, he feared, to 
sustain the interests of the united kingdom in 
this awful and pmlous crisis, and most diffi- 
cult to be reconciled to the genuine principles 
of the British eonatittttioa. Mr. Perceval, in 
reply, after stating <the readiness of himself and 
his coUeaguea to remain in. office, lamented that 
the prince should still regard tibe restnetions as 
unconstitutional; but assorsd him that, even 
under these restrictions, any ministry, which 
should possess the confidence and support of bis 
royal highness, would find no -difficulty in con- 
ducting the a&irs of the nation with satisfac- 
tion, credit, and success. 

By the continuance of the existing adminis- 
tration in office, the sub- division of the sov^erei^n 
functions, occasioned by the regency bill, became 
again united in the executive government ; and 
the prince and his ministers, by contributing 
their respective portions, preserved, in a consi- 
derable degree, the integrity of the sovereign 
power and influence. 



* The queen*8 council consisted of eight members, namely: the Archbishops of Canterbury and York; the Dukt 
•f Moatruse ; the Earls of Winchelsea and Aylesford i Lords £hlon and EUenboroiigh i and 8ir Vt(illi«m Gram. 



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CHAPTER XIII. 



FoRiiow History : SiMen Death of the Crown Prince of Sweden-^-Marskal Bemadotte elected 
Crofwn Prince — Marriage Qf the Emperor 'Napoleon to the Archduchess Maria Louisa — Rapid 
Advances made by the Emperor Napoleon towards the Establishment of an absolute Despoiiens 
—Decree fin' the Estubkshtnent of State Prison^or the Registration of domestic Servants— 
for restricting the Operations of the Press— Abdication of Louis Bonaparte in favour qf his 
Son— Annexation of Holland and the Hanse Toicns to France— Death of the Queen of Prussia- 
Annexation of Hanover to the Kingdom qf Westphalia. 

BONAPARTE, by subdividing the states 
of {lurope, gratified the two most prevailiiig 
passions of his aund — his ambilion and his ha- 
tred to En^and. in this way, he extended Us 

K^^ with his means of anaayance, and he 
ped ultimately to obtain a maritime peace, by 
cutting oflp the commeroe of Great Britain from 
the. contineni. The anneacation of Holland to 
the Freueh empire, ihe inAermaniage of Napo- 
leon with the princess of the house of Austria, 
i^d the (extension of his influence in Sweden and 
alone the shores of the German Ocean, emana* 
ted from these feelings^ and tended to the aocom- 
plishment of these purposes. 

The possession of Sweden could not be so 
openly and directly acquired, as the possession 
<if other continental states ; but a fortunate eon<« 
juncture in public affiiirs, soon afforded the 
opportunity of gaining such an influence in that 
country, as seemed to advance Napoleon's grand 
scbane of foreign policy. Charles Augustus, 
Prince of Augustenburg, who had, on the 34th 
of January, 1810, been elected to the dignity 
of Crown Prince of Sweden, died suddenly, on 
the S9th of May, in the same year, while he was' 
reviewing some regiments of cavalry on Bonorp 
Heath ; and his death was preceded and accom- 
panied by circumstances, which excited in the 
minds of the populace, a strong and general 
suspicion, that he had been poisoned. In other 
timed, his death might have appeared perfectly 
natural, as it probably was ; but suspicions fixed 
upon the two families of Fersen and Kper, who 
were thought to be jealous of his popularity, 
and apprehensive that his elevation to the throne 
would destroy that influence which they had 
long enjoyed in the government. The interval 
which elapsed between the death of the prince 
and his interment, gave time for suspicion to 
spread ; and when the funeral procession arrived 
at Stockholm, on the 20th of June, the agita- 
tion had increased to so alarming a degree, that 
the populace fell upon Count Axel Fersen, who 
led the procession in his carriage and six, and 

VOL. II. — ^No, 49. S s 



actually tore Um to pieces. In order to calm BOOK IV* 

this dreadful ferment, a proclamation was issued • 

by the king, and measures were adopted by the Chap^xut. 
goremment to remove the suspicions of the peo- ^ftC^"^ 
pie, by an open judicial inquiry into the cause ^^^^ 
of the death of their favourite. A reward of 
twenty thousand rix dollars, was also offered to 
any person who would give such evidenoej 
touching the supposed murder, as vH>uld convict 
the offender, whatever might be his rank or des- 
cription. The result of the examination was, 
that the crovm prince had died a natural death, 
by a fit of apoplexy; and public tranquillity 
being in a few days restored, Ihe attention of the 
inhabitants of Sweden, as well as of a great 
part of Europe, was fixed on the choice that 
was about to be made of his successor. 

On the 15th of August, the four estates of 
Sweden were assembled at Orebro, for the pur- 
pose of electing a crovm prince, or henr appa^ 
rent to the Swedish throne. The four candidates 
who ai^pired to this honour, were, Frederick VI. 
King of Denmark ; the Prince of Oldenburg, 
son of Gustavns Adolphus, the late kmg ; the 
Prince of Augustenburg, brother to the deceased 
crovm prince ; and the French Marshal Berna- 
dotte, Prince of Ponte Corvo. Bonaparte, in 
a letter addressed to the diet, declared his deter- 
mination not to interfere in the election; but 
the pleasure of the French emperor wlw suffi- 
ciently understood, and Charles XIII. m an 
address to that assembly, deliyered on the 
18th, stated " that the duty he owed to his 
country, induced him to propose to the assem- 
bled states of the empire, his serene highness 
Jean Baptiste Julian Bemadotte, Pt-ince of 
Ponte Corvo, as Crown Prince of Sweden, and 
his royal majesty's successor to the Swedish 
throne." After a short delibasation, the diet 
unanimously acceded to the recommendation of 
their sovereign ; and thus. Marshal Bemadotte, 
a man who had entered the ranks of the French 
army at the age of fifteen, became in the 48th 
year of his age, the presumptive heir to the crown 



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HISTORY OF THB WARS 



CVAF. Xtll. 



1810 



600K XV. of Sweden. The Swedish nation, ediansted 
bywATi and oppressed with the expense and 
misery it had occasioned^ either took no liTely 
interest in passinjg; events, or felt no indisposition 
to the election or a general, who, from his con- 
nection with Bonapurte, would probably presenre 
them in future peace with me powers of the 
eontinent. 

Early in the month of October, Bemadotte 
proceeded to Sweden; and on the 1st of 
KoTember, he addressed the king, and the 
estates of the reabn, in a complim^itary speech, 
unfolding views of goyemment, ind maxims 
of policy, worthy of a statesman and a sage : 
<' Gentlemen, deputies of the nobility, the derry, 
the burghers, and the peasants," said he, 
^* sound policy, that which alone the laws of 
God authorise, must be founded upon justice 
and truth ; such are the principles oi the lung ; 
they diall also be mine. I have beheld war close 
at hand, I know its desolating properties ; Uiere 
is nothing which can console a country for the 
blood of its children, shed in a foreien land. — 
Peace is the first object of a wise and enlighto 
miMl government It is not the extent of a sta^ 
which constitutes its force and independoiee, it 
is its laws, its industry, its oonmieroey and above 
^1, its natural spirit Sweden, it is true, has 
sustained great losses, but the honour of the 
Swedish nation has not suffered the least attaint 
Let us submit, Grentlemen, to the decrees of 
providence, and let usTecollect, that they have 
left us a soil sufficient to support our wants, and 
iron to defend it'* 

From this moment, Charles John, the offi.-> 
cial name given to the Crown Prince, may be 
considered as the efficient ruler of Sweden. — 
Adverse to open and actual hostility with Gieeat 
Britain, he continued for some time to permit 
the commercial intercourse to be carried on be* 
tween the two countries; and when, in the 
month of December, war was declared against 
England, the Swedish declaration of war con- 
tained a frank, and almost explicit avowal that 
this resolution was taken at the instigation of 
Bonamrte. 

The Emperor Napoleon, taking counsel of 
his vanity, sought a £imily alliance with the 
royal house of Austria ; and Marshal Berthier, 
the Prince of Neufohatel was dispatched on a 
special mission to Vienna, to demand the Arch- 
duchess Maria Louisa in marriage. The prin- 



cess exultinff in the conquest of the conqueror 
of the world, was easily won ;* and her royal 
father had penetration enough to perceive, ttiat, 
by this union, he should be enabled either to 
participate in the glory and prosperity of Napo* 
feon, or to recover his lost aonunions by preci- 

Jit^ng his fall, if adversity should overtake 
im* The council of Vienna, influenced by the 
interests of the state, r«noved the scruples of 
the father, by dwelling upon the dutiee of the 
soverei^ ; and moderated the emperor's feelings 
of humdity, by unveiling to Um Uie future, and 
expatiating upon the advantages <^ the proposed 
alhance. On Bonaparte himself, this alliance 
operated as a sort of talisman, it obscured all 
eojects, unsettled his judgment, and introduced 
contrarieties into his whole system of govern- 
ment. Many of his own court, and those near 
his pers<m, partook of the in&tuation of their 
sovertt^, and those who perceived the snare 
into which he was advancingi wanted courage 
to exluhit to him the consequences of his new 
engafements with Austria* 

The marriage ceremony* in which the Areh« 
duke Charles, as the (uroxv or Napolera, received 
the hand of lus august reUtive, was p^formed. 
on the 11th of March, at Vienna, in the church 
of the AugustineS) and in the presence of the 
Emperor and Empress of Austria* On the 18th, 
the Empress and Queen, Maria Loinsa, left 
Vi^ina, and arrived at Compeigne on the 27th, 
where she was met by the emperor. From 
Vienna to Paris, the road by which the princess 
advanced, seemed strewed vrith flowers; and 
this alliance afforded an inexhaustible source of 
amusmeut and gaiety to the volatile French 
and the stetely German nations. On the 1st of 
April, the mvU ceremony of the celebration and 
ratification <rf the marriage of the Emperor with 
the Princess Maria Loiusa, took place in the 
luill of llbrs, in the imperial chateau of St. 
Cloud; and on the followug day, the rel^ous 
ceremony was perfonned by the grand almoner 
and two assistant bishops, in the chapel of the 
Louvre. To mark the epoch of this marriage 
by acts of indulgence and benevolence, Bona* 
parte presented a free pardon to all deserters 
from tne Frmich armieig, previous to the year 
1806, BnA to aU others on immediately joining 
their corps; all unpaid fines imposed by the 
judrmuit of the police were r^nitted ; six thou- 
sand girls, each portioned by the state with 



* It wu «t flist gmenlly, indeed almost uinfertally imagined, ^at the Afeb-ducbeaa was an unwilling, tbouf h 
veeigiied rictim to flie prcaerralinD of her family — anedicr virgin of Gilead, obedient to the caBa at fiUal reverence and 
duty ; but no aoppoeittoii conki be more erroneous. It aoon appeared how niaeh of the bleed of the Loirainea Sowed in 
lierTeina; shewasgay, lively and almost pUyfnl ; and so early did she begin to ideotiiy herself with the French nation, 
andtoeznkindMsgloryof herfntorelord, that, according to the foreign journals, aheoneday, before she left Vienna, 
hastened eagerly into her father's apartment, and announced to him a Fmadi victory in the peninsnU, by cx<jaimiiy 
in a toae of tnuaph, «* We have obtained great advantages in Spain*'* 



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OF t&C FftENCH RBTOLVttON. 



163 



nhaamtdm 



fr^m six to tweUve thoatand francs, were tcKba 
BDarried to as nuuny retired aoldiers of their 
conmunes^ and twelTe thousand disboi of meat, 
twelve thousand loaves of bread, and a hundred 
and forty-fbur mpes of wine, were ordered to be 
distributed by lottery amon; the poor. 

The day after their marriage, Napoleon 
and Maria Louisa received the felicitations of 
the senate^ and the great jmblio officers of the 
state ; *' Sire,^ said the president to the emp wor, 
^ Europe contemplates with rapture the aug^t 
dan^ter of the sovereign of Austria on the 
glorious threne of Napoleon. Providence, in 
reserving for you this illustrious spouse, has 
been pleased to manifest more and more that 
yen hnve been bom for the happiness of nations, 
and to secure the repose of the world.** Th^ 
orator next addressins^ the empress, said: 
*^ lladslne, the shouts of joy which have every 
where accompanied your mqesty^s steps ; that 
eoncert of benedictions, which still eehoes from 
Vienna to Paris, sre the feithful expressions of 
the sentiroents of the people. The senate comes 
to offer to your majesty t^imonies of homage 
not less ardent— not less smce^e. The imperial 
erowD, which sparkles on vour brow, ano that 
other crown ot graces ana rirtues which tem- 
pers and softens the lustre of its rays, attract 
towarda you the hearts of thirty milli<m of 
Frrachmen, who make it their joy and pride 
to salute you by the name of their sovereign. 
The French, whom you have adopted, and to 
whom, by the most sacred of promises, you have 
vowed the sentiments of a tender mother, you 
will find worthy of your kind regard. You will 
more and more cherish this good and tender* 
hearted pee^e, vrho always feel an anxious wish 
to love those who govern them, and to place 
affection and honour by the side of zeal and 
obedience. The sentiments which we have the 
happiness to express to your miyesties are, under 
the guarantee of heaven, like that sacred oath 
wfaieb has for ever united the great and splendid 
destinies of Napoleon and Maria Louisa.** 

From the moment that Bonaparte eontem* 
plated this new family alliance, additional en- 
croachments upon the liberties of his country 
seem also to have been contemplated ; and no 
year in the whole course of his memorable rdgn 
presents such Hagrant instances of a rapid 
advance towards absolute despotism, as the year 
of his marriage. Besides the various decrees 
issued with the hope of preventing the introduc- 
tion of British merchandize into France, and 
which from the very nature of commerce, must 
bive operated as much to the prejudice of the 
French merchant as to the injury of the British 
exporter, he struck more directly and fatally at 
the liberty of the subject by bis decrees for 
regulating state prisons registering domestic 



servants, and restricting the operations of the B06k]T/^ 
press. • ^ . 

The decree regarding state prisons, which fj^tiiSr 
assumed the specious title of a law fer the relief ^\Jr 
of certain state prisoners in France, established 
eight state prisons in different parts of the em* 
pire $ and ft was explicitly declared that there ' 
were many persons in Fran(5e accused of va<» 
rious crimes against the state, whom it was nei'« 
ther safe to liberate nor to bring to trial. But ' 
the emperor, in order to assure himself that 
none of his subjects were immured in these pri* 
sons, except for lawful causes, directed '^that 
the state prisons should be subject to a mmitiilT 
inspection by commissioners, and that all such 
persons should be discharged as were not de- 
tained i^trictly according to law/* This mode 
of relieving state prisoners was in eflfect, a per* 
manent suspension, or a total abrogation, of the 
principle of the law of Skbeas Cdrnu$ ; and 
under this system, every man who haa the mis- 
fortune to incur the suspicion of government, 
might be shut up in prison and kept in that 
situation without ever being brought to trial, or 
even put upon his justification before a legitimato 
tribunal. 

The decree for the regbtration of servants 
advanced another st^ towitfds the establishment ' 
of despotic power. By this imperial edict, 
issued on the 3d of October, all domestic ser- 
vants in Pkiris, of both sexes, under whatever 
denomination they served, and whether their en* 
gagements were by the year, month, or even 
day, were to have their name, place of birth, 
employment and description, inserted in a re* 
gister, kept by the prefect of police, together 
with tiie name of the person whom they served. 
The servants were to ne famished each with a 
counter-ticket, corresponding to the register ; 
and all, who, within a month, failed thus to in- 
scribe their names, subjected themselves to im- 
prisonment for a period, not less than eight 
days, or more than three months. No person 
was permitted to take into his employment any 
domestic vrithout a card of inscription, and this 
card was to be delivered into die hands of tho 
master, who was bound to notify upon it the day 
of the departure of his servant, and to transnat 
the card to the prefecture of police. The dis- 
carded servant was also bounti to repair to tho 
prefecture within forty-eight hoars, to declare 
what course he meant to pursue, and to receive* 
the card again. Servants were forbidden to hire 
any apartment without the knowledge of their 
master or the prefect ; and every servant out of 
place for more than a month, who could not givo 
a satisfectorv account of his means of subsist- 
ence, was obliged to depart from Paris under 
pain of punishment as a vagrant. This decree, 
although professedly applio»le only to servants^ 



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HIBTaRT OF THE WARS 



fiOOKiV. extended in its operations to masters, and the 
-^ — — intercoarse it opened between domestics and the 
c«A^xm . police afforded an admirable opportunity for 
^^ga^^ placing all the families in Paris under a species 
' of espiomagef or menial inspection. 

Several imperial decrees were issued in the 
course of the present year for the purpose of 
reducing the number of printers and booksellers 
iq France, and for subjecting the press to a 
rigid system of censorship. By these decrees 
a director-general was appointed^ under the 
order of the minister of the interior, charged 
with the superintendeince of every thin^ relating 
to the printing and publication of books. The 
number of printers in each department was 
limited, and the printers in Paris reduced to 
sixty. The printing of any thing contrary to 
the dutv which the subject owes to the sovereign 
or to the state, was prohibited, and offenders 
against this law exposed themselves to the 
punishments of .the penal code. All manuscripts 
intended for publication were made subject to a 
previous inspection, when the censor was to point 
out to the author such alterations or erasures as 
he should think proper ; if the author refused 
to agree to these alterations, the sale of his work 
was to be inhibited, the forms broken, and pos- 
session taken ojf the sheets or copies printed. 
All booksellers were directed to take out a li- 
cense, and no license was to be grai^ted to -any 
person wishing to begin the business of a book- 
seller, but such as should have recommended 
themselves by their good character, and an at- 
tachment to their sovereign and to their country. 
Only one newspaper was to be published in any 
ef the departments, except the Seine ; and ail 
the newspapers in France were placed under the 
authority of the prefects, and were never to be 
published without their approbation. 

Tliese measures, no doubt, diminished the 
attachment of the people of France to the em- 
peror, and would probably in their ultimate con- 
sequence have undermined his throne ; for, enig- 
matical as it may appear, it is an unquestionable 
fact, resting upon the authority of all history, 
that every blow directed against the liberties 
of a nation has a tendency to recoil upon the 
hand that inflicts it ; and those measures, which 
at first seem to strengthen the government of a 
tyrant, seldom fail to overthrow the fabric of 
desjiotism, which, by a short-sighted poUcy, they 
are intended to uphold. 

From the period when the house of Orange 
. were deprived of their hereditary power, the 
Dutch people had maintained a strict alliance 
with France ; their government had been changed 
in obsequious imitation of every change in Uiat 
country ; they had lost their colonies and their 
ccnnmerce by their fidelity to their new allies, 
and they ha4 at last accepted as a sovereign 



the Iffother of the French emperor. They ha4 
been fortunate in the king, which it had pleased 
Napoleon to place over them ; Louis Bonaparte 
took a deep interest in their sufibrings, and the 
manner in which he attempted to soften those 
measures which oppressed the Dut^ nation, 
and paralized the public exertions, won the 
affections of his subjects. In the war wa^ed 
by France against the commercial prosperity, 
and the maritime greatness, of England, it be- 
came peculiarly necessary that {lolland should 
lend her cordial ee-operation. The coast of 
that country, indented by rivers and inlets, and 
placed at a distance of only a few hours sail 
from Ensland, presented innumerable oppor- 
tunities ua the infraction of the oontinoital 
system. The character and necessities of the 
Dutch — a nation indebted to commerce for the 
very land they inhabit, who had been nurtured 
in trade till it had become their second nature, 
and who foresaw in the accomplishment of Bo- 
naparte's schemes, the overthrow of their ancient 
habits and pursuits, operated powerfully against 
the project for the total exclusion of British 
commerce,, and induced Napoleou to issue the 
most strict and peremptory orders to Louis to 
enforce his decrees with rigour. For a short 
time these. orders were obeyed, but the wretch- 
edness which every where presented itself, and 
the numerous and urgent petitions of the suf- 
f^ers, so far prevailed in the mind of Louis 
over every consideration of state policy, that 
he threw open the Dutch ports, and repealed 
his decrees against commerce. This conduct 
of the tributary sovereign of Holland was highly 
relented by the French Emperor ; and Louis at 
length, finding that all his endeavours and sa- 
crifices on behalf of the Dutch nation were 
unavailing, abdicated his throne in favour of his 
ddest son, Louis Napoleon. This act of abdi- 
cation, which here date the 1st of July, not 
having been previously concerted with Bona- 
parte, was declared invalid ; and on the 9th day 
of the same month an imperial decree was issued 
from Paris, by which the kingdom of Holland 
was united to the French empire. The annexa* 
tion of Holland to France was stated to be 
the necessary consequence of the union of Bd- 

fium to that empire, — ^^ It completes," says the 
^uke of Cadore, the French minister, in a report 
madetoNapvdeon, ^^ your majesty's empire, as 
well as the execution of your system of war, 
policy, and trade. It is the first but a necessary 
step to the restoration of your navy ; in fact it is 
the heaviest blow which your majesty could in- 
flict upon the navy and commerce of England.'* 
The next act of usurpation consisted in tlie 
annexation of the Hanse Towns to France. 
'^ The orders published by the British consul in 
1806 and 1807 had,'' it was said, << rent in pieces 



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the public law of Europe, and created the ne- 
cessity for the junction of the mouths of the 
Scheldt, the Meuse, the Rhine, the Ems, the 
Weser, and the Elbe, to the French empire."* 
Thus, after having extorted immense contribu- 
tions firom the imperial cities of Hamburg, 
Lubeck, and Bremen, for the support of the 
French armies, the guilt of these acts of rapa- 
city was consummated by a decree depriving 
them of their independence. 

In the course of the present year, Fre- 
derick-William of Prussia returned to his capital 
after a long and afflictive absence. The queen, 
whose high spirit had been broken by the dis- 
astei^ of her country, languished till the 19th of 



July, when she expired in the prime of life. ISOOKiV, 

The loss of a beloved consort, not less distin 

guished for her domestic virtues than for her Cnxp.^^IT. 
personal charms, almost overpowered the dis- ^-^r-^^* 
consolate monarch, and he was i^ith difficulty ^^^^ 

Erevailed upon to abandon a resolution which he 
ad taken to quit the affairs of state, and to seek 
in retirement and seclusion a solace for his 
accumulated distresses. Absorbed in these feel- 
ings he saw, without emotion, the electorate of 
Hanover, once so highly valued by him as to be 
placed in competition with the safety of Europe, 
puss into the hands of Jerome Bonaparte, and 
become an integral part of the kingdom of 
Westphalia. 



CHAPTER XIV. 



Naval and Colonial Campaign : Gallant Exploit performed by a small British Squadron 
under Captain Hoste — Destruction of the Enemy* s Ships in the Bay of Sagone — Descent on 
the Coast of Naples — Capture and Destruction of the Enemfs Convoys on the Coasts of 
Calabria J Normandy y and the Adriatic Sea — Capture of a French Convoy within the 
Mouth of the Gironde — Desperate Jction in the Indian Seas — Dreadful Shipwrecks — Sur- 
render of the Island of Java^ 'he last of the Enemy^s Colonies in the East Indies — The 
actuating Motives of the Policy of the French Government — Energy in the Naval Depart^ 
ment — Substitutes for Colonial Produce — State of the Gallican Church — System of National 
Education — Birth of the King of Rome. 



THE year 1811, though not characterized 
by the fall of empires, was by no means destitute 
of events calculated to render this portion of 
history interesting to the present, and memorable 
in future ages. On the continent of Europe 
the germ of a tremendous contest had already 
begun to take root ; and the long-pendinff 
differences between the European powers and 
the United States of America assumed an aspect 
that portended an approaching storm. In the 
peninsula of Spain and Portugal the war still 
continood to rage with undiminished fury and 
with various and dubious success ; while the 
navy of England, finding no adequate antagonist 
on the ocean, was obliged to satisfy itself with, 
those minor exploits which occasionally pre«- 
sented themselves, but in which the skUl and 
superiority of the lords of the ocean were always 
sufficiently conspicuous. 

Early in the month of March a small Eng- 
lish squadron, under the command of Captoia 
Hoste, consisting of the Amnhion and Cerberus, 
each of thirty-two guns, and of the Active and. 
Yolage, the former of thirty-eight, and the lat- 



ter of twenty-two guns, discovered off the island* 
of Lissa, in the Italian seas, a French sqitadron 
of five frigates, one corvette, four brigs, two 
8choone]*s, and two smaller vessels, commanded 
by Captain Dubordieu* On the approach of the 
English fleet, the e^emy formed themselves into 
two divisions, and bore down under a press of 
sail in order to carry inte effect the British, 
system of tactics, by breaking their adversary's 
line. This attempt having failed of success, the 
Freoek commodore, who led the van in the 
Favourite, of forty-four guns, attempted to ptaee 
the English squadron between two fires, but 
while he was manoeuvring for this purpose, his 
ship approached too near the shore, and was 
driven en the rocks of Lissa. The enemy, un- 
dismayed by the fate of their commodore, per-, 
sisted in the attempt tp place the British between* 
two fires, and the starboard division having 
passed under the stem of the British ships en- 
gaged them to leeward, while the larboai a divi- 
sion tacked and remained to windward. Though, 
the enemy displaj^ed more than their accustomed^ 
skiH on this ocoasion^ and followed up that sHil^i 



yojL. II, — NO. 49. 



of Napoleon to ^ Senate, dated Dec. 10, 
Tt 



1810. 



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mSTORY OF THE WARS 



1>()0K IV. with a considerable share of activity and bravery, 

yet they made no impression on the British 

CWap.XIV. squadron; but on the contrary, after the battle 
^^"^T^^TT^ ha<l raged about two hours, the two French 
1811 frig^ates to the leeward struck their colours. 
Those who had attacked to the windward, seeing 
the fiite of their companions, endeavoured to 
escape, but they were closely pursued, and one 
of them was compelled to surrender, leaving 
Captain Hoste in possession of the Corona, of 
forty-four guns, and the Bellona, of thirty-two 
guns. Besides these vessels, the Favourite, 
which had driven on the rocks, shortly after 
blew up, while the corvette and two frigates 
took shelter in the port of Lesdina. At the time 
that the Flora, Captain Peridier, which was one 
of the frigates to leeward, struck her colours, . 
the Amphion, to whom she surrendered, was so 
closely engaged with the Bellona, that Captain 
Hoste could not spare a boat to take possession 
of his prize, and the Flora, availing herself of 
this circumstance, took an opportunity to re- 
hoist her colours, and dishonourably to sheer off. 
After this most gallant action, Cfaptain Hoste 
bad the gratificaticn to find that the vanquished 
fleet had on board five hundred troops for the 
purpose of garrisoning the island of Lissa, to- 
gether with every thing necessary for its fortifi- 
cation ; and on additional share of splendour 
was shed round the glory of this enterprise by 
the entire defeat of the enemy's intention to 

Sossess himself of that island. The loss of the 
Snglish on this occasion amounted to fifty killed, 
and one hundred and fifty wounded, but when the 
auperiority of the enemy^s strength is considered, 
that loss will not be thought disproportioned to 
the nature of the cotntest in which the squad- 
ron was engaged 

Another gallant service was performed m 
the Mediterranean sea by the Pomone, and 
Unit6 frigates, and the Scout sloop of war, under 
the command of Captain Barrie. This officer 
had received information that the enemy had 
three large vessels lyiuff in Sagone bay, in the 
island of Corsica, and Uiough the position they 
occupied was rendered strong both by nature and 
art, he determined to lose no time in making the 
attack. This resolution he was led to adopt 
from a knowledge that the enemy's vessels were 
taking in timber for the use of the ship-yards at 
Toulon, and from being well aware that if these 
vessels could be taken or destroyed the progress 
of the ships of war now building in that port 
would be arrested. On the SOth of April Cap- 
tain Barrie, with his small squadron, arrived m 
the bay, and on approaching the coast, he ob- 
served that the enemy, who had posted himself 
on the heights, was prepared to receive and re- 
pel his attack. On Uiese heights were stationed 
two hundred regular troops, with field pieces. 



and- a great number of armed inhabitants ; while 
the battery that commanded flie entrance to the 
port, was provided with four guns, and an ad- 
joining martello tower^ with a large piece of 
ordnance. Under this protection the enemy*s 
ships were moored within cable's length of the 
battery, and their broadside towards the sea. 
At six o'clock in the evening the action com- 
menoed, and about half-past seven one of the 
enemy's vessels was observed to be on fire ; 
shortly afterwards ihe other two were in the 
same situation, and by the determined and per- 
severing efforts of the assailants, the battery and 
tower were completely silenced. Thus, in die 
short space of two hours, this gallant enterprise 
was achieved, with the very trifling loss of two 
men killed, and nineteen wounded. 

Several other exploits, equally indicative of 
the superiority of the British navy, were per- 
formed during the present year : on the coast of 
Calabria a convoy of two and twenty sail were 
attacked and captured b^ his majesty's ships, the 
Thames, Captain Napier, and the Cephalus, 
Captain Clifford, along with eleven French gun- 
boats, and one armed felucca, without the loss 
of a single man. At Palinura, on the coast of 
Naples, a detachment of two hundred men, 
unaer the command of Captain Darley, disem- 
barked from on board the Thapies and fm- 
pSrieuse frigates, with fifty marines, cammanded 
by Lieutenant Pipon, landed in the face of nine 
hundred of the enemy, and after destroying tho 
batteries and cannon of the fort, captured and 
brought off six gun-boats, and ttirenty merchant 
vessels. The capture and destruction of an 
entire convoy in the Adriatic sea was effected by 
Captain Qordon, of the Active. And about the 
same time Captain Bourshier, of his mcyesty's 
ship, the Hawke, succeeded, after a desperate 
engagement, in driving two of the enemy^s 
brigs, and two luggers, with fifteen of their 
convoy im shore, on the coast of Normandy. ^ 

In the month of August, an enterprise, in 
which both courage and stratagem were success- 
fully employed, was undertaken at the mouth of 
the Gironde, by ^ Captain Ferris, of the Diana, 
and Captain Kichardson, of the SemiramiB. 
Percdvinff four sail of merchant-vessels, under 
convoy of a national brig of war, within the 
shoals of the mouth of that river, and aware 
that no forcible attempt could be made to pass 
the river and carry the vessels with any prospect 
of success, the British Captains hoisted French 
colours, and so completely did they deceive the 
enemy, that a pilot was sent out to conduct 
them into port. With this assistance, the Diao* 
and the Semiramis anchored, aft^ dark, near 
the batteries at the mouth of the Gironde, when 
Captain Ferris dispatched three boats from hii 
vessel, which being seconded by four olbevs 



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167 



(torn the Semiramis, proceeded up the river 
about the middle of the night of the 24th, and 
captured the convoy. In the morning the 
«nemy*s gun-boats were attacked and destroy- 
ed ; and Captain Richardson, as if in contempt 
of their batteries, drove the armed brig on shore, 
vd burnt her under the fire of their cannon. 

Soon after the capture of the Isle of France, 
three French frigates,^ full of troops, intended 
for the succour of that colony, were luiown to 
be in the Indian seas ; and tlie Astray, Phoebe, 
and Galatea frigates, with the Race-Horse 
brig, were dispatched in quest of them. On 
the 19th of May, the enemy, who had put into 
Madagascar to water, was discovered off the 
coast of that island. After a chase continued for 
ten hours, the French frigates were brought to 
action, and for some time the battle raged with 
M much fury that one of the frigates on each 
side was completely disabled, and obliged to 
withdraw from the contest. The battle re-com- 
menced by the Astrea pouring a destructive 
broadside into the French commodore's ship. 
La Renomm^e: instead of returning this fire, 
the commodore ordered his men to board the 
Astrea, but owing to the skilful manceuvres of 
the British captain, and the gallant conduct of 
his crew, this attempt was completely frustrated. 
Night had now closed upon the conflicting 
squadrons, and the dismal gloom was only in- 
terrupted by the vivid flashes of the cannon, 
which served to impart a degree of awful sub- 
limity to the surrounding scene. At length, 
«fter a most gallant resistance, the French com- 
modore's ship struck her colours^ and the Clo* 
jrinde, finding herself completely overpowered, 
followed her example. In this action, which 
from its commencement to its close continued 
«eveD hours, and was four times renewed, the 
«nemy lost upwards of two hundred men killed 
aild woundea,^ amongst the former of whom 
were the captains of the Nereide and the Re- 
nomm^e. The loss of the British was also severe^ 
and amounted to upwards of one hundred killed 
and wounded^ sixty of whom were on board the 
Galatea. 

The state of the maritime warfare between 
Great Britain iemd France had, as has been 
already observed, now become of such a nature 
that no actions on a grand and imposing scale, 
where fleets are engaged, and where nations 
hang in anxious suspense on the result, were 
any longer to be expiibted. The time for these 
stupendous conflicts had gone past; but the 
minor ^ea-fights of the period now under re- 
view are by no means beneath the notice of the 
historian, and the opportunities they afforded 
iiir the idisplay of nautical skill, courage, and 



1811 



enterprize, are perhaps no way inferior to those BOOK IV. 

presented by the glorious battles of Camperdown 

ind Trafalgar. ^ Crf.r.XIT. 

The elements, more destructive than the 
enemy, inflicted a severe loss upon the British 
navy during tlie winter of the present year. 
On the night of the 4tb of December, the Sal- 
danha frigate, of 33 guns, commanded by the 
HonouraUe Captain Fakenbain, was lost off 
Lough Swilly, on the coast of Ireland, and 
every soul on board perished. On the 23d of 
the same month, bis Majesty's ship the Hero, 
Captain Newman, of 74 guns, with a oonvoy of 
a hundred and twenty sail of merchant-men ' 
under his protection, was overtaken by a dread- 
ful gale in the German ocean, and driven on the. 
Haw Sand, off the Texel, where both ship and 
crew were engulphed in the watery abyss. 
Many of the convoy rode out the storm, but 
upwards of twenty of the number shared the 
deplorable fate of the Hero and her crew. On 
the fatal night of the 24th of December, the 
St. George, of 08 guns, commanded by Ad- 
miral Reynolds, and the Defence, of 74 guns^ 
under the command of Captain Atkins, after 
encountering severe storms in the Baltic, were 
both stranded on the western coast of North 
Jutland. The Defence first took the ground^ 
and in less than half an hour became a complete 
wreck, when the captain and all her crew, six 
only excepted, perished. For some hours the 
St. George continued to brave the storm, ^ and 
the most persevering exertions were made to 
afford her succour from the shore, but all these 
humane efforts proved unavailing. Of the wliole 
crew, which amounted to nearly eight hundred 
men, eleven only succeeded in gaining the land; 
and when the last of them left the St. George, 
in the afternoon of the 25th, Admiral Reynolds 
and Captain Guion were stretched dead upon 
the quarter-deck, along with at least five hun- 
dred of the crew. At that time about fifty of 
the ship's company remained alive, and their 

Siteous cries were heard for several hours, but 
uring the night of the 26th the ship went to 
pieces, and at once extinguished their hopes 
and^terminated their sufferings. 

Lord Minto, the governor-general of India^ 
under whose auspices and direction the conquests 
of the Isle of Bourbon and the Isle of France 
were achieved, had formed a plan for adding 
Java, — " the most precious gem in the diadem 
of the Dutch East India company,'* to the 
British colonial empire. Batavia, the capital 
of this settlement, had long been the principal 
seat of the Dutch government of the east ; and 
from this station the mother-country had, in the 
days of her independence and prosperity^ de-r 



• Tke lUnomw^ tfie Neriide, mi4 tl^ Ckriirfe: 



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HISTOUY OP THB WARS 



Chap XIV. 
18T1 



BOOK IV. rived great wealth and many commercial advan- 
tages. The paralyzing influence of French 
alliance had latterly diminished the importance 
of this colony, but it still served as a shelter 
and protection to the cruisers of the enemy, and 
interposed as a barrier in the way of the trade 
of the British East India Company between 
Hindostan and China. The enemy, fully aware 
of the intended attack on this island, was inde- 
fatigable in his endeavours to protect and de- 
fend his only remaining colony m the east ; and 
with this view, a force of ten thousand men was 
collected, and placed under the command of 
General Jansens, an officer of tried cour&ge, 
and well acquainted with the tactics of India. 

In the month of March, a body of troops, 
destined for this expedition, were encamped at 
Madras, consisting of his' majesty^s 14th, 5Qth, 
and 69th regiments of foot, four squadrons of 
of the 22d dragoons, two squadrons of horse, 
and a party of foot artillery, along with a con- 
siderable portion of native troops. This force 
was to be joined on its passage by the 78th 
regiment from Bengal, and the chief command 
of the expedition was vested in Sir Samuel 
Auchmuty — a general who had rendered him- 
self honourably conspicuous in an opposite 
hemisphere. The magnitude of the preparations 
delayed the departure of the expedition till the 
approach of the monsoons ; but Lord Minto, 
who accompanied the fleet, avoided the appre- 
Iiended danger by judiciously profiting by the 
land winds, and striking from the south-west 
point of Sambhar to the coast of Java. After 
' maturely weighing the different plans for de- 
barking the army. Sir Samuel Auchmuty re- 
solved to effect a landing in the immediate 
Ticinity of Batavia, and accordingly, on the 
4th of August, the troops were debarKed about 
19 miles to the east of that city. The force of 
the enemy had ts^en up a strongly fortified 
position at Cornells, and thither the British 
general determined to proceed without loss of 
time, having previously taken possession of 
Batavia, which surrendered to Colonel (xi\^ 
lespie without resistance. 

Thus far the object of the expedition had 
been attained, and the capture of the capital 
promised to forward and assist the ulterior 
operations. The enemy, before he evacuated 
the city, had set fire to several large store- 
houses of public property, and had attempted 
to diestroy the remamder ; but many of the 
valuable granaries and store-houses of sugar^ 
which had been laid open to the weather, in hopes 
that the rain might so lar injure the stocks as 
to render them unfit fbr use, were happily pre- 
served. Early in the morning of the 13th, 
Colonel GUlespie moved towards the enemy's 
cantonment at Weltevreede, which they abaa- 



doned on his approach, and took up a strong 
position about two miles in advance of their 
works at Cornells. This fort, which was pro- 
tected by an abatis, and defended by three thou- 
sand of the enemy's best troops, Colonel Gil- 
lespie carried at tiie point of the bayonet, and 
from thence advanced to the front ef the lines at 
Cornells. 

Hitherto a degree of success, exceeding 
the most sanguine expectations, had attended 
the expedition, but the further progress of the 
army now became extremely difficult, and the 
obstacles that presented themselves shook the 
confidence of the British general. The enemy, 
greatly superior in numbers, was strongly in- 
trenched between the river Jacatra and the 
Sloken canal, neither of which were fordable, 
and the position was shut up by a deep trench, 
strongly palisadoed : seven redoubts and nume^- 
' reus batteries, mounted with heavy cannoir, 
occupied the most commanding ground within 
the lines ; and the fort of Cornells, and the 
whole of the works, were defended by a nume- 
rous and well organized artillery. By these^ 
works, tt was thdught, that the British army 
would be delayed, and their destruction might 
then be safely left to the operation of a elimate 
the most pestilential in the world. Sir Samuel 
Auchmuty well understood the danger of delay, 
and the consequent necessity of promptitude of 
action. The season was too far advanced, the 
heat too intense, and his numbers insufficient, 
to adnut of regular approaches ; he therefore 
determined upon an assault, and for the purpose 
of disabling the principal redoubts of the enemy^ 
batteries were erected, which continued to play 
upon their works till this ol\ject was fully accom-^ 
plished. 

The moment had now arrived for the ge- 
neral assault, and accordingly, at the dawn of 
day on the morning of the 26tb, this hazardous, 
but indispensably necessary operation was un- 
dertaken. In this attack, as in the preliminary 
enterprises, the principal duty was assigned io 
Colonel Gillespie. General Jansens was in the 
redoubt when the assault commenced. Colonel 
Gillespie having possessed himself almost instan- 
taneously of the bridge over the Sloken, at- 
tacked and carried one of the redoubts withia^ 
the lines. Part of the colonel's corps b^ng now 
joined by a portion of the army which had at- 
tacked the enemy in front, the united force 
assailed and carried another of the redoubts. 
Similar success attended the corps under Co- 
lonel M'Leod, of the 60th regiment, who fell in 
the moment of victory, and four redoubts within 
the lines were now in the possession of the 
British. The front of the enemy was also routed, 
and their position at that point laid open. The 
only redoubts now possessed by the enjsaiy, lajc 



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in his rear, and to those Colonel Oillespie, being 
joined by Colonel M^Leod, of the dQtli regi- 
ment, directed his attention. Here the greater 
part of the enemy's artillery, surrounded and 
protected by their cavalry, vras posted; the 
redoubts, however,* were carried in the same 
heroic style as those in advance,— their artillery 
was captured, and their cavalry compelled to 
fly. 8odn after Cornelia surrendered; and in 
this engagement the whole of the hostile army 
was killed, taken, or dispersed. 

General Jansens, who had thrice rallied his 
retreating troops, escaped with difficulty from 
the field, followed only by a few cavalry. The 
loss of tbe enemy in these different actions was 
immense — about a thousand men were buried in 
the works ; vast numbers were cut down in the 
retreat; the rivers were literally choaked with 
the bodies of the slain, and the adjacent huts 
and woods were filled with the wounded; most 
of whom afterwards died. Nearly five thousand 
prisoners were taken, among whom were three 
general- officers and thirty-six field-officers ; and 
the number of artillery and field-pieces, taken 
in this memorable campaign, amounted to up- 
wards of seven hundred. No day was ever 
more bravely won, nor was there ever a victory 
more complete. Such a conquest could not be 
achieved without considerable loss on the part of 
the victors, and twenty-seven native troops, and 
one hundred and fourteen British, killed, and one 
hundred and twenty-three natives, and six hun- 
dred and ten British, wounded, was the price 
paid for the island of Java. 

As soon as these conquests were secured, 
and the British army had recovered from their 
fatigue, a body of troops was embarked on board 
the ships of the fleet, under Rear-admiral Stop- 
ford, and ordered to proceed to Samerang, where 
they were joined by Sir Samuel Auchmuty. 
General Jansens, who had retired to that town, 
answered a summons sent to him- to surrender 
the island, by expressing a determination to 

Ssrsevere in his resistance ; but, on the 12th of 
eptember, it was discovered that he had evacu- 
ated the place, and taken up a position on the 
road to Solo, the capital of the Soesoehoenam, 
or Autocrat. This position Colonel Gihbs was 
directed to attack on the Idth ; but the allies and 
native troops of the enemy had no zeal in the 
service, and dreading the attack of men who 
had displayed such prodigies of valour at Cor- 
nells, they fled at their approach, leaving the 
road covered with the equipments which they 
had thrown away in their retreat. Early in the 
night, a flag of truce arrived from General 
Jansens, with an offer to surrender, and a nego- 
ciation was immediately entered into, which 



terminated in a capitulation, by which the Dutch BOOK iV. 

general and all his remaining troops surrendered 

prisoners of war. The overthrow of the Dutch ^"^^J^* 
empire in the east was thus completed, and, " by ^TJC - 
the successive reduction of the French islands 
and of Java, the British nation was left without 
either an enemy or a rival from the Cape of 
Hope to Cape Horn."* 

It had now become the leading feature of 
the policy of the Emperor Napoleon to make 
himself master of all the sea-ports in the coun- 
tries accessible to his power, for the double pur* 
pose of excluding English commerce from the 
continent, and of creating a navy capable of 

* contending with the maritime power of Great. 
Britain. Ancient maxims of government, when 
standing in the way of this policy, he considered 
as antiquated illusions ; and; in calling upon 
the conservative senate to ratify the decree for 
the annexation of Holland and the Hanse towns - 
to the French territory, the govern ment-oratof 
informed them, ^^ that those times were passed 
when the conception of some statesmen gave 

. authority in the public opinion, to the system of 
balances, of guarantees, of counterpoises, and 
of political equilibrium. Pompous illusions,*^ 
exclaimed he, ^^ of cabinets of the second order^ 
visions of imbecility, which all disappear before 
necessity,— rthat power which regulates the du- 
ration and the mutual relation of empires. Hol- 
land, like the Hanse towns, would remain the 
prey of uncertainty, of dangers, of revolntions, 
of oppression of every kind, if the genius who 
decides the destinies of Europe, did not cover 
her with his invincible agisJ*^ Adverting next to 
the contest between France and England, the 
reporter says^ — ^^ it is- no longer two .armies 
who combat on the plains of Fontenoy ; it 
is the empire of the seas which still resists 
that of the continent— a memorable, a terrible 
struggle, the catastrophe of which, now per* 
haps not far distant, will long occupy the atten- 
tion of future generations. If England had not 
rcrjected the counsels and offers of naoderation^ 
what dreadful consequences might she have 
avoided ? She would not have forced France to 
enrich herself by the ports and arsenals of Hol- 
land ; the Ems, the Weser, and the Elbe, would 
not have flowed under our dbminion ; and we 
should not have been the first country of the 
Gauls washed by rivers, united by an internal 
navigation to seas which were unknown to them. 
Where still are the boundaries of possibility ? 
Let England answer this question. Let her 
meditate on the past : let her learn the future, 
Frapce and Napoleon will never change !'* 

The annexation of Holland and the Hanse 
towns to France was accompanied by a law of 



(No. 49.) 



Lord Miiito. 



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HISTORY OF THE WARS 



1811 



BOOK IV. marine conscription, by which it was enacted, 

that in the thirty maritime districts of the empire 

Chap.XIV. the conscription should be devoted to the re- 
cruiting of the navy, and that ten thousand con- 
scripts of each of the classes of the years of 1818, 
1814, 1815) and 1816, should be immediately 
placed at the disposal of the minister of marine. 
In every branch of the naval department the 
Inost strenuous exertions were made to secure 
the " liberty of the seas," and in the port of 
Antwerp alone twenty ships of the Hue were 
upon the stocks at one time, eight of which 
number were three-deckers. 

In the mean time the want of colonial pro- 
duce was felt as a severe inconvenience in every 
part of the widely extended dominion of France ; 
peas, beans, and lupens were dried for coffee, 
the astragalus boUicus was cultivated in great 
quantities in Moravia, for the same purpose ; 
and the leaves of the horn^bean were dried for 
tea, and scented with the roots of the Florence 
Iris. One experimentalist transmitted to the 
minister of the interior samples of sugar ex- 
tracted from raisins, and another obtained a 
similar substance from chc^nuts ; and at Brest 
it was discovered that '^ palm sea-weed, when 
dried, contained sugar as well as salt, which 
did not indeed chrystalise like that of the cane, 
but which had nearly as pleasant a flavour, and 
had moreover the advantage of being perfectly 
white." No sooner did any experiment promise 
success, than the law was called in to its aid, and 
in pursuance of this policy, an edict was issued 
directing that a certain quantity of ground 
should be appropriated in each department to 
the culture of the beet root for sugar, and of 
woad for indigo. ^' The discovery of the needle," 
it was said, *' produced a revolution in com- 
merce ; the use of honey gave way to that of 
sugar ; the use of woad to that of indigo ; but 
the progress of chymistry operating a revolution 
in an inverse direction, had arrived at the ex- 
traction of sugar from the grape, the maple, and 
the beet root; and by extracting a residuum 
from the woad of Languedoc and Italy, has 
given it the advantage over indigo in price and 
in quality." 

Two subjects of essential importance to the 
interests of every community, occupied this year 
a prominent situation in the annual exposition of 
the French empire — ^the state of the national 
religion, and a system of public education. On 
the first of these subjects Bonaparte touched in 
his speech io the legislative body.* ^< The affairs 
of religion," said he, <* have been too often 
mixed in, and sacrificed to, the interests of a 
State of the third order. If half of Europe have 



separated from the church of Rome, we may 
attribute it specially to the contradiction which 
has never ceased to exist between the truths and 
the principles of religion which belong to the 
whole universe, and the pretensions and interests 
which regarded only a vei7 small corner of 
Italy. I have put an end to this scandal for 
ever. I have united Rome to the empire. I 
have given palaces to the popes at Rome and at 
Paris ; if tncy have at heart the interest of re-^ 
ligion, they will often sojourn in the centre of 
the aflairs of Christianity. It was thus that 
St. Peter preferred Rome to an abode even 
in the Holy Land." Of the disorganized situ- 
ation of the Oallican church, owing to the 
existing differences between Pope Pius VI K 
and the Emperor Napoleon, tbe following pic- 
ture was exhibited by the organ of government :f 
** Twenty-seven bishoprics have been.for a long 
time vacant, and the pope, having refused at 
two different periods, from 1805 to 1807, and 
from 1808 to the present moment, to execute 
the clauses of the concordat, which bind him 
to institute the bishops nominated by the em^ 
peror ; this refusal has nullified tbe concordat— 
It no longer exists. The emperor has been there- 
fore obliged to convoke all the bishops of the 
empire, in order that they may deliberate about 
the means of supplying the vacant sees, and of 
nominating to those that may become vacant in 
ftUure." Upon these grounds, Bonaparte sum- 
moned aQ the bishops of France and Italy to 
hold a national council in the church of Notre 
Dame, at Paris. From this ecclesiastical council^ 
which assembled on tbe 17th of June, and of 
which Cardinal Fesch, the uncle of the emperor, 
was president, it was intended to procure de- 
crees, which should satisfy scrupulous con- 
sciences, fill up vacant sees, and give to the 
primate of the Gauls a species of vice- papal 
authority during the life of the pope. But the 
bishops, though by no means indisposed to offer 
the incense of courtly adulation at the shrine 
of imperial power, could not be prevailed upon 
to support tlie pretensions of Napoleon in op|>o- 
siiion to the claims of the pope ; and when they 
were called upon by Cardinal Muury to act in 
defiance of the catholic church, their suppleness 
made a pause, and the members of the convoca- 
tion in the interest of the emperor, could, it is 
said, only obtain fourteen votes against one 
hundred and six. The proceedings of this 
council have never been suffered to transpire^ 
but it is well understood that the result neither 
satisfied the expectations of the emperor, nor 
healed the schisms in tiie Galhcan church. 

Education in France, upon the university 



*June 16, 1611. 
t Exposition of the State of th^ French Empire in 18} I* 



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171 



systein,* bad now become a national concern. 
The number of LycKums, and of commercial col- 
leges, continued to be augmented, and the num- 
ber of private seminaries were to be gradually 
diminished till the moment when they were all to 
be shut up. This system dl^natlonal education, 
which had for its oliject the formation of soldiers 
as well as of scholars, was regulated on the 
principles of military discipline, rather than upon 
those of ciyil or ecclesiastical poIicy,t and served 
as a powerful engine to recruit the armies, by 
giving to the youth of France a military cha- 
racter. Nor was it to France alone that this 
system was confined; it extended to the inha- 
bitants of all the territories annexed to the 
French empire, and aimed at giving to the 
youth of these countries the manners and the 
character which were to identify them with the 
French nation. 

The Empress Maria Louisa, to whose illus- 
trious progeny the people of France looked for 
a successor to the Napoleon throne, this year 
presented the emperor with a son. The birth of 
this ^^ august infant,'* upon whom so many des- 
tinies reposed, took place on the 2d of April, 
and the joyous event, which was communicated 
by telegraphic messages to every part of France, 
was celebrated in Parts by rejoicings, illumina- 
tions, and public thanksgivings. The second 
city in the empire afforded a title to the heir- 



ISll 



'epparent, who, from the day of his birth, took BOOK IV. 
the title of the King of Rome. On the 15th of ■ 

June the baptismal ceremony was celebrated in Chap.XIV. 
the French metropolis with a degree of pomp 
suitable to the rank of the infant sov€\feign, and 
Napoleon, the name of the sire, was conferred 
upon the son. 

The birth of the King of Rome had fulfilled 
the wishes of the French Emperor, and within 
the short period of a few months, an addition of 
sixteen departments, five millions of people, and 
one hundred leagues of eoast, had been nofade to 
his territorial possessions ;t but this continual 
flow of prosperity and success was found insuffi- 
cient to allay the feelings of hostility, or to satisfy 
the cravings of ambition. England remained 
unsubdued, and Russia, .in contravention of the 
stipulations of the treaty of Tilsit, continued to 
hold commercial intercourse with the enemy of 
the continental system. In the peninsula of 
Spain and Portugal the progress of the French 
arms was arrested, and I^apoleon himself, since 
his marriage with the Archduchess of Auiftrta^ 
seemed so much occupied with the concerns of 
his family, that the affairs of state, for a time, 
relaxed their hold upoo his mind, and induced 
him to lininfer in a state of comparative inactivity 
on the banks of the Seine, at a moment when his 
presence seemed to be imperiously demanded in 
the vicinity of the Tagus. 



* By a decree, promuljrated at the beginning of the year 1808, the imperial university of Paris was exclu- 
sively charged with the public instruction, and had the controu) over every school and seminary of education throughout 
the empire. Without the permission of the grand master of the university , no individual was allowed to conduct an 
establishmentof any kind for tuition, and every school-master was required to be a member of the university. This in- 
fltitution was composed of as many academies as there were tribunals or courts of appeal in France, and there were 
•ehoolB attached to each academy in the following order :— 1. Universities, called Les Facult^s ; 2. Lycseums ; 3. Colleges^ 
or Grammar Schods $ 4. Institations, or Seminaries; 6. Boafding Schools, called PensioDatB; and 6. The Lesser, or 
Primary Schools. The universities were eomposed of five faouhies, via. theology, jurispnidence) physicy mathematical 
aad physical science, and literature. The LycoBums however formed the moat importaot part of the system ; there wera 
originally thirty-two of these inststutioaa, hut they were afterwards increased to ibrty^five, in order to bear a relative pro* 
portion to the increased extension of the French territory. Of the pupHa, six t^iousaad four hundred were edacated at 
the public expend, and of this number two thousand four hundred were to be selected thiriBg' the sjpao^iif ten years from 
the foreigu territories annexed to France. 

, t Exposition ef the State of the French Empire in 1811. 



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CHAPTER XY, 



Domestic History: Opening of the First Regency Parliament — Refusal of the Prince Regent to 
accept a Provision for the Royal Household — Motion regarding his Majesty s Health in 1804 — 
Commercial Distresses — The Bullion Question — Lord King^s Demand of Cash Payments from 
his Tenants — Lord Stanhope's Act for upholding the National Currency — Ex^Offido Inform-' 
'ations — New Office created in tfie Court of Chancery — AmeHoration in the Discipline of the 
Army — British Subjects carrying on the Slave Trade made liable to Transportation — Lord 
SidmoulVs Bill to amend and explain the Toleration Act — Public Finances — Re-appointment 
. of the Duke of York to the Office of Commander-in-cKi^ — Lo/J Milton's Motion thereon — ■ 
State of his Majesty's Health — Affairs of Ireland — Letter x^ Mr. fVellesley Pole — Con- 
vention Act — Proceedings of the Catholics — Arrest and Trial of the Delegate^ to the Catholic 
Committee — National Education — Population Returns of 1811. 



1811 



BOOK IV. AT the commeDcement of the present year, 

— — the two houses of parliament were principally 

Chap.^V. occupied with those measures which the lament- 
ed fndisposition of the king had rendered neces- 
sary to supply the deficiency in the exercise of 
the royal functions ; and after tlie passing, of the 
act for investing the Prince of Wales with the 
powers requisite, in the opinion of the estates of 
parliament, for exercising the office of regent, 
his royal highness took the prescribed oaths* 
before the privy council, and from that time be- 
came the representative of the sovereign.* On 
tbe 12th of February, parliament was opened 
with the usual formalities, when the Prince 
Regent, regarding his situation as that of the 
ceremonial, rather than the efficient head of the 
state, declined to open the session in person. 
The speech, which was delivered by commission 
in the name of the regent, expressed the most 
unfeigned sorrow on account of the calamity 
^hich had imposed upon his royal highness the 
duty of. exereising tbe royal authority ; the 
Prince Regent, at the same time, congratulated 
parliament upon the success of his meyesty^s 
arms, both by sea and land ; and trusted that he 
would be enabled to continue to afford the most 
effectual assistance to the brave nations of the 
peninsula. With regard to the United States of 
America, it was his earnest wish to bring the 
discussions with that country to an amicable ter- 
mination, consistent with the honour of the 
crown and the maintenance of the maritime 
rights and interests of this kingdom ; and he 
trusted to the zeal of parliament for adequate 
supplies in order to brmg the great contest in 
which the country was engaged to a happy 
issue. 



In the house of lords, the Earl of Aber- 
deen moved the address, which was seconded 
by Lord £iliot, and carried .without a division. 
In the lower house of parliament, the address^ 
which was moved by Mr. Milues, seconded by 
Mr. Richard Wellesley, encountered no other 
opposition than that which might seem to be 
implied in a declaration made by Mr. Ponsonby, 
that in acquiescing in the address he should not 
be precluded from discussing any particular 
topic in the speech when the subject came before 
the house in a separate and detached form. 

Another proof of the manner in which the 
Prince Regent regarded the temporary authority 
with which he was Tested, was afforded by a 
conununication made to the house of commons 
on the 21st of February, when the chancellor of 
the exchequer stated, that his royal highness, on 
being informed that a motion was intended to be 
made for a provision for the royal household, 
declared that he would not add to the burthens 
of the people, by accepting of any addition to 
his public state as Regent of the United King- 
dom. This subject was further illustrated by 
Mr. Adam, who stated that the regent had put 
into his hands the letter from Mr. Perceval, 
relating to the intended provision, accompany- 
ing it with written instructions, that, should any 
proposition for an establishment, or a grant from 
the privy purse, be made to the house, he should 
inform that assembly that his royal highness 
wished to discharge the duties of the temporary 
regency without increasing his . establishment. 
In case, however, of such circumstances occur* 
ring as might lead to a permanent regency, he 
conceived Ihat the question would then be open- 
ed anew to the consideration of his royal highness. 



« See Vol. II. Chftp. XII. p. leo. 



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HISTORY OP THE \VARS, <fec. 



m 



On the 26th of February, a motion was 
submitted to the house of commons on a subject 
(n which the feelings of the country, and the 
dignitv and essential interests of tlie crown, 
were deeply invoWed. In the course of the ex- 
amination of the physicians before the committee 
of the two houses of parliament, in December last, 
touching the state of his roajesty^s health, it was 
necessary to advert to the malady under which 
the sovereign had laboured in the years 1801 
and 1804, and some very curious and important 
paKiculars were elicited by tliis examination. It 
appeared from the evidence of Dr. Heberden, 
that in 1804 his majesty continued indisposed, 
and actually under the care of Dr. Simmons 
and his men, long after the bulletins' were discon- 
tinued. At this period Lord Eldbn was chan- 
cellor, and in that capacity was regularly and 
<HficiaJly responsible for having procured ther 
royal signature to public documents, and the 
royal assent to parliamentary acts, when, in the 
words of one of the physicians, '^ his majesty^s 
Judgment was in eclipse.** On these grounds 
it was moved by Mr. Whitbread, that the ex- 
amination of the physicians should be laid before 
the house; and the honourable gentleman pledged- 
liimself to prove, if the opportunity was afford- 
ed him, that the period of the royal incapacity 
lasted from the 12th of February, 1804, to the 
.lf>th of June in the same year; and that, during 
that period, Dr. Simmons and his subordinate 
agents exercised a conti^ul over his majesty, 
such as is known to be exercised towards per- 
sons afflicted with the deprivation of reason : 
notwithstanding which. Lord Bldon was found, 
on the dth and 6th of March, taking his majesty's 
commands on a proposed measure tor the* aliena- 
tion of certain crown lands in favour of the 
Duke of York; and on the 9th, venturing to 
come down to parliament with a commission, 
purporting to be signed by the king, at a time 
when, by the acknowledgment of his physi- 
cians, his majesty was labouring under mental 
infirmity. During the period between the 12th 
of February and the 28d of April, when such un- 
constitutional proceedings were occurring, the 
Lord Chancellor Eldon was the only minister 
who had access to his sovereign, being at that 
moment in the exercise of the same judicial 
superintendence over the king as that which he 
is in the habit of holding over unhappy private 
persons, against whom a commission of lunacy 
has been issued. Similar transactions had, M;*. 
Whitbread said, taken place in the year 1801, at 
which time also Lord Bldon was chancellor ; 
but as two of the persons then high in his ma- 
jesty^s councils were now lost to the country, it 
was not his intention to extend -the inquiry to 
the events of that period. Mr. .Whitbread 
ooQclnded by moving for a committee ^^t« ex- 
vou ii»— NO. 49. 



1811 



amine the journals of ttie house of lords for the BOOK IV. 

evidence of the physicians respecting his majes- : 

ty*s health in 1804.^* <^»ap- >^V. 

Lord Gastlereagh, as a member of admi* 
nistration in 180'i, took upon himself a full share 
in the responsibility of the transactions now un- 
der discussion ; he denied that Lord Eldon was 
the only minister who had visited the king be- 
tween the 12th of February and the 23d of 
April, or even the 22d of March, 1804. %ovA 
* Sidmouth had attended his majesty on the 19th 
of March, with official papers, requiring his sig- 
nature, and considered his msgesty fully coinpe-*- 
tent to transact the business. His lordship in 
conclusion observed, that the principfle of inca- 
pacitation, to the extent contended for by the 
honourable gentleman, Was monstrous on the 
face of rt, and his "argument was in a ^at 
measure overturned by the consideration, that 
his majesty's was a case not of insanity but of 
derangement. It was in fact impossible that the 
hurries of which the physicians spoke should not 
at tin&es take place under such circumstances. 
' Mr: Yorke,< another of the members of his ma- 
jesty's council in the year 1804, had himself held 
a long conference vrith the king on or about the 
23d <^* April ; and he could affirm, that in that 
audience his majesty appeared to him' to be in 
full as good health of mind and body, to be as 
fully competent to the dischai'ge of the duties of 
his station, and to be as good a judge of those 
duties, and of the interests of the government of 
the country, as any of those political sages, who> 
setting themselves up as paragons of statesmen, 
claimed an exclusive patent for all the talents 
and all the honesty of the country. 

Sir Francis Burdett maintained that minis- 
ters had usurped the sovereign power ; ' that the 
king, was acting under restraint at the time that 
he was acting as king ; and that the fact was not 
and could not be contradicted. If ministerial 
responsibility was any thing but a name, and if 
the king Avas not a mere puppet for the purpose 
of coming down to parliament in a gilt coach 
occasionally, this act of the ministers amounted 
to a high crime and misdemeanour. If minis- 
ters could go on without the kingly office, they ■ 
were innocent j but as he thought that, while th6 
constitution existed, they could not, the motion 
should have his cordial support. After a forci- 
ble reply from Mr. Whitbread, the house divided^ 
when the motion /or inquiry was negatived by a 
majority of one hundred and seventeen voices. 

The increasing commercial distresses of iht 
nation were now so seriously felt that the atten-** 
tion of government was necessarily fixed upon 
th^nt ; and on the 1st of March, a committee of 
twenty-one members distinguished for their 
knowledge of commercial concerns, and nomin« 
ated without any regard to political party, was 
X X 



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BOOK IV. appointed, on the raotipn of Mr. Perceval, to 

take into consideration the present state of the, 

Cbai>. XV. commercial credit of the country, and to make 
their report thereon. The report so prepared 
was presented to the house of commons on the 
7th of March, and after stating the nature and 
cause of the existing embarrassments, proposed, 
that a loan of six; millions should be made by 
government for the relief of the merchants.^ On 
the 11th of March, the report was taken ijite 
consideration, and on the motion of the chan- 
cellor of the exchequer, a bill was introduced 
into parliament and passed into a law, whereby 
t)fe sum of six millions sterling was to be ad- 
vancv^d to certain commissioners, for the assist-, 
ance of such merchants, as should apply for th^ 
same, on giving sufficient security for the re>pay- 
mcttt of the money so advanced. It might 
naturally have been supposed that, in the midst. 
of so much embarrassment and distress, the 
money voted by parliament at the recommenda-* 
tion of the committee would have been eagerly 
sought after and soon exhausted ; such was the 
case in 1793 ; the reverse however happened now, 
and the sums applied for were to a less amount 
than the provision made. In fact, a wide differ-, 
ence existed between the two periods ; in 1703 
the paper credit gave way, but now the commer- 
cial credit had failed -^ then the banks stopped, 
now the mercantile houses became insolvent ; 
then there was a want of money, now there was 
a want of markets ; this last indeed was the 
radical cause of the evil, and the proposed relief 
could not effect its. removal ; on the cpntrary, 
the commercial distresses continued to increase 
during the whole year, and displayed themselves 
by frightful lists of bankrupts in every gazette, 
amounting to an aggregate of whidi no former 
year in the annals of the country afforded a 
parallel. 



There were, moreover, other symptoms of 
Uie unprecedented state iiito which the commerce 
and the credit of the kingdom had fallen, which 
could not be mistaken, especially when viewed 
in connection with the distresses of the merchant 
and manufiicturer. Xi has already been seen^ 
.that early in the last session of parliament, a 
committee was appointed by the house of com- 
mons for the purpose of inquiring into the high 
price of bullion, and that the committee so ap- 
pointed, in the report on the subject of their 
inquiry, gave it as their decided opinionr, that 
the evils into which they were commissioned to in- 
quire, were to be attributed to an excessive issue 
of bank notes, and that the only effectual remedy 
was to be found^ in the bank resuming its cash 
payments witliin a time to be limited. f This 
report, which had excited much public discussion, 
was brought under I the consideration of the 
house of commons on the 6th of May, by Mr. 
Homer, who introduced tlie subject in an elabo- 
rate and luminous speech, and concluded by 
moving a series of resolutions, grounded upon 
<he report of' the bullion committee, and main^ 
taining the same doctrines. It was hence con- 
tended, that the standard value of ^old, as a 
measure of exchange, could not possibly fluc- 
tuate under any change of circumstances, though 
its real price was unquestionably Subject to all 
the variations arising from the increase or diminu* 
tion of the supply ; that bank paper, measured 
by this standard, was depreciated ; and that the 
consequence of this depreciation was, to render 
our exchanges with the continent unfayoorable, 
to advance prices, to occasion immense losses to 
creditors, and materially to injure aH monied 
incomes. But here two questbns arose : what is 
meant by depreciation? and what is the real 
standard of value ? In the attempt to solve 
these inquiries it was found that this subject which 



. * The ttttention of the committee had been directed to three points : Ist, The extent and embamst ment that the 
tradiBg part of the community at present experience ^ 2d, The causes to which they may be ascribed ; and 3d, The ex* 
pediency of alfording parliamentary assistance. The committee refer to the evidence laid before them, from whence 
they conclude, that the manufacturers in the cotton trade of Glasgow and Paisley are at present suffering more severely 
and extensively than any other set of men. These sufferings the committee ascribe to the enormous speculations made 
to South America, in which the merchants of London^ Liverpool, and Glasgow, had engaged. They also found that 
great distress had occurred in a quarter much connected with this trade, viz. among the importers of produce from 
the West India Islands, and from South America ; a great proportion of the returns for the manuiactures exported to those 
parts of the wi^ld coming home in sugar and coffee, for which they could not find a market. Another cause which 
might be considered as connected with and aggravating the existing distress, was the extent to which the system of ware- 
housing the goods of foreign, as well as of native merchants, for exportation, had been carried. And the committee state, 
that, upon the whole, the embarrassments 'at present experienced, are of an extensive nature, and are felt in a consider- 
able degree in other branches of business as well as in those already specified ; but it does not appear that they exist in the 
w^Uen trade to a degree that would justify parliamentary relief. They further state, that having considered the happy 
effect of die relief afforded by parliament in the year 1793, they recommend similar aceommodattons to be affordetl 
on the present oocasioa» and propose that exchequer hills should be issued to the amount of six millions sterling for that 
purpose ; the amount to be repaid in £our equal ioatalments, the first quarter on the 16th of January next, and the remain- 
der w, thfes quarterly iastaimentSi so that the whole should be discharged iu nine months from the time of the first 
payment. 

t See Vol. JI. Chap. .XII. p. 154/ 



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OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 



175! 



Qt first had seeioed sufficiently simple^ iras in 
reality extre^iely complicated; and that^^after. 
beipg pursued into the regions of metaphysicsi it 
was ultimately lost in obscurity. Blr. Vansittart, 
who took the lead on the part of'tlie practical, 
statesmen, as they were aesignated, in oppo- 
sition to the buUionistSy moyed, by way of amend- 
menty a number of counter resolutions to those^ 
proposed by Mr. Horner, in which it was de- 
clared, that bank notes were not depreciated ; 
that the political and commercial relations of 
this country with foreign states were sufficient 
to account for the unfaTourable state of the 
foreign exchange, and the high price of bullion ; 
that it was highly important that the restriction 
on cash payments at the bank should be removed 
wheneyer it was compatible with the public 
interest; but that, to fix a definite period earlier 
than that of six months after the conclusion of 
peace, which was already fixed, would be highly 
inexpedient and dangerous. These discussions 
occupied the house* of commons no less than 
seven nights, and issued in the rejection of the 
resolutions moved by Mr. Homer, and the adop- > 
tion by a large majority of those presented by 
Mr. Vansittart. 

The miyority with which the opinion and 
and resolutions of Mr. Vansittart were carried 
through the house of commons, was considered 
by ministers as a complete triumph ; but before 
the session closed, a practical illustration was 
adduced by Lord King that the question was 
not set at rest by this decision. His lordship, in 
a notice sent to his tenants, reminded them, that 
by their leases, bearing date in the year 1802, 
they had agreed to pay their rents in good and 
lawful money of Great Britain, and informed 
them, that in consequence of the late depreciation 
of paper money, he could no longer accept of 
bank notes at their nominal value m payment or 
satisfaction of those contracts. He therefore 
called upon them to pay their rents either in 
guineas, or in equivalent weight in Portuguese 
gold coin, or in bank notes, sufficient to pur- 
chase, at the existing market price, the weight of 
as much standard gold as would discbarge the 
rents.^ 

This notice had not attracted any degree of 
public attention till Lord Stanho|>e brought tlie « 
matter under consideration in the bouse of lords. 
His lordship thought this proceeding so unjust 



in itself, so much calculated to shake the credit BOQK 17«i 
of the currenoy of the country, and the example ^ . 

so infectious, and likely to be followed by the ^^^J^ * 
landlords throughout the kingd^m^ that in pur- ^"7^7^' 
soance of what he considered a public duty, his ^^^^ 
lordship introduced a billrinto the bouse of lords 
on the 27th of June, for preventing the current 
gold coin of the realm from being paid for more • 
than its mint value, and for preventing bank 
notes from being reeeived for any smaller sum 
than that for which they were issued. 

The fate of this bill was very extraordinary ; 
on its first reading ministers opposed it on the . 
ground that such a measure was unnecessary, 
and might be mischievous ; but on the second 
reading they had discovered their error, and the . 
prorogation of parliament was aotually delayed 
beyond the appointed time to pass Lord Stan- 
hope's bill into an act. Wafted by the pro- 
pitious gale of ministerial influence this oill^ 
with certain amendments, rather verbal than 
essential, passed through both branches of the 
lej^isluture by large majorities, and at the close 
of the session of parliament, became the law of 
the land. 

The number of prosecutions for libellous 
publications against the state had, within the last 
three years, attained a magnitude that seemed 
to .call for legislative interference, and on the . 
4th of March, Lord Holland moved for a list of 
all the informations, er (jfficioj filed by the attor- 
neys-general from the Ist of January, 1801, to 
the 31&t of January, 181 1. This motion, which 
was opposed by Lord EUenborough, in a speech 
nM)re remarkable for its vehemence than its 
candour, was lost by a large majority. A 
similar motion, made in the house of commons 
by Lord Folkestone, being opposed by ministers, 
and resisted by Sir Vicary Gibbs, the attorney- 
general, was also lost by a majority of a hun- 
dred and nineteen to tMrty-six voices. There 
were, however, some facts brouij;bt to light 
during the discussion of this question, which 
served to mark, the character of the times, and 
deserve to be recorded. It was asserted by 
Lord Holland, and admitted by ministers, that 
in a time of profound internal peace and tran* 
quillity, the present attorney-general had filed 
no less than forty-two official informations 
against seyenteen {persons, within the last three 
years, though in the thirty years preceding the 



* The following curious facts resulting from th« state of British currency at the period! now under considentiptt 
claim to be recorded : 



A GuiDca made of standard gold, weight 5 dwts. 8 grains 

p— Bi by law for only 110 

Tlic MMBe two grains lighter may be sold as bullion fbr ... 1 5 6 
A Ciown piecet made of stsrliog silTer, weight 19 dwtik 
. passes hy law £it only ^ 5 



£. 9. d. 

A Bank DoUar, weight 2 dwts. less, and the silver 2{d. an 

ounce inferior, at first issued at 5s. is now current for 5 6 

A Ha]f*Crown piece of stetUngsiher, weight 9 dwts. passes . 

by law foronly ^- 8 6 

A Bank Tokm, weighing 10 dwts. and the silTcr S^d. an 

onnc$ inferior, is current for .........,..••• ...«. S 



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176 



HIBtORT OF THE WABS 



BOOK tV. year ITOl, only seventy persons bad been prose- 

-.^ cuted altogether ; and that on a general average, 

Crap. XV. Sir Vioary Gibbs had filed in the proportion of 
^'^^^'^^ seven to one more informations for state libeb 
1811 within the same period than his immediate pre* 
decessors. It further appeared that he had pro- 
secuted to judgment, either of acquittal or con* 
victioui not more than seventeen of the forty- 
«. two official informations which he had filed, so 
that the accused parties were, in many of the 
other cases^ fined in the amount of the expenses 
without having been proved guilty of any ofience. 
Lord Holland, undismayed by the rejection of 
his motion, introduced, towards the close of the 
following session of parliament, two bills relating 
to ex officio informations. The former of which had 
for its object to prevent delay between the pub* 
lication of an imputed libel, and the trial of the 
accused party ; and the latter to obtain a repeal 
of so much of the forty-eighth of the king, as 
. relates to holding persons' to bail upon official 
informations. These bills were strenuously op- 
posed by the chief justices, who characterised 
the proposed alteration in the law, and in the 
mode of its administration, as a measure at once 
light and firivolous, and both the bills, were, at 
their second reading, rejected. 

The delays in the court of chancery had 
long been felt and acknowledged as s^ deficiency 
in Uie judicature of this country, and on the 7th 
of March, Mr. M. A. Taylor moved in the house 
of commons for the appointment of a committee 
to ascertain the numoer of appeals before, the 
lords, and to report thereon. At the suggestion 
of Mr. Perceval, the house determined to await 
the result of an inquiry connected with this 
subject, which had been previously instituted by 
a committee in the house of lords ; and on the 
80th of May that committee made its report. 
Tliis document, which was presented by the 
Earl of Liverpool stated generally, that a great 
increiase had taken place in the appeals and 
writs of error, and that there were at the present 
moment no fewer than three hundred and thirty- 
eight of these cases before the house, of which 
forty- two were Mrrits of error. The vast increase 
of business in the court of chancery was also 
adverted ioj from which cause it was stated (o be 
impossible that the chancellor could dispatch 
• the existing arrears, without some assistance 
being provided for him by parliament.* To 
obviate these evils it was recommended that 
another judge should be appointed to assist his 
lordship in the court of chancery, with a rank 
equal to that of the master of the rolls ^ that a 



litbited period should be fixed in each session of 
parliament for receiving appeals, and three days 
allotted in each week for their decision, tiii the 
number should be considerably reduced. Upon 
these sugsrestions a number of resolutions were 
formed; and a new office was subsequentf^ 
created in the court of chancery, to which Sir 
Thomas Flumer was appointed under the desig- 
nation of vice-chancellor. 

An amelioration in the discipline of the 
arinv, calculated to soothe the feelings of the 
soldier, and to gratify the friends of humanity, 
took place during the present session of parlia- 
inent. The practise of fiogging in the British 
armv had frequently been a subject of animad- 
"^ version both in and out of parliament; but, 
though government had shewn a peculiar de- 
gree of susceptibility on this point, and. had 
strenuously opposed the motions made by Sir 
Francis Burdett and others to abolish this kind 
of punishment, yet when the mutifiy bill came 
to b6 submitted to the house of Commons on the« 
14th of March, Mr. Manners Sutton proposed 
to introduce a clause by which a power should 
be given to courts-martial to substitute at their 
option the punishment of imprisonment for cor- 

Eoral punishments. To the admission of this 
umane provision no objection was made, and the 
mutiny bill, so amended, passed into a law. 

A measure, closely allied in its principle to 
the new clause in the mutiny act, was brought 
into parliament by Mr. Brougham, by whom 
leave was obtained to introduce a bill for the 
prevention of the enormities which still continued 
to be practised by captains of vessels and others, 
who, notwithstanding the legpislative enactments 
to the contrary, persisted in carrying on the 
African SlaVe Trade. The object of the bill, 
which was supported by Mr. Wilberforce and 
Mr. Perceval, was to render any British subject 
who might engage in this traffic liable to trans- 
portation for any period not exceeding fourteen 
years ; and this measure, after passing through 
its respective stages in both houses of parlia^ 
ment, obtahied the royal assent. 

In no portion of British history has the 
spirit of religious liberty shone with greater 
splendour than during the present reign. This 
spirit has manifested itself both actively and 
passively — actively, bv the repeal of some of the 
most obnoxious laws tov the restraint of liberty 
of conscience ; and passively, by sufiering obso- 
lete statutes to remain as a dead letter upon the 
books. Such being the general temper of the 
times, and such the bias of the national 1&^* 



* The number of ori^jfinal causes for hearing before the chancellor at this ^e amounted to one hundr^ 
and fourteen, besides ninety- nine appeals ; exclusive of two hundred and seventy -one orin^al causes and app^*^ 
before ihe master of the rolb ;and the balance of money and secnrities in the hands of the chancellor amount^ ^ 
■• less a sum than .1^36,102,430 13«. 2rf. 



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OF THB FRBNCH R«VOLUTION. 



WT 



giverfi, it was with no small share of si^- 
prise and consternation that the country heard 
the intention announced by l4ord Sidmouth of 
introducing a bill into parliamenti to amend and 
explain the act of William and Mary, usually 
caliod the toleration act.^ 'the motion prepa^ 
ratory to the introduction of the proposed bill 
was made in the house of lords on tne Qth of 
May ; when his lordship observed, that accord- , 
ing to the act of William and Mary, all .ministers 
in boly orders, or pretending to holy orders, 
provided they subscribed twenty -six of the 
thirty-nine articles, and took the requisite oaths, 
might preach in any pl^ce of religious worship* 
Tlus act was amended by the 10 th of George III. 
which dispensed with the signing of any of the 
thirty-nine articles, and required persons apply- 
ing for licenses only to express their belief in 
the holy scriptures. Till within the last thirty 
or forty years, he said, the toleration act had 
been construed in such a manner as to exclude 
all persons unqualified from want of the requi- 
site talents and learning, and unfit, from the 
meanness of their situation, or the profligacy 
of their character, from ei^eroising the functions 
of ministers of religion. But subsequent to 
that period, all who offered themselves at the 
quarter sessions, provided they took the oaths, 
and made the declaration required by law, ob- 
tained the requisite certificates, not only as ft 
matter of course, but as a matter of right. In 
order to remedy this evil, it was his intention to 
brinff in a bill, in which he proposed, that to 
entiue any man to obtain a license as a preacher, 
he should have the recommendation of at least 
six respectable householders of the congrega- 
tion to which he belonged ; and that he should 
actually have a congregation which was willing 
to listen to his instructions. With regard to 



Ereachers who were not stationary but itinerant, HOOK 1^. 
e proposed that they should be required to 



bring a testimonial from six respectable houae* ^^' ^j 
holders, stating them to be of sober life and ^^^^JCT"^ 
character, together with their belirf that -they ^"^ 
were qualifijed to perform the functions of 

Ereachers. The eflfects which he eiq^ected to 
e produced by this bill were, that improper 
and unaooredited men would be pcevented from 
assuming the most important of all duties — that 
of instructing their feUow creatures in the prin- 
ciples of religion and vhrtue. Lords Holland 
and Stanhope, at the very threshold oS this busU 
ness, declared their decided hostility to the 
proposed measure -, but leave was giyen to brine 
m the bill, which was read a first time, ana 
ordered to be printed. 

It is scarcely possible to describe tlie sen« 
sation and cordial co-operation produced by 
Lord Sidmouth's bill among all classes of dis^ 
senters. The efieot was instantaneous, and in 
the short space of forty-eight hours, three hun* 
dred and thirty-six petitions against the bOl^ 
from yarious congregations within a hundred 
miles of London, signed only by males above 
sixteen years of age, were poured into the house 
of lords. It is well known that the grand and 
fundamental point of difference in church go- 
vernment between the established church and 
the dissenters is this : the former hold the 
ppinion that religion and the temporal concerns 
of mankind should be united, and that to effect 
this union the government ought to patronise 
and support a particular form of belief; whereas, 
^he latter contend that religion ought to be an 
affair entirely between man and his Maker ; that 
it stands not in need of the aid of the civil power 
for its support ; and that, whenever that aid has 
been held out to religion, and accepted by it. 



* His lordship had, previously to the introduction of this bill, moved for, and obtained, the following 
^^ Retams of the arch-bishops and bishops, of the number of churches and chapels of the church of England in 
every parish of 1,000 persons and upwards ; -and of the number of other places of worsliip, not of the estahlish- 
uieut," which returns were ordered to be printed by the house of lords on the 5th of April, 1811 : 



XHocete, 



Qfihe 
Estahlisknunt. 



Notttfthe 
£$iaMuhment 



JKoeue. 



O/Ae 
£4taUmmtnt. 



Kottifthe 
SttaUiihmaU, 



Dioctte, 



Of the 
EaUim*hmmi» 



Not ^ ike 
EHablUhmeiU 



1 Bath and Wells 78- 

2 Bnngor 62- 

3 Bri«rlol 59- 

4 Canterbury 84- 

5 Carlisle 40- 

6 Chester 352- 

7 Chichester 47- 

8 Durham 116- 

9 Ely 22- 

10 Exeter 180- 



-103 

- 99 

- 71 
-113 

- 39 
-439 

- 58 
-175 

- 32 
-245 



11 Gloucester 46- 

12 Hereford, 51- 

13 Landaff 21- 

14 Lincoln 165- 

15 Lichfield and 
Coventry 



190- 



16 London 187 — 

17 Norwich 78— 

18 Oxford 50— 

19 Peterborough ... 20 — 



- 76 

- 42 

- 45 

-209 

-288 

-265 
-114 

- 39 

- 36 



20 Rochester 36- 

21 Salisbury 135- 

22 St.Asaph .«.. 49- 

23 Winchester ...198- 

24 Worcester 66- 

25 York 221- 



- 44 
-14^ 
-9d 
-164 
-60 
-404 



Total 2,547 3,457 



From which it appears, that the number of churches and chapels of the establishment amount to 2,547 ; and that 
the ohapels and meeting-houses not of the establishment, besides many privates houses hsed for religious w>or8hip, 
und not introduced in the above enumeration, amount to 3,457. N. B. The smaller parishes not amounting to 
1,000 inhabitants were not returned. 

VOL. II.— No. 60. Yy 



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178 



HtSTOIlT OP tUfi WAft6 



CoAP. XV. 



1811 



0OOKIV. the effect has been to diminish the force of 
religious {mnciple, and to corrupt ils purity 
and simplicity. Proceeding therefore upon this 
leading principle of difference and separation 
from the established church, the dissenters ob- 
jected to the bill introduced by Lord Sidmouth, 
as haying a manifest and undoubted tendency 
io countenance the interference of the secular 
power, and to encroach upon religious rights. 
They considered the bill also, not only as objec- 
tionable and prejudicial in itself, but as pacing 
the way for further encroachment upon the act 
of toleration ; and as the commencement of a 
regular system of persecution and intolerance, 
wUch had already shown ' itself among the ma- 
gbtracy in some parts of the country, and which 
it was incumbent upon the dissenters to arrest in 
its progress, before it had attained a maturity 
aiid strength which might baffle all their efforts.^ 
On these grounds they called upon their bre- 
thren to co-operate with them ; and when the 
bill came to be read a second time, on the 21st 
of May, it was encountered by five hundred 
additional petitions from the 'country, and Lord 
Brskine obserred, that if the second reading 
had been delayed only a few weeks longer, that 
number would baTe been swelled to fiye thou- 
sand. Such an ei^pression of the public feeling 
was not to be resisted : ministers themselves, 
and eyen the dignitaries of the church, now re- 
sisted the further progress of the measure, which 
was characterised by Lord Liverpool as more 
likely to do barm than good ; and not a single 



voice in the bouse of lords, that of Lord Sid« 
mouth alone excepted, was raised in favour of 
this attempt '* to explain ilnd amend the act of 
toleration." Under such circumstances, it is 
almost unnecessary to add, that the bill was re- 
jected without a division, and the efforts of the 
friends of religious liberty were crowned with 
complete and triumphant success. 

On the 20th of May the chancellor of the 
exchequer opened the budget for the year. The 
supply votea for the public service he stated at 
^54,308,453, including a sum of two millions 
granted to the government of Portugal, and 
one hundred thousand pounds granted as an 
eleemosynary aid to the distressed Portuguese. 
The loan for the present year Mr. Perceval 
stated to amount to twelve millions, the interest 
on which sum he proposed to discharge by an 
additional duty on British and forei^ spirits. 
He further stated it to be his intention to im- 
pose an additional duty on timber, pearl and 
potashes, and foreign linens, which^^ with a tax 
of one penny per pound on cotton wool im- 
ported from the United States of America, he 
estimated at «£866,000.§ Owing, however, to the 
opposition made to the principle of taxing a raw 
material, the proposed duty on cotton wool was 
abandoned; and a tax upon hats, which had 
long operated as a burdensome and vexatious 
impost on the fair trader, while it sunk into in- 
significance as a subject of revenue, shared the 
same fate. || 

One of the first spontaneous acts on the. 



* Resolutjoni-of « Meeting of Protestant Dvatsnttn, held in London, pending the diicufltionf on Loid Sidmoutl^'i BUL 



PUBLIC INCOME of Great Britain for the 
ending the 6t]i of January, ISIl. 



§ FINANCES. 



Year 



Brcmchet of Bgvemie, Grots HeceiptsT 



Customs 10,77S,«69 19 

Excise » S0i464,518 19 

Stamps „. 5,666,453 18 

Land&AssessedTaxes 7,600,027 6 

Post-Oflke l',7»«,278 1 

MisoeLPcmiancntTax. 128,586 8 

Hend. Revemie 128,125. 9 

Eztnunrd. Resouices. 

2, 8 (Customs 5,906,485 15 

^J|<Ezcise 6,810,860 11 

^H (Property Tax 15,504,004 4 

MiseeL Ineome 5>325,557 5 

Loans, induding*! 

1,400,000 fer theV 15,242,556 17 
senriee of Ireland... J 



» 



Paid into the Excheg 



9,009,755 

18,495,178 

5,546,082 

8,011,205 

1,471,746 

125,146 

157,755 

5,100,594 

6,759,165 

15,228,550 

5,504,902 



». d. 

18 7} 
5 2 

17 «: 

11:; 

19 2; 

15 6: 
S 2. 

16 10 
15 4] 

« 7 

4 ^ 



15,242,556 17 



Grand Total"" £ 87/g82,900 15 6 | £82, 450, 598 11 4f 
WhitrhaU^ Treasury Chamhert^ \ (Signed) 

2«/* o/March^ 1811. J RICH. WHARTON. 



PUBLIC EXPENDITURE of Great Britain for the 
Year ending the 5th of January, 1811. 



Heads qf Expenditure. 



Sums. 



Interest ^ 

Charge of Management 

Reductioa of National Debt 

Interest on Exchequer Bills 

Civil List 

Civil Government of Scotland 

Payments in anticipation, &&. 

Navy 

Ordnance 

Army 

Extnordinary Services 

Loans to Sicily, Portugal, and Spain, indud- \ 

ing £5,294,416 15r. 5d. to Ireland. / 

Miscellaneous Services 



Deductions for Sunos forming no part of the 1 90,548,151 
Expenditure of Great Britain, / 5,551,586 16 



Grand Tota l— £8 5,19 6,564 

Whitehatt^JTreasury Chambers^X 



2M qfMarch^ 1811. 



richI 



£. 

21,555,401 

217,825 

11,660,601 

1,815,105 

1,555,110 

118,186 

775,599 

20,058,412 

4,652,551 

11,557,622 

7,178,677 

7,554,609 14 7 

2,270,867 15 Hi 



5k 
5 



s. 


d. 


4 


Q 


15 


5 


5 


4 


4 


I 


f 


7 


15 


5 


6 


11 


5 


5* 


14 


8 


14 


10 


9 


2 



4 «i 



HARTON. 



II When the stamp 4uty upon hats was first imposed, its annual product was ^60,000. In 1809, the amount 
was reduced to ^£38,000. In 1810, to «^31,000, and in the year ending th» 5th of January, Y8II, to «£29,332. 
This gradual reduction, Mr. Perceval remarked, did not arise from fewer bats being worn now than formerly, but from 
the evasions of the tax, t^hich every year increased. 



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OF THB FRENCH RETOLUTION. 



179 



part of the prince regent, after his assumption 
«f the royal functions, was the restoration of his 
brother, the I>uke of York, to the post of com- 
mander-in-chief of the army. This event pro- 
duced a considerable share of surprise in the 
country, and was viewed by some of the mem- 
bers of the house of commons, who had taken 
the lead in urging the charges against his royal 
highness, as an imputation upon their conduct 
on that occasion, and as an unmerited stigma 
oast upon th« house. Under these impressions, 
liord Milton, unintimidated by the frowns of 
power, and actuated solely by a sense of public 
duty, proposed a vote of censure upon the ad- 
visers of bis royal highness the prince regent, 
for recommending the re-appointment of the 
Duke of York to the office of command^-in^ 
chief. The resignation of the Duke of York in 
the year 1809, his lordship contended, flowed 
naturally from the courne of proceeding adopted 
by that assembly, and from the conviction so 
generally felt, that the criminal negligence of his 
royal highness rendered it improper that he 
nhould continue to hold the elevated office he 
at that time occupied. In fact, that the resig- 
BatioA of the duke alone prevented the adoption 
of ulterior proceedinc^s, which must in their ten- 
dency have excluded his royal highness from 
office. His lordship was aware that it might be 
objected, that though the house did, at that 
period, vnsh for his resignation, it was by no 
means intended to exclude him from all chance 
of reinstatement ; and that the punishment he 
had already undergone was fully commensurate 
to bis offence. But deprivation of office was not 
in itself to be considered as punishment ; and if 
the duke was unfit for the post of commander- 
in-chief in the year 1809, he did not see how he 
had attained the requisite fitness in 1811. They 
who would defend the re-appointment upon the 
ground that certain transactions had come to 
light since the inquiry, which had materially 
altered the public opinion,, would find their tasK 
difficult ; for though his royal highness might 
have been the victim of a foul conspiracy, yet 
the reality of the existence of that conspiracy 
rested solely upon the testimonv of the very 
person who had been tlie chief and most material 
witness against the duke, and whose evidence 
was by his advocates then t^onsidered as totally 



undeserving of credit.* His lordship iirtreated BOOK IV. 

the house to consider well the responsibility they -; — - 

were about to incur, and to pause before they p?^* ^; 
sanctioned a proceeding that would stultify their joii 
own acts. 

The chancellor of the exchequer acknow- 
ledged in the fullest manner the responsibility 
of his majesty's servants in recommending the 
measure in question. The gallant officer (Sir 
David Dundas) who had lately filled the office 
of commander-in-chief, after spending nearly 
half a century in the service of his country, 
had contracted an illness, which obliged him to 
apply for liberty to retire from the arduous 
duties of his station ; and there was not the 
slighttft hesitation in. the mind of Mr. Perceval 
and m colleagues whom they should recommend 
to supply the vacancy thus created . The eminent 
services rendered to the army by the Duke of 
York, which were universally acknowledged, 
left them no choice. As to the proceedings 
on a former occasion, alluded to by the noble 
lord, they pledged the house to nothing; and 
there was not die most distant idea of lowering 
the dignity of parliament by the advice given 
to the prince regent to re-appoint the Duke of 
York to the post of commander-in-chief. 

Among the speakers who addressed the house 
on this occasion, several gentlemen, presented 
themselves who had, during die proceedings in the 
year 1809, taken part against the Duke of York, 
and who did not hesitate to avow, either that they 
had been formerly carried away by the current of 
public opinion, or that they considered the case 
as it now presented itself in a difierent point 
of view. It is unnecessary here to inquire into 
the different processes of conviction that might 
have operated on different minds ; that a great 
change had been wrought in the sentiments of 
this assembly was manifest on the division, from 
which it appeared that the votes for the motion 
were forty-seven, against it two hundred and 
ninety-six, constituting a majority of two hundred . 
and forty-nine in favour of the re-appointmenl;. 
The nation at large seemed to have been affected 
with a similar change of opinion, and the duke . 
resumed his post with all the facility of a public 
functionary who had quitted his office without, 
imputation. 

The state of the king's health in the early 



'* His . lordship here altuded to the facts adduced in the coarse of certaiii proceediDg^in tlie caurt^x^f king's 
bencb^ in the year 1809. In the month of July, in that year, atrial took place on an action brought by Mr. Wright, an 
npholsterer, against Colonel Wardle, fbr goods furnished by order of the defendant to Mrs. Cladce, and T^bicb order, as 
Mrs. Clarke deposed, was given by the colonel, on condition that she should p:ut him in possession of aU the evidence 
she possessed against the Duke of York, and appear at the bar of the house, of commons as a witness, in support of 
the charges preferretl against his royal highness^ The jury, after a patient investigation of the case, returned a verdict 
in favour of the plaintiff: on which Colonel Wardle indicted Mrs. Clarke and Mr. Wright for a conspiracy, but the 
evidence adduced failed to establisb the charge ; and on this second trial, the colonel himself distinctly admitted that he. 
had advanced money to Mrs. Clarke. 



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HISTQRV OP THE WARS 



1911 



BOOii IT. part of the prea^nt ye^r underwent aeyeral vari- 

■ atioos, Wit ijat the report of the ^^een'9 oouacil^ 

Chap. j^V, ip^je qjx the 8th of Jaly^ a few days before 
^ the prorogatbii of pai*Iiament, it was stated^ 

^^ that his magesty^s health was not such as to 
enable his mtyesty to pesupie the pergonal exer- 
qiseof the royal' fuiictipas/' Indeed the hopes 
of his msyesty's recovery were now consideraoly 
diminished, though some of the physicians still 
jldhered to the persuasion, that the energy of his 
constituUoa would oyeroome the disorder, and 
that the complete re^establishment of his health 
was an eyent not far distant* This state of un- 
certainty, co-operating with other causes, served 
to ke^p the ministers of. the prince regent in 
Iheir offices, and. afforded them an opportunity 
of oyercoming the repugnance of the prince, 
and seating tbemselyes firmJiy in the cabinet. 

To the catholics, of Ireland, the determina- 
tion of the prince regent to retain the piinisters 
of Us royal father was a circumstance of extreme 
mortificatioB. The conscientious scruples of the 
king, who cpnoeived that his coronation oath 
stood in the way of catholic emancipation, it 
was impossible not to respect; but an impres- 
sion had obtained universaUy, that the Prince 
of Wales was a decided friend to their daims ; 
and on his investment with power, a brighter 
and more cheering ray of hope than had ever 
before presented itself, burst upon the catholic 
subject. But again, at least for a season, dis- 
appointment clouded their expectations ; the 
prince recent had not merely deterouned to 
retain ministers inimioal to catholic concessions, 
but he had intimated his intention also to adhere, 
during the period of the limited regency, to the 
policy of lus fatber^s government. StUl some 
degree of doubt continued to hang over the 
course of conduct that would be pursued with 
respect to Ireland, and particuhurly towards 
that community, of which three -fourths of tlie 
numerical strength of the sister kingdom was 
known to consist. 

At this moment. of hope .ancl anxiety, a 
letter appeared from IVIr. Wellesley Pole,«ecre* 
tary to tne lord^lieutenant, stating, that it had 



been r^pr^eot^d to government that the.romap 
eathoUps of Ireland were, to be collected toge- 
ther for the purpose of appointing persons as 
represeotatives, delegates, or managers of an 
unlawful assembly, sitting in Dublin, and cal- 
ling itself the catholic committee ; in conse- 
quence of which, the sherifis and magistrates, 
to whom this circular was addressed, were re- 
quired, in pursuance of the act of the thirty -^third 
of the king, cap* 20, commonly called the con- 
vention act, to arrest and commit io prison 
(unless bail should be given) all persons within 
their jurisdiction who should be guilty of giving 
notice of such election or appointment, or of 
attending, voting, or acting in any manner in 
the choice of such representatives. 

This oircular was immedialely noticed in 
.parliament by Earl Moira and Mr. Ponsonby, 
who contended that Mr. Pole had miscKineeived 
or misrepresented the act of the Irish parlia- 
ment, which required the magistrates to disperse 
persons sitting in ^n unlawful assembly, but did 
not confer upon them the power to commit, or 
to hold such persons to bail.* At that time 
ministers were not in possession of the informa* 
tion and circumstances under which thi^ letter 
had been written ; but from what they knew they 
declared that they felt themselves inclined to 
approve and justify the course adopted by the 
Irish government. It afterwards appeared that 
a circular letter, dated the 1st of January, had 
been written by Mr. Edward Hay, secretary to 
the eomimttee of the Irish eatholios, the object 
of which was to obtain a complete representa«- 
tive body from all the counties of Ireland, to 
assist in managing the petitions, and that Mr. 
Hay's letter^ and the measures consequent 
thereon, had given rise to the circular of the 
Irish secretary. t The discussions to which 
these letters gave rise were soon absorbed in 
the subsequent proceedings in Ireland. The 
feelings and the conduct of the protestants 
towaids their catholic brethren in that country, 
were marked, at this. crisis, fay strong features of 
liberality and friendship : aldiough meetings for 
the purpose of appointing delegates were lield 



* The conrention act^onsitti.of four clauses, foy the-finst of which it is enacted, that ell asaemblies, committees, 
or other bodies of persons, elected, or in any other manner constituted or appointeil, to represent the people of this 
realm, or any number or description of the people of any province, county, ctty or town, or district, within the same, 
under pretence of petitioning, or in any other manner procuring an alteration of matters established by law in church and 
state, except duly summoned by the king's writ, are unlawful assemblies, and may be dispersed by the magistrates or 
peace officers ; and if resistance be offered, all persons offending in that behalf are liable to be apprehended. The second 
clanse enacts, that any person giving or publishing a notice of an election to be lioUlen for the appointment of any pei'son 
or persons to act as such delegate or representative, or any person who t^hall attend or vote at such election or appoint^ 
ment, being thereof convicted by due course of law, shall be guilty of a high misdeiiLeanor. By clause three, the right 
of election by corporate bodies and chartered companies is saved. And by clause four it is provided, that nothing' in this 
act contained '< shall be construed in any manner to prevent or impede the undoubted right of his ma^ty's subjects to 
petition his majesty, or both houses, or either house of parliament, for redress of any public or private grievance.'* 

t. Justificatory Speech of Mr. Wellesley Pole in die House of Commons, March 7, ISll. 



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OP THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 



181 



in almost every county, yet there was scarcely 
a single instance of magisterial interference, and 
some of the magistrates went so far as to pro- 
mise the protection of their official authority to 
such meetings as might be molested. 

On the 9th of July a " meeting of the ca- 
tholics of Ireland" iras held in Dublin, at which 
it was resolved that a committee of catholics 
should be appointed, in order to frame petitions 
for the repeal of the penal laws, and to procure 
signatures thereto in all parts of Ireland ; that 
this committee should consist of catholic peers, 
of their eldest -sons, the catholic baronets, the 
prelates of the catholic church in Ireland, and 
also of ten persons to be appointed in each county 
in Ireland, and that it should be recommended 
to the committee to resort to all legal and consti- 
tutional means for maintaining a communication 
of sentiiiient and co-operation of conduct among 
the catholics of Ireland* 

In consequence of this meeting, and of 
these resolutions, a proclamation was issued 
by the lord-lieutenant and council of Ireland, 
declaring it to be the intention of the govern- 
ment to inforce the penalties of the law against 
all such persons as should proceed to elect de- 
puties, managers, or delegates to the catholic 
committee. On the day subsequent to the ap- 
pearance of the proclamation, a special meeting 
of the general committee of the catholics was 
held in Chapel- Street, Dublin, at which the 
Barl of Fingal presided, when it was resolved. 
That this extraordinary meeting is held in 
consequence of the proclamation of the lord- 
lieutenant ; that the committee, relying upon the 
constitutional right of the subject to petition, 
and conscious that they are not transgressing 
the laws, do now determine to persevere in the 
course they have adopted for the ** sole, express, 
and specific purpose of preparing a petition to 
parliament, for their full participation of the 
rights of the constitution ; that the committee 
will never meet under pretence of preparing or 
presenting petitions, but for that purpose alone ; 
and that the last clause of the convention act 
recognizes the right of petitioning^ secured by 
the bill of rights." The government, acting 
upon the proclamation of the lord-lieutenant, 
arrested five gentlemen who were present at the 
election of delegates, on the 9th of August, in 
LiflTey-Street Chapel, and carried them before the 
chief-justice of the court of king's bench, by 
whom they were bound over to take their trials. 
The trial of Dr. Sheridan, one of the dele- 

ERtes arrested subsequent to the meeting in 
iffey-Street Chapel, was to decide the question 
whether the convention act applied to the pro- 
ceedings of the catholics. This trial came on in 
the coart of king's bench, Dublin, on the 21st 
of November. The doctor was indicted for 
VOL II.— wo. 50. 



1811 



having assisted in the election of persons to BOOK IV. 

represent one of the parishes of Dublin in the 

general catholic "committee. The trial continu- ^hap. XV 
ed for two days ; and ^he chief justice, in his "^ 
charge to the jury, gave a decided opinion, that 
if the facts adduced in evidence were believed^ 
and if it was thereby made out that the traverser 
had acted in the election of a delegate to the 
general catholic committee, he must be found 
guilty upon the legal construction of the conven- 
tion act; and in this tiecision the other three 
judges on the bench fully concurred. It is im- 
possible — indeed language sinks under the effort 
to describe the anxiety manifested while the jury 
were in the room to which they had retired to 
deliberate upon their verdict. Although it was 
now nine b^clock at night, yet the hall of the 
four courts, all the avenues leading thereto, and 
the very attic windows, were crowded with peo- 
ple. When, after an hour and a half s delibera* 
tion, it was announced that the jury had return- 
ed to their box, a deep and profound silence pre- 
vailed, Mr. Byrne, the clerk of the crown, then 
called over the namrs of the jury, and Mr. 
Geale, the foreman, handed down the issue of 
Not Guiltt/. The words wefe scarcely pronounc- 
ed, when' a peal of acclamations rang tholighout 
the gallerv, and shook even the judicial bench. 
The plaudits were caught by the anxious audi- 
tory in the hall. The judges attempted to speak, 
and the peace officers to act^ but tlid general 
enthusiasm deafened and destroyed every effort 
to resist the popular ebullition. Nothing could 
be heard but the loud and overwhelming torrents 
of acclamations, which had now reached the 
streets, and, by a kind of telegraphic operation, 
spread to the most distant parts of the city. 

The acquittal of Dr. Sheridan having, vx 
the opinion of the attorney-general, by whom 
the prosecution for the crown was conducted^ 
proceeded from a defect in evidence only, while 
the law had been distinctly laid down by the 
chief justice, as applicable to the committee of' 
the. catholics, it was judged proper by govern- 
ment not to proceed to the trial of the other 
arrested delegates, under a persuasion that the 
delegated meetings would no longer be held. 
The catholics however saw the matter in a dif- 
ferent light ; they regarded the acquittal of Dr. 
Sheridan, as the result of a conviction on the 
mind of the jury that the law did not apply to 
this case ; and in that persuasion they resolved 
to continue their meetings : a meeting of the 
delegates was accordingly held in the theatre, 
but they were dispersed by the magistrates, who 
arrested Ixirds Fingal and Netterville, which 
two noblemen had been alternately called to the 
chair. 

The attorney-general, finding that the 
opinion of the court, as delivered on the trial of 
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18Si 



UISTORY OF TWE WARS 



18H 



BQOKiy^Dr. Sheridan, had not operated in such a way 

aa to prevent a repetition of the delegated mect- 

Chap. XV. ings, deterroirvea to instituto^ a prosecutioa 
against Mr. Kirwan, another of the arrested de- 
legates, on. a similar charge. On Thursday, the 
30th of January, 1812, the trial took place, and 
the jury, after deliberating about a quarter of aa 
l^our, returned a yerdict of guilty against the 
defendant. On the 6th of February Mr. Kir- 
wan was brought up to receive sentence, when 
Judge pay^ in his^ address to the defendant, said : 
'^ It IS. candid to suppose that the Roman catho- 
lics did not M'ilfully violate the provisions of an 
act upon which ablte and virtuous lawyers have 
entertained much doubt. The transactions bece- 
tpfore are therefore consigned to oblivion ; but 
the act must npw resume its vigorous operation; 
it must awake from its long slumbers, audi in. 
future remain, vigilant; the catholics will bow to 
it; they w,ere- heretofore- only ignorant of its 
force. Vndep this impression the court mean to. 
gunish you with only a nominal penalty ; and the 
scntenpe of the court is, tliat you do pay a fine 
,of one mark, and then be discharged.!' This 
decision set at rest the legal point that had so. 
long contributed to agitpte the public mind in 
Ireland ; the other prosecutions were alL aban- 
doned ; and th^ catholic committee, which Judge 
Day, in his address tp Mr. Kirwan, chai^cteris.- 
ad- as the greatest enemy to the catholic cause, 
ceased to exist ajs a delegated body* 

To^vards the close of the year 1811, an 
^vent was brought before the public with so 
much prominence and importance,, and is in itself 
of so much consequenoe to the community, as to 
elaim a plaice in th^ history of our ow^ times ; 
this was no less than a plan for the national- 
education, of the poorer, classes of th^ people. 
The causes, and nK)tives that led to the aa option 
of this. plan» are probably, of a mi«ed nature ; 
bi»t if the children of the poor receive the advan- 
tages of education^ it matters little from what 
motives the system for effecting that object may 
arise, or. who had. the honour or credit to be its 
founder. It may, however, be proper briefly, to 
t^ace the causes which produced this> memorable 
event. 

Severpl y^ars ago, Mr. Joseph Lancaster, 
&; member- of the society of quaker^, employed 
himself in tJie establishment of a school in the 
borough of Southwark, on a plan that attracted 
much attention : by this system children were 
taught reading, writing, and the most common, 
and useful rules of arithmetic, in n very short 
space of time, and at a very litUe expejise. . This 
taving.of time, labour, andexpense, was effect- 
ed principally by making the boy^.at once 
teachers and learners ; and by a process, which 
vniied gteat simplicity and quickness, with great 



eflfect.* Soon after Mr. Lancaster established 
bis school and made known his plan of educa- 
tion, he was, to the immortal honour of the pre- 
sent king, patronized by him; and it i» recorded 
of his majesty, that in a conversation held with 
Mr. Lancaster, he expressed the benevolent 
wish — a wish worthy of a monarch, *^TIiai 
every subject in his dominions should be able to^ 
read his bibleJ*^ For sonie time no opnosition 
was made to the system pursued by Mr. Lancas- 
ter with so much success, and schools, formed 
and conducted upon this plan, were established 
in various parts of the kingdom. By degrees^ 
however, an outcry was raised ag^st this sys- 
tem of education, which was held out as decid- 
edly hostile to the interests, and even to the very 
existence, of the established church, because the* 
ehildren were not instructed in the peculiar doc^ 
trines of that community. 

Dr. Bell, a clergyman of the established 
oburch^ who had been in India,^ had, soon after 
his return from that country, and before Mr. 
Lancaster had thoue^ht of his plan, published a 
pamphlet, in. which, he detailed the mode of edu- 
cation which he had practised at a aeminany; 
established in Madras. This mode in* some- 
of its leading features was the same as that 
afterwards adopted: by Mr Lancaster ; and Mr. 
Lancaster, baa, in effect, acknowledged,, that tha> 
perusal of l>r. Bell's work suggested the idea, to.- 
him. So far Pp. Bell has the honour and cre- 
dit ; but Dr^ Bell merely, published, he did not. 
attempt to carry the scheme into execution. Mr. 
Lancaster, on the contrary^ soon after he becamft^ 
acquainted witlv.the plan^ set liimself most perse^ 
veringly and actively to work ; he spared no- 
labour or fatigue, and grudged no time or ex- 
pense, in. the establishment of the new. system ol 
education.. In this resoect therefore Mr. Lan- 
caster has^ the merit. Neither Dr. Bell nor Mr*. 
Lancaster can be called the inventor of this 
system of. education, which has existed in India^ 
for ages ; hut Dr. Bell introduced the theory 
into, England, and Mr. Lancaster carried this 
theory, with several improvements, into extensive 
pcjictice, andgave to it axharacter truly national.^ 
The schools established by Mr. Lancaster 
met with munificent patronage, and gave birth te. 
the formation of ar society under the designation 
of ^^ The British and Forei^ School Society." 
A rival institution was a^so established un«. 
der the auspices of Dr. Bell, with the name of 
*< The Natiopal School Society," at the head of 
which establishment appears a. large proportion 
of the dignitaries of the church, and the leading 
men of the state. The object of the former is to. 
afford learning to. the poor at home and abroad; 
witho^t regard to ..any particular creed, dr^pre- 
ference to any religious